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Python dependency injection framework

Project description

# python-inject [![Build Status](](
Dependency injection the python way, the good way. Not a port of Guice or Spring.

## Key features
* Fast.
* Thread-safe.
* Simple to use.
* Does not steal class constructors.
* Does not try to manage your application object graph.
* Transparently integrates into tests.
* Supports Python 2.7 and Python 3.3+.
* Supports type hinting in Python 3.5+.
* Autoparams leveraging type annotations.

## Installation
Use pip to install the lastest version:

pip install inject

## Autoparams example
`@inject.autoparams` returns a decorator which automatically injects arguments into a function
that uses type annotations. This is supported only in Python >= 3.5.

def refresh_cache(cache: RedisCache, db: DbInterface):

There is an option to specify which arguments we want to inject without attempts of
injecting everything:

@inject.autoparams('cache', 'db')
def sign_up(name, email, cache, db):

## Step-by-step example
# Import the inject module.
import inject

# `inject.instance` requests dependencies from the injector.
def foo(bar):
cache = inject.instance(Cache)'bar', bar)

# `inject.params` injects dependencies as keyword arguments or positional argument.
# Also you can use @inject.autoparams in Python 3.5, see the example above.
@inject.params(cache=Cache, user=CurrentUser)
def baz(foo, cache=None, user=None):'foo', foo, user)

# this can be called in different ways:
# with injected arguments

# with positional arguments
baz('foo', my_cache)

# with keyword arguments
baz('foo', my_cache, user=current_user)

# `inject.param` is deprecated, use `inject.params` instead.
@inject.param('cache', Cache)
def bar(foo, cache=None):'foo', foo)

# `inject.attr` creates properties (descriptors) which request dependencies on access.
class User(object):
cache = inject.attr(Cache)

def __init__(self, id): = id

def save(self):'users', self)

def load(cls, id):
return cls.cache.load('users', id)

# Create an optional configuration.
def my_config(binder):
binder.install(my_config2) # Add bindings from another config.
binder.bind(Cache, RedisCache('localhost:1234'))

# Configure a shared injector.

# Instantiate User as a normal class. Its `cache` dependency is injected when accessed.
user = User(10)

# Call the functions, the dependencies are automatically injected.

## Usage with Django
Django can load some modules multiple times which can lead to
`InjectorException: Injector is already configured`. You can use `configure_once` which
is guaranteed to run only once when the injector is absent:
import inject

## Testing
In tests use `inject.clear_and_configure(callable)` to create a new injector on setup,
and optionally `inject.clear()` to clean up on tear down:
class MyTest(unittest.TestCase):
def setUp(self):
inject.clear_and_configure(lambda binder: binder
.bind(Cache, Mock() \
.bind(Validator, TestValidator())

def tearDown(self):

## Thread-safety
After configuration the injector is thread-safe and can be safely reused by multiple threads.

## Binding types
**Instance** bindings always return the same instance:

redis = RedisCache(address='localhost:1234')
def config(binder):
binder.bind(Cache, redis)

**Constructor** bindings create a singleton on injection:

def config(binder):
# Creates a redis cache singleton on first injection.
binder.bind_to_constructor(Cache, lambda: RedisCache(address='localhost:1234'))

**Provider** bindings call the provider on injection:

def get_my_thread_local_cache():

def config(binder):
# Executes the provider on each injection.
binder.bind_to_provider(Cache, get_my_thread_local_cache)

**Runtime** bindings automatically create singletons on injection, require no configuration.
For example, only the `Config` class binding is present, other bindings are runtime:

class Config(object):

class Cache(object):
config = inject.attr(Config)

class Db(object):
config = inject.attr(Config)

class User(object):
cache = inject.attr(Cache)
db = inject.attr(Db)

def load(cls, user_id):
return cls.cache.load('users', user_id) or cls.db.load('users', user_id)

inject.configure(lambda binder: binder.bind(Config, load_config_file()))
user = User.load(10)
## Disabling runtime binding
Sometimes runtime binding leads to unexpected behaviour. Say if you forget
to bind an instance to a class, `inject` will try to implicitly instantiate it.

If an instance is unintentionally created with default arguments it may lead to
hard-to-debug bugs. To disable runtime binding and make sure that only
explicitly bound instances are injected, pass `bind_in_runtime=False`
to `inject.configure`, `inject.configure_once` or `inject.clear_and_configure`.

In this case `inject` immediately raises `InjectorException` when the code
tries to get an unbound instance.

## Keys
It is possible to use any hashable object as a binding key. For example:

import inject

inject.configure(lambda binder: \
binder.bind('host', 'localhost') \
binder.bind('port', 1234))

## Why no scopes?
I've used Guice and Spring in Java for a lot of years, and I don't like their scopes.
`python-inject` by default creates objects as singletons. It does not need a prototype scope
as in Spring or NO_SCOPE as in Guice because `python-inject` does not steal your class
constructors. Create instances the way you like and then inject dependencies into them.

Other scopes such as a request scope or a session scope are fragile, introduce high coupling,
and are difficult to test. In `python-inject` write custom providers which can be thread-local,
request-local, etc.

For example, a thread-local current user provider:

import inject
import threading

# Given a user class.
class User(object):

# Create a thread-local current user storage.
_LOCAL = threading.local()

def get_current_user():
return getattr(_LOCAL, 'user', None)

def set_current_user(user):
_LOCAL.user = user

# Bind User to a custom provider.
inject.configure(lambda binder: binder.bind_to_provider(User, get_current_user))

# Inject the current user.
def foo(user):

## Links
* Project:

## License
Apache License 2.0

## Contributers
* Ivan Korobkov [@ivankorobkov](
* Jaime Wyant [@jaimewyant](
* Sebastian Buczyński [@Enforcer](
* Oleksandr Fedorov [@Fedorof](
* cselvaraj [@cselvaraj](
* 陆雨晴 [@SixExtreme](

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