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Python micro framework for building nature-inspired algorithms.

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Nature-inspired algorithms are a very popular tool for solving optimization problems. Numerous variants of nature-inspired algorithms have been developed since the beginning of their era. To prove their versatility, those were tested in various domains on various applications, especially when they are hybridized, modified or adapted. However, implementation of nature-inspired algorithms is sometimes a difficult, complex and tedious task. In order to break this wall, NiaPy is intended for simple and quick use, without spending time for implementing algorithms from scratch.


Our mission is to build a collection of nature-inspired algorithms and create a simple interface for managing the optimization process. NiaPy offers:

  • numerous benchmark functions implementations,
  • use of various nature-inspired algorithms without struggle and effort with a simple interface,
  • easy comparison between nature-inspired algorithms, and
  • export of results in various formats such as Pandas DataFrame, JSON or even Excel (only when using Python >= 3.6).


To install NiaPy, run this command in your terminal:

$ pip install NiaPy

This is the preferred method to install NiaPy, as it will always install the most recent stable release.

To install NiaPy with conda, use:

conda install -c niaorg niapy

To install NiaPy on Fedora, use:

yum install python3-niapy

In case you want to install directly from the source code, use:

$ git clone
$ cd NiaPy
$ python install


After installation, you can import NiaPy as any other Python module:

$ python
>>> import NiaPy
>>> NiaPy.__version__

Let’s go through a basic and advanced example.

Basic Example

Let’s say, we want to try out Gray Wolf Optimizer algorithm against Pintér benchmark function. Firstly, we have to create new file, with name, for example Then we have to import chosen algorithm from NiaPy, so we can use it. Afterwards we initialize GreyWolfOptimizer class instance and run the algorithm. Given bellow is complete source code of basic example.

from NiaPy.algorithms.basic import GreyWolfOptimizer
from NiaPy.task import StoppingTask

# we will run 10 repetitions of Grey Wolf Optimizer against Pinter benchmark function
for i in range(10):
    task = StoppingTask(D=10, nFES=1000, benchmark='pinter')
    algorithm = GreyWolfOptimizer(NP=20)
    best =

Given example can be run with python command and should give you similar output as following:


Advanced Example

In this example we will show you how to implement your own benchmark function and use it with any of implemented algorithms. First let’s create new file named As in the previous examples we wil import algorithm we want to use from NiaPy module.

For our custom benchmark function, we have to create new class. Let’s name it MyBenchmark. In the initialization method of MyBenchmark class we have to set Lower and Upper bounds of the function. Afterwards we have to implement a function which returns evaluation function which takes two parameters D (as dimension of problem) and sol (as solution of problem). Now we should have something similar as is shown in code snippet bellow.

from NiaPy.task import StoppingTask, OptimizationType
from NiaPy.benchmarks import Benchmark
from NiaPy.algorithms.basic import ParticleSwarmAlgorithm

# our custom benchmark class
class MyBenchmark(Benchmark):
    def __init__(self):
        Benchmark.__init__(self, -10, 10)

    def function(self):
        def evaluate(D, sol):
            val = 0.0
            for i in range(D): val += sol[i] ** 2
            return val
        return evaluate

Now, all we have to do is to initialize our algorithm as in previous examples and pass as benchmark parameter, instance of our MyBenchmark class.

for i in range(10):
    task = StoppingTask(D=20, nGEN=100, optType=OptimizationType.MINIMIZATION, benchmark=MyBenchmark())

    # parameter is population size
    algo = GreyWolfOptimizer(NP=20)

    # running algorithm returns best found minimum
    best =

    # printing best minimum

Now we can run our advanced example with following command: python The results should be similar to those bellow.


For more usage examples please look at examples folder.

More advanced examples can also be found in the NiaPy-examples repository.

Cite us

Are you using NiaPy in your project or research? Please cite us!

Plain format

Vrbančič, G., Brezočnik, L., Mlakar, U., Fister, D., & Fister Jr., I. (2018).
NiaPy: Python microframework for building nature-inspired algorithms.
Journal of Open Source Software, 3(23), 613\. <>

Bibtex format

    author  = {Vrban{\v{c}}i{\v{c}}, Grega and Brezo{\v{c}}nik, Lucija
              and Mlakar, Uro{\v{s}} and Fister, Du{\v{s}}an and {Fister Jr.}, Iztok},
    title   = {{NiaPy: Python microframework for building nature-inspired algorithms}},
    journal = {{Journal of Open Source Software}},
    year    = {2018},
    volume  = {3},
    issue   = {23},
    issn    = {2475-9066},
    doi     = {10.21105/joss.00613},
    url     = {}

RIS format

T1  - NiaPy: Python microframework for building nature-inspired algorithms
AU  - Vrbančič, Grega
AU  - Brezočnik, Lucija
AU  - Mlakar, Uroš
AU  - Fister, Dušan
AU  - Fister Jr., Iztok
PY  - 2018
JF  - Journal of Open Source Software
VL  - 3
IS  - 23
DO  - 10.21105/joss.00613
UR  -


Open Source Helpers

We encourage you to contribute to NiaPy! Please check out the Contributing to NiaPy guide for guidelines about how to proceed.

Everyone interacting in NiaPy’s codebases, issue trackers, chat rooms and mailing lists is expected to follow the NiaPy code of conduct.


This package is distributed under the MIT License. This license can be found online at


This framework is provided as-is, and there are no guarantees that it fits your purposes or that it is bug-free. Use it at your own risk!

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