Python Imaging Library (fork)
Pillow is the “friendly” PIL fork. PIL is the Python Imaging Library.
The (fork) author’s goal is to foster packaging improvements by publicizing development and exploring packaging problems within the fork.
PIL is currently not setuptools compatible. Please see http://mail.python.org/pipermail/image-sig/2010-August/006480.html for a more detailed explanation.
What follows is (mostly) the original PIL documentation.
The Python Imaging Library (PIL) adds image processing capabilities to your Python environment. This library provides extensive file format support, an efficient internal representation, and powerful image processing capabilities.
This source kit has been built and tested with Python 2.0 and newer, on Windows, Mac OS X, and major Unix platforms. Large parts of the library also work on 1.5.2 and 1.6.
The main distribution site for this software is:
That site also contains information about free and commercial support options, PIL add-ons, answers to frequently asked questions, and more.
Development versions (alphas, betas) are available here:
The PIL handbook is not included in this distribution; to get the latest version, check:
For installation and licensing details, see below.
Secret Labs (PythonWare) offers support contracts for companies using the Python Imaging Library in commercial applications, and in mission- critical environments. The support contract includes technical support, bug fixes, extensions to the PIL library, sample applications, and more.
For the full story, check:
For support and general questions on the Python Imaging Library, send e-mail to the Image SIG mailing list:
You can join the Image SIG by sending a mail to:
Put “subscribe” in the message body to automatically subscribe to the list, or “help” to get additional information. Alternatively, you can send your questions to the Python mailing list, email@example.com, or post them to the newsgroup comp.lang.python. DO NOT SEND SUPPORT QUESTIONS TO PYTHONWARE ADDRESSES.
The Python Imaging Library is
Copyright (c) 1997-2009 by Secret Labs AB Copyright (c) 1995-2009 by Fredrik Lundh
By obtaining, using, and/or copying this software and/or its associated documentation, you agree that you have read, understood, and will comply with the following terms and conditions:
Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its associated documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appears in all copies, and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of Secret Labs AB or the author not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission.
SECRET LABS AB AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL SECRET LABS AB OR THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
For a list of changes in this release, see the CHANGES document.
If you’re in a hurry, try this:
$ tar xvfz Imaging-1.1.7.tar.gz $ cd Imaging-1.1.7 $ python setup.py install
If you prefer to know what you’re doing, read on.
If you need any of the features described below, make sure you have the necessary libraries before building PIL.
feature library JPEG support
libjpeg (6a or 6b)
zlib (1.2.3 or later is recommended)
freetype2 (2.3.9 or later is recommended)
CMS support littleCMS (1.1.5 or later is recommended) http://www.littlecms.com/
If you have a recent Linux version, the libraries provided with the operating system usually work just fine. If some library is missing, installing a prebuilt version (jpeg-devel, zlib-devel, etc) is usually easier than building from source. For example, for Ubuntu 9.10 (karmic), you can install the following libraries:
sudo apt-get install libjpeg62-dev sudo apt-get install zlib1g-dev sudo apt-get install libfreetype6-dev sudo apt-get install liblcms1-dev
If you’re using Mac OS X, you can use the ‘fink’ tool to install missing libraries (also see the Mac OS X section below).
Similar tools are available for many other platforms.
To build under Python 1.5.2, you need to install the stand-alone version of the distutils library:
You can fetch distutils 1.0.2 from the Python source repository:
For newer releases, the distutils library is included in the Python standard library.
NOTE: Version 1.1.7 is not fully compatible with 1.5.2. Some more recent additions to the library may not work, but the core functionality is available.
If you didn’t build Python from sources, make sure you have Python’s build support files on your machine. If you’ve down- loaded a prebuilt package (e.g. a Linux RPM), you probably need additional developer packages. Look for packages named “python-dev”, “python-devel”, or similar. For example, for Ubuntu 9.10 (karmic), use the following command:
sudo apt-get install python-dev
When you have everything you need, unpack the PIL distribution (the file Imaging-1.1.7.tar.gz) in a suitable work directory:
$ cd MyExtensions # example $ gunzip Imaging-1.1.7.tar.gz $ tar xvf Imaging-1.1.7.tar
Build the library. We recommend that you do an in-place build, and run the self test before installing:
$ cd Imaging-1.1.7 $ python setup.py build_ext -i $ python selftest.py
During the build process, the setup.py will display a summary report that lists what external components it found. The self- test will display a similar report, with what external components the tests found in the actual build files:
-------------------------------------------------------------------- Pillow 1.5 ( PIL fork based on PIL 1.1.7 ) SETUP SUMMARY -------------------------------------------------------------------- platform darwin 2.6.6 (r266:84292, Nov 26 2010, 16:24:16) [GCC 4.2.1 (Apple Inc. build 5664)] -------------------------------------------------------------------- --- TKINTER support available --- JPEG support available --- ZLIB (PNG/ZIP) support available *** FREETYPE2 support not available *** LITTLECMS support not available --------------------------------------------------------------------
Make sure that the optional components you need are included.
If the build script won’t find a given component, you can edit the setup.py file and set the appropriate ROOT variable. For details, see instructions in the file.
If the build script finds the component, but the tests cannot identify it, try rebuilding all modules:
$ python setup.py clean $ python setup.py build_ext -i
If the setup.py and selftest.py commands finish without any errors, you’re ready to install the library:
$ python setup.py install
(depending on how Python has been installed on your machine, you might have to log in as a superuser to run the ‘install’ command, or use the ‘sudo’ command to run ‘install’.)
On Mac OS X you will usually install additional software such as libjpeg or freetype with the “fink” tool, and then it ends up in “/sw”. If you have installed the libraries elsewhere, you may have to tweak the “setup.py” file before building.
On Windows, you need to tweak the ROOT settings in the “setup.py” file, to make it find the external libraries. See comments in the file for details.
Make sure to build PIL and the external libraries with the same runtime linking options as was used for the Python interpreter (usually /MD, under Visual Studio).
Note that most Python distributions for Windows include libraries compiled for Microsoft Visual Studio. You can get the free Express edition of Visual Studio from:
To build extensions using other tool chains, see the “Using non-Microsoft compilers on Windows” section in the distutils handbook:
For additional information on how to build extensions using the popular MinGW compiler, see:
http://mingw.org (compiler) http://sebsauvage.net/python/mingw.html (build instructions) http://sourceforge.net/projects/gnuwin32 (prebuilt libraries)
- Fix brown bag release [aclark]
- Fix : resize need int values, append int conversion in thumbnail method [harobed]
- Bug fix: Python 2.4 compat [aclark]
- More multi-arch support [SteveM, regebro, barry, aclark]
- Add support for multi-arch library directory /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu [aclark]
- Bug fix: /usr/x11/include should be added to include_dirs not library_dirs [elro]
- Doc fixes
- Module and package fixes
- Doc fixes
- Add support for /lib64 and /usr/lib64 library directories on Linux
- Doc fixes
- On OS X also check for freetype2 in the X11 path [jezdez]
- Doc fixes [aclark]
- Removed setuptools_hg requirement
- Doc fixes