Library for compiling trained SKLearn models into abstract expressions suitable for further compilation into executable code in various languages.
Project description
SKompiler: Translate trained SKLearn models to executable code in other languages
The package provides a tool for transforming trained SKLearn models into other forms, such as SQL queries, Excel formulas or Sympy expressions (which, in turn, can be translated to code in a variety of languages, such as C, Javascript, Rust, Julia, etc).
Installation
The simplest way to install the package is via pip
:
$ pip install SKompiler[full]
Note that the [full]
option includes the installations of sympy
, sqlalchemy
and astor
, which are necessary if you plan to convert SKompiler
's expressions to sympy
expressions (which, in turn, can be compiled to many other languages) or to SQLAlchemy expressions (which can be further translated to different SQL dialects) or to Python source code. If you do not need this functionality (say, you only need the raw SKompiler
expressions or perhaps only the SQL conversions without the sympy
ones), you may avoid the forced installation of all optional dependencies by simply writing
$ pip install SKompiler
(you are free to install any of the required extra dependencies, via separate calls to pip install
, of course)
Usage
Introductory example
Let us start by walking through a simple example. We begin by training a model on a simple dataset, e.g.:
from sklearn.datasets import load_iris
from sklearn.ensemble import RandomForestClassifier
X, y = load_iris(True)
m = RandomForestClassifier(n_estimators=3, max_depth=3).fit(X, y)
Suppose we need to express the logic of m.predict
in SQLite. Here is how we can achieve that:
from skompiler import skompile
expr = skompile(m.predict)
sql = expr.to('sqlalchemy/sqlite')
Voila, the value of the sql
variable is a superlong expression which looks like
CASE WHEN ((CASE WHEN (x3 <= 2.449999988079071) THEN 1.0 ELSE CASE WHEN
... 100 lines or so ...
THEN 1 ELSE 2 END as y
It corresponds to the m.predict
computation. Let us check how we can use it in a query.
We import the data into an inmemory SQLite database:
import sqlalchemy as sa
import pandas as pd
conn = sa.create_engine('sqlite://').connect()
df = pd.DataFrame(X, columns=['x1', 'x2', 'x3', 'x4']).reset_index()
df.to_sql('data', conn)
query the data using the generated expression:
results = pd.read_sql('select {0} from data'.format(sql), conn)
and verify that the results match:
assert (results.values.ravel() == m.predict(X).ravel()).all()
Note that the generated SQL expression uses names x1
, x2
, x3
and x4
to refer to the input variables. You may choose different input variable names by writing:
skompile(m.predict, ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']).to('sqlalchemy/sqlite')
Multiple outputs
Now let us try to generate code for m.predict_proba
:
expr = skompile(m.predict_proba)
expr.to('sqlalchemy/sqlite')
The generated query is different from the previous one. Firstly, it is of the form
... as y1, ... as y2, ... as y3
The reason for that is that m.predict_proba
produces three values  the probabilities of each class, and this is reflected in the SQL. You may, of course, provide different names to the outputs instead of y1
,y2
,y3
:
expr.to('sqlalchemy/sqlite', assign_to=['a','b','c'])
You may obtain a list of three separate expressions without the as ..
parts at all:
expr.to('sqlalchemy/sqlite', assign_to=None)
or request only the probability of the first class as a single ... as y2
expression:
expr.to('sqlalchemy/sqlite', component=1, assign_to='y2')
Multistage code
You might have noted that the SQL code for predict
was significantly longer than the code for predict_proba
. Why so? Because
predict(x) = argmax(predict_proba(x))
There is, however, no single argmax
function in SQL, hence it has to be faked using approximately the following logic:
predict(x) = if predict_proba(x)[0] == max(predict_proba(x)) then 0
else if predict_proba(x)[1] == max(predict_proba(x)) then 1
else 2
Note that the values of predict_proba
in this expression must be expanded (and thus the computation repeated) multiple times.
This problem could be overcome by performing computation in several steps, saving and reusing intermediate values, rather than doing everything within a single expression. In SQL this can bbe done with the help of with
expressions:
with proba as (
select [predict_proba computation] from data
),
max as (
select [max computation] from proba
),
argmax as (
select [argmax computation] from ...
)
To generate this type of SQL, specify multistage=True
:
expr.to('sqlalchemy/sqlite', multistage=True,
multistage_key_column='index',
multistage_from_obj='data')
Note that while in singleexpression mode you only get a single column expression, which you need to wrap in the relevant SELECT .. FROM ..
statement, in multistage mode the whole query is generated for you. For that reason you need to provide the name of the source table as well as the key column.
The effect on the query size can be quite significant:
len(expr.to('sqlalchemy/sqlite'))
> 15558
len(expr.to('sqlalchemy/sqlite', multistage=True))
> 2574
The multistage translation is especially important if you need to generate Excel code, because Excel does not support formulas longer than 8196 characters. If you need to port complex models, splitting them up is therefore the only way. An example of how to deploy a large random forest model to Excel is available in this video.
Other formats
By changing the first parameter of the .to()
call you may produce output in a variety of other formats besides SQLite:

sqlalchemy
: raw SQLAlchemy expression (which is a dialectindependent way of representing SQL). Jokes aside, SQL is sometimes a totally valid choice for deploying models into production.Note that generated SQL may (depending on the chosen method) include functions
exp
andlog
. If you work with SQLite, bear in mind that these functions are not supported out of the box and need to be added separately viacreate_function
. You can find an example of how this can be done intests/evaluators.py
in the package source code. 
sqlalchemy/<dialect>
: SQL string in any of the SQLAlchemysupported dialects (firebird
,mssql
,mysql
,oracle
,postgresql
,sqlite
,sybase
). This is a convenience feature for those who are lazy to figure out how to compile raw SQLAlchemy to actual SQL. 
excel
: Excel formula. Ever tried dragging a random forest equation down along the table? Fun! Due to its 8196character limit on the formula length, however, Excel will not handle forests larger thann_estimators=30
withmax_depth=5
or so, unfortunately. 
sympy
: A SymPy expression. Ever wanted to take a derivative of your model symbolically? 
sympy/<lang>
: Code in the language<lang>
, generated via SymPy. Supported values for<lang>
arec
,cxx
,rust
,fortran
,js
,r
,julia
,mathematica
,octave
. Note that the quality of the generated code varies depending on the model, language and the value of theassign_to
parameter. Again, this is just a convenience feature, you will get more control by dealing withsympy
oode printers manually. 
python
: Python syntax tree (the same you'd get viaast.parse
). This (and the following three options) are mostly useful for debugging and testing. 
python/code
: Python source code. The generated code will contain references to custom functions, such as__argmax__
,__sigmoid__
, etc. To execute the code you will need to provide these in thelocals
dictionary. Seeskompiler.fromskast.python._eval_vars
. 
python/lambda
: Python callable function (primarily useful for debugging and testing). Equivalent to callingexpr.lambdify()
. 
string
: string, equivalent tostr(expr)
.
How it works
The skompile
procedure translates a given method into an intermediate syntactic representation (called SKompiler AST or SKAST). This representation uses a limited number of operations so it is reasonably simple to translate it into other forms.
It is important to understand the following:

So far this has been a fun mostly singleweekend project, hence the "compilation" of models into SKAST was only implemented for linear models, decision trees, random forest and gradient boosting.

In principle, SKAST's utility is not limited to
sklearn
models. Anything you translate into SKAST becomes automatically compileable to whatever output backends are implemented inSKompiler
. Generating SKAST is rather straightforward:from skompiler import ast expr = ast.BinOp(ast.Add(), ast.Identifier('x'), ast.NumberConstant(1)) expr.to('sqlalchemy/sqlite', 'result') > x + 1 as result
Simpler expressions can be generated from strings:
from skompiler.toskast.string import translate as fromstring fromstring('10 * (x + 1)')
Conversely, you can use
repr(expr)
on any SKAST expression to dump its unformatted internal representation. 
As noted above,
skompiler
transforms models into expressions, and this may result in fairly lengthy outputs with repeated subexpressions, unless the translation is performed in a "multistage" manner. The multistage translation is currently only implemented for SQL and Excel, however. 
For larger models (say, a random forest or a gradient boosted model with 500+ trees) the resulting SKAST expression tree may become deeper than Python's default recursion limit of 1000. As a result you will get a
RecursionError
when trying to traslate the model. To alleviate this, raise the system recursion limit to sufficiently high value:import sys sys.setrecursionlimit(10000)
Development
If you plan to develop or debug the package, consider installing it by running:
$ pip install e .[dev]
from within the source distribution. This will install the package in "development mode" and include extra dependencies, useful for development.
You can then run the tests by typing
$ py.test
at the root of the source distribution.
Contributing
Feel free to contribute or report issues via Github:
Copyright & License
Copyright: 2018, Konstantin Tretyakov. License: MIT
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