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Apptuit Python Client

Project description

Python client for Apptuit.AI

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Installation

pip install apptuit --upgrade

Dependencies

Requirements

  • requests, pyformance - installed automatically if you use pip to install apptuit
  • pandas - not installed by default, you should install it manually if you intend to use the query API and create dataframes using the to_df() method (see Querying for Data)

Usage

Contents

Introduction

This package provides functionality to send timeseries data to Apptuit and also to query it. There are two main components

  • The Apptuit client - provides core functionality to query and send data
  • Apptuit pyformance reporter - provides a high level abstraction on top of the client to make it easy for you to report metrics from your applications to Apptuit. It is based on Coda Hale's metrics design and provides primitives like meter, gauge, counter to accumulate and report data. It uses Pyformance underneath.

Working with Apptuit Client:

The Apptuit client object can be created as simply as the following line:

from apptuit import Apptuit
client = Apptuit(token=my_apptuit_token,
                 global_tags={"service": "order-service"},
                 sanitize_mode="prometheus")
  • token: should be your apptuit token
  • global_tags: should be the set of default tags you want to apply on all your data. It is an optional parameter
  • sanitize_mode: Is a string value which specifies the sanitization mode to be used for metric names and tag keys. You can set sanitize_mode to three values:
    • None: disables sanitization.
    • apptuit: set the sanitize mode to apptuit, which will replace all the invalid characters with _. Valid characters in this mode are all ASCII letters, digits, /, -, ., _ and Unicode letters. Anyhing else is invalid character.
    • prometheus: set the sanitize mode to prometheus, which will replace all the invalid characters with _. Valid characters in this mode are ASCII letters, digits and _, anything else is considered invalid.

Apart from these, the Apptuit constructor takes a couple of more optional parameters explained below:

  • api_endpoint: This should be the http endpoint for calling Apptuit apis. Normally you don't need to specify this and the default value is set to https://api.apptuit.ai.
  • ignore_environ_tags: This is False by default. It tells the client whether to look up for the global tags in environment variables or not. Global tags are tags which are applied to all the datapoints sent through the client. We will have more to say on this in the configuration section.

The client provides two methods, query and send, which are described in the Querying for Data and Sending data using send() sections respectively.

Working with Apptuit Pyformance Reporter

The apptuit pyformance reporter is an abstraction based on Code Hale's metrics. It provides high level primitives to accumulate data in the form of metrics such as meter, timer, gauge etc. and send to Apptuit. These things are described in more detail in the reporter section, here we will see how to create a reporter and various parameters it supports.

from apptuit.pyformance import ApptuitReporter
from pyformance import MetricsRegistry

reporter_tags = {"service": "order-service"}
registry = MetricsRegistry()
reporter = ApptuitReporter(token="my_apptuit_token",
                           registry=registry,
                           reporting_interval=60,
                           tags=reporter_tags,
                           collect_process_metrics=True,
                           sanitize_mode="prometheus")

Here:

  • token: Is your Apptuit token
  • registry: Is an instance of MetricsRegistry (explained more in reporter section)
  • reporting_interval: Number of seconds to wait before reporing again
  • tags: A dictionary of tag keys and values. These tags apply to all the metrics reported through this reporter.
  • collect_process_metrics: Is a boolean value which will enable or disable collection of various metrics related to the Python process (CPU, memory, GC, and threads). By default it is disabled, set this parameter to True to enable it.
  • sanitize_mode: This is same as the sanitize_mode parameter for the client (see above in client usage example).

Configuration

As we saw above, we need to pass the token and global tags as parameter to the Apptuit client when instantiating it. Alternatively we can set these as environment variables, so that we don't need to hard-code them in our code. These environment variables are described below.

  • APPTUIT_API_TOKEN: If the Apptuit client and the ApptuitReporter are not passed a token parameter they look for the token in this variable. If this variable is also not set, the client will raise ApptuitException to indicate about the missing token
  • APPTUIT_TAGS: This is an alternative for the global_tags parameter for the Apptuit client. If the Apptuit client does not receive a value for global_tags parameter it checks this environment variable. Both the global_tags parameter and APPTUIT_TAGS environment variable are strictly optional. If present, the Apptuit client adds those tags to every point it is sending.

The format of the value of this variable is as follows:

export APPTUIT_TAGS="tag_key1: tag_val1, tag_key2: tag_val2, tag_key3: tag_val3"

The spaces after the comma and colon are optional.

The APPTUIT_TAGS variable is also read by the ApptuitReporter, which combines them with its reporter tags. In case of a conflict of same tag keys in both sets of tags, the reporter tag take preference.

Note: Support for these variable was added in the version 1.0.0 of apptuit-py and is not available in any of the earlier released versions.

Sending data

There are two ways of sending the data to Apptuit. First is to use the ApptuitReporter, and the second options is to use the send() method of the Apptuit client. We will show how to use both of the options below.

Sending data using Apptuit pyformance reporter

import socket
from pyformance import MetricsRegistry
from apptuit.pyformance.apptuit_reporter import ApptuitReporter

class OrderService:
    def __init__(self, apptuit_token):
        self.registry = MetricsRegistry()
        self.init_reporter(apptuit_token, self.registry)

    def init_reporter(self, token, registry):
        hostname = socket.gethostname()
        global_tags = {"host": hostname, "env": "dev", "service": "order-service"}
        self.reporter = ApptuitReporter(registry=registry,
                                    reporting_interval=60, # data reported every 1 minute
                                    token=token,
                                    tags=global_tags,
                                    retry=2 #this will retry in case of 500 response or connection errors occur.
                                    )
        # reporter.start() will start reporting the data asynchronously based on the reporting_interval set.
        self.reporter.start()

    def handle_order(self, order):
        order_counter = self.registry.counter("order_count")
        # order handling related code
        order_counter.inc()

    def shutdown(self):
        # you can stop the reporter when you no longer wish to send data or when shutting down
        self.reporter.stop()

One thing worth pointing out in the above example:

  • In handle_order we create a new counter order_counter with the metric name order_count. The first time this method is called a new counter object will be created and registered with the registry. For subsequent calls, that counter will get reused since internally the registry will already have a counter with that name.

MetricsRegistry

MetricsRegistry is the container for all the metrics in our application. We can use it to register and create various kinds of metrics (meter, gauge, counter etc.). For example:

from pyformance import MetricsRegistry

registry = MetricsRegistry()
counter = registry.counter("order_count")
meter = registry.meter("order_requests_rate")
timer = registry.timer("order_requests_processing_time")

Now, let's take a look at the different types of metrics and how to use them.

Meter

A meter measures the the rate of events, such as requests per second. Meter maintains the mean rate, and 1-, 5-, 15- minute moving averages.

from pyformance import MetricsRegistry

registry = MetricsRegistry()
metric_name = "order_requests_rate"
requests_meter = registry.meter(metric_name)

def handle_request(request):
    requests_meter.mark()
    # handle request

Gauge

A gauge is an instantaneous measurement of a value. For example, number of pending jobs in a queue.

from queue import Queue
from pyformance import MetricsRegistry
from pyformance.meters.gauge import CallbackGauge

class QueueManager:

    def __init__(self, registry, name):
        self.q = Queue()
        jobs_metric = registry.add(name, CallbackGauge(self.get_queue_size))

    def get_queue_size(self):
        return self.q.size()

The reporter will call the get_queue_size function at its scheduled frequency and report the size of the queue.

Counter

A counter can be used to simply count some data. It provides two methods inc() to increment its value and dec() to decrement it.

from pyformance import MetricsRegistry

registry = MetricsRegistry()
jobs_counter = registry.counter('pending_jobs')

def add_job(self, job):
    jobs_counter.inc(1)
    self.q.put(job)

def take_job(self):
    jobs_counter.dec(1)
    self.q.get()

Timer

A timer aggregates timing durations and provides duration statistics, as well as throughput statistics.

from pyformance import MetricsRegistry

registry = MetricsRegistry()
timer = registry.timer("response_time")

def handle_request(request):
    with timer.time():
        return "OK"

The above example will use the timer to report the time taken to serve each request.

Histogram

A histogram measures the statistical distribution of values in a stream of data. It provides aggregate data such as the min, max, mean, sum, and count.

from pyformance import MetricsRegistry

registry = MetricsRegistry()

response_sizes = registry.histogram('response_size')

def handle_request(request):
    response = do_query(request) # process the query
    response_sizes.add(response.size())

Error Handling in ApptuitReporter

The ApptuitReporter sends data asynchronously (unless we are explicitly using it in synchronous mode by not calling the start() method). In asynchronous mode it is very difficult to know if the reporter is working properly or not. To make this easier the ApptuitReporter takes an error_handler argument. error_handler is expected to be a function reference which takes 4 arguments. The signature of the function and the arguments are explained below:

  def error_handler(status_code, successful_points_count, failed_points_count, errors):
    pass
  • status_code: The HTTP status code of the POST API call to Apptuit
  • successful_points_count: Number of points successfully processed
  • failed_points_count: Number of points which could not be processed due to errors
  • errors: List of error messages describing the reason of failure of each of the failed points

By default, the ApptuitReporter registers a default_error_handler, which writes the errors to stderr. To override that you can pass your own error handler implementation, or if you don't wish to do anything for errors you can pass None for the error_handler argument.

Reporter with default error handler

import logging
#reporter with default error handler (writes to stderr)
reporter = ApptuitReporter(token=my_apptuit_token,
                           registry=registry,
                           reporting_interval=60,
                           tags=reporter_tags)

Reporter with No error handler

reporter_with_no_error_handler = ApptuitReporter(
                            token=my_apptuit_token,
                            registry=registry,
                            reporting_interval=60,
                            tags=reporter_tags,
                            error_handler=None
                            )

The error handler function by definition takes only four arguments. If you wish to pass extra arguments to the error handler you can use closures or partial functions to get around the limitation.

Passing extra argument using Partial

import logging
from functools import partial

def custom_error_handler(logger, status_code, successful, failed, errors):
    logger.error("ApptuitReporter failed to send %d points, due to errors: %s" % (failed, str(errors)))

logger = logging.getLogger("logger key")
apptuit_custom_error_handler = partial(custom_error_handler, logger)
reporter = ApptuitReporter(
            token=my_apptuit_token,
            registry=registry,
            reporting_interval=60,
            tags=reporter_tags,
            error_handler=apptuit_custom_error_handler
            )

Passing extra argument using closure

...
import logging
from apptuit import ApptuitSendException
from apptuit.pyformance.apptuit_reporter import ApptuitReporter
...

class OrderService:
    def __init__(self, apptuit_token):
        ...
        self.logger = logging.getLogger("OrderService")
        ...

    def init_reporter(self, token, registry):
        ...
        def apptuit_error_handler(status_code, successful, failed, errors):
            logger = self.logger
            logger.error(str(ApptuitSendException(
                status_code, successful, failed, errors
            )))

        self.reporter = ApptuitReporter(...,
                                    error_handler=apptuit_error_handler)
        ...

Tags/Metadata

When creating the ApptuitReporter, you can provide a set of tags (referred as reporter tags from now on) which will be part of all the metrics reported by that reporter. However, in order to provide tags specific to each metric you need to provide them when registering the metric with the registry. For example:

from apptuit import timeseries
from pyformance import MetricsRegistry

registry = MetricsRegistry()
metric_name = "node_cpu"
tags = {"type": "idle", "host": "node-foo", "service": "order-service"}
metric = timeseries.encode_metric(metric_name, tags)
meter = registry.meter(metric)

Here we provided the metric specific tags by calling timeseries.encode_metric and providing the metric name and the tags as parameters. When registering the metric we provide this encoded name to the registry instead of the plain metric name.

To decode an encoded metric name use the decode_metric() function from timeseries module.

from apptuit import timeseries

encoded_metric = timeseries.encode_metric("node.cpu", {"type": "idle"})
metric_name, tags = timeseries.decode_metric(encoded_metric)

A recommended practise is to maintain a local cache of the created metrics and reuse them, rather than creating them every time:

import socket
import time
from apptuit import timeseries
from apptuit.pyformance import ApptuitReporter
from pyformance import MetricsRegistry

class OrderService:

    def __init__(self, apptuit_token):
        self.registry = MetricsRegistry()
        self.init_reporter(apptuit_token, self.registry)
        self.order_counters = {}

    def init_reporter(self, token, registry):
        hostname = socket.gethostname()
        global_tags = {"host": hostname, "env": "dev", "service": "order-service"}
        self.reporter = ApptuitReporter(registry=registry,
                                    reporting_interval=60, # data reported every 1 minute
                                    token=token,
                                    tags=global_tags)
        # reporter.start() will start reporting the data asynchronously based on the reporting_interval set.
        self.reporter.start()

    def get_order_counter(self, city_code):
        # We have counters for every city code
        if city_code not in self.order_counters:
            tags = {"city-code": city_code}
            metric = timeseries.encode_metric("order_count", tags=tags)
            self.order_counters[city_code] = self.registry.counter(metric)
        return self.order_counters[city_code]

    def handle_order(self, order):
        order_counter = self.get_order_counter(order.city_code)
        order_counter.inc()
        self.process_order(order)

    def shutdown(self):
        # you can stop the reporter when you no longer wish to send data or when shutting down
        self.reporter.stop()

    def process_order(self, order):
        time.sleep(5)

Here we have a method get_order_counter which takes the city_code as a parameter. There is a local cache of counters keyed by the encoded metric names. This avoids the unnecessary overhead of encoding the metric name and tags every time, if we already have created a counter for that city. It also ensures that we will report separate time-series for order-counts of different city codes.

About Host Tag

The reporter will add a host tag key with host name as its value (obtained by calling socket.gethostname()). This is helpful in order to group the metrics by host if the reporter is being run on multiple servers. The value of the host tag key can be overridden by passing our own host tag in the tags parameter to the reporter or by setting a host tag in the global environment variable for tags

If we don't wish for the host tag to be set by default we can disable it by setting the disable_host_tag parameter of the reporter to True. Alternatively we can set the environment variable APPTUIT_DISABLE_HOST_TAG to True to disable it.

Restrictions on Tags and Metric names

  • Allowed characters in tag keys and metric names - Tag keys and metric names can have any unicode etters (as defined by unicode specification) and the following special characters: ., -, _, /. However, if we are looking to follow Prometheus compliant naming ([see specification])(https://prometheus.io/docs/concepts/data_model/#metric-names-and-labels) we should restrict them to ASCII letters, digits and underscores only and it must match the regex [a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z0-9_]*. No such restriction is applicable on tag values.
  • Maximum number of tags - Apptuit currently allows upto 25 tag key-value pairs per datapoint

Meta Metrics

The ApptuitReporter also reports a set of meta metrics which can be a useful indicator if the reporter is working as expected or not, as well as to get a sense of how many points are being sent and the latency of the Apptuit API. These meta metrics are described below.

  • apptuit_reporter_send_total - Total number of points sent
  • apptuit_reporter_send_successful - Number of points which were succssfully processed
  • apptuit_reporter_send_failed - Number of points which failed
  • apptuit_reporter_send_time - Timing stats of of the send API

Python Process Metrics

The ApptutiReporter can also be configured to report various metrics of the Python process it is running in. By default it is disabled but we can enable it by passing setting the parameter collect_process_metrics to True when creating the reporter object. The reporter will collect metrics related to the system resource usage by the process (cpu, memory, IPC etc.) as well as metrics related to garbage collection and threads. The complete list of all the metrics collected is provided below:

  • python_cpu_time_used_seconds - Total time spent by the process in user mode and system mode.
  • python_memory_usage_bytes - Total amount of memory used by the process.
  • python_page_faults - Total number of page faults received by the process.
  • *python_process_swaps - Total number of times the process was swapped-out of the main memory.
  • python_block_operations - Total number of block input and output operations.
  • python_ipc_messages - Total number of inter-process messages sent and received by the process.
  • *python_system_signals - Total number of signals received by the process.
  • python_context_switches - Total number of context switches of the process.
  • python_thread - Count of active, demon and dummy threads.
  • python_gc_collection - Count of objects collected in gc for each generation.
  • python_gc_threshold - Value of garbage collector threshold for each generation.

Note - Metrics marked with * are zero on Linux because it does not support them

Global tags, reporter tags and metric tags

When using the reporter we have three sets of tags, it's better to clarify a few things about them.

  • ApptuitReporter takes a set of tags as parameter. It adds these tags to all the metrics it is reporting.
  • If the environment variable APPTUIT_TAGS is set, the reporter takes those into account as well, however the tags passed to it take preference in case of a conflict because of common tag keys.
  • Each metric being reported by the reporter might also have some tags attached, in case of a conflict because of common tag keys, the metric tags take preference over reporter or global tags.

Sending data using send() API

Apart from using the Pyformance reporter, you can also use the low level send() API from the apptuit client to directly send the data. If you want tags while sending you can use the global_tags parameter of Apptuit class. If global_tags are set then environmental tags will not be used.

from apptuit import Apptuit, DataPoint
import time
import random
import socket

token = "mytoken"
client = Apptuit(token=token)
metrics = ["proc.cpu.percent", "node.memory.bytes", "network.send.bytes", "network.receive.bytes", "node.load.avg"]
tags = {"host": socket.gethostname()}
curtime = int(time.time())
dps = []
while True:
    curtime = int(time.time())
    for metric in metrics:
        dps.append(DataPoint(metric, tags, curtime, random.random()))
    if len(dps) == 100:
        client.send(dps, 
                retry_count=3 #this will retry in case of 500 response or connection errors occur.
            )
        dps = []
    time.sleep(60)

Sending data using send_timeseries() API

The send API works with a list of DataPoint objects. Creating each DataPoint object involves validating the metric name and the tags. If we are creating thousands of DataPoint objects with the metric name and tags, it can quickly get very expensive. In order to avoid that overhead, there is an alternative send_timeseries API as well, which accepts a list of TimeSeries objects. This is much more convenient as we need to create a TimeSeries object with a metric name and tags. Thereafter we can add points to that timeseries object by calling its add_point() method. This avoids creation of DataPoint objects and the overhead of the tag validation.

Following is an example from a scraper we run internally. We call an HTTP API, get a JSON response and send it to us in the form of timeseries. In order to avoid too many API calls to Apptuit we call send_timeseries whenever we have accumulated 50000 or more points. Once we make a send_timeseries call we reset the series_list object to contain just the latest TimeSeries object (all the earlier series would have been sent to Apptuit).

from apptuit import Apptuit, TimeSeries

series_list = []
points_count = 0
token = "mytoken"
client = Apptuit(token=token)
response_data = make_request()
for result in response_data["results"]:
    metric_name = result["metric"]
    tags = result["tags"]
    series = TimeSeries(metric_name, tags)
    series_list.append(series)
    for timestamp, value in result["values"]:
        series.add_point(timestamp, value)
        points_count += 1
        if points_count >= 50000:
            client.send_timeseries(series_list)
            points_count = 0
            series_list = [TimeSeries(metric_name, tags)]
if points_count > 0:
    client.send_timeseries(series_list)

Querying for data

from apptuit import Apptuit
import time
token = 'my_token' # replace with your Apptuit token
apptuit = Apptuit(token=token)
start_time = int(time.time()) - 3600 # let's query for data going back 1 hour from now
query_res = apptuit.query("fetch('proc.cpu.percent').downsample('1m', 'avg')", start=start_time
                            retry_count=3 #this will retry in case of 500 response or connection errors occur.
                        )
# we can create a Pandas dataframe from the result object by calling to_df()
df = query_res[0].to_df()
# Another way of creating the DF is accessing by the metric name in the query
another_df = query_res['proc.cpu.percent'].to_df()

It should be noted that using the to_df() method requires that you have pandas installed. We don't install pandas by default as part of the requirements because not every user of the library would want to query or create dataframes (many users just use the send API or the reporter functionality)

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