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package for machine learning meta-data management and analysis

Project description

ArangoML Pipeline

ArangoML Pipeline is a common and extensible Metadata Layer for Machine Learning Pipelines which allows Data Scientists and DataOps to manage all information related to their ML pipeline in one place.


When productizing Machine Learning Pipelines (e.g., TensorFlow Extended or Kubeflow) the capture (and access to) of metadata across the pipeline is a vital. Typically, each of the components of such ML pipeline produces/requires Metadata, for example:

  • Datastorage: size, location, creation date, checksum, ...
  • Feature Store (processed dataset): transformation, version, basedatasetm ...
  • Model Training: training/validation performance, training duration, ...
  • Model Serving: model linage, serving performance, ...

Instead of each component storing its own metadata, a common Metadata Layer allows for queries across the entire pipeline and more efficient management. ArangoDB being a multi model database supporting both efficient document and graph data models within a single database engine is a great fit for such kind of common metadata layer for the following reasons:

  • The metadata produced by each component is typically unstructured (e.g., TensorFlow's training metadata is different from PyTorch's metadata) and hence a great fit for a document databases
  • The relationship between the different entities (i.e., metadata) can be neatly expressed as graphs (e.g., this model has been trained by run_34 on dataset_y)
  • Querying the metadata can be easily expressed as a graph traversal (e.g., all models which have been derived from dataset_y)

Use Cases

ArangoML Pipeline benefits many different scenarios including:

  • Capture of Linage Information (e.g., Which dataset influences which Model)
  • Capture of Audit Information (e.g, A given model was training two month ago with the following training/validation performance)
  • Reproducibility of Model Training
  • Model Serving Policy (e.g., Which model should be deployed in production based on training statistics)
  • Extension of existing ML pipelines through simple python/HTTP API


Arangopipe is a ArangoDB API component for tracing meta-data about machine learning projects. Tracking details of machine learning experiments, like hyper-parameters, or details of optimization techniques, etc., are of explicit concern to data scientists. This need is well served by most machine learning frameworks that are currently around. For example, Tensorboard, can be useful for this purpose for data scientists using Tensorflow. Analyzing modeling results in the aggregate, rather than focussing on a small set of experiments is equally important to data scientists. For example, data scientists may be interested in:

  1. Finding out the range of modeling techniques that have been used for a particular modeling task.
  2. Finding out the range of feature engineering techniques that have been used for a particular modeling task.
  3. What feature selection or feature extraction methods are useful for a particular modeling task?
  4. Did adding a particular attribute to a dataset result in consistent performance gains?
  5. How many datasets have been used for a particular modeling task last year?

Machine learning tools and libraries focus of solving machine learning problems and are not explicitly concerned with tracking information to answer questions such as the above. This is the need Arangopipe fulfills. Arangopipe tracks the following data from machine learning experiments:

  1. Data for Model Building: Data that goes into the model building activity is tracked. This includes meta-data about the model, the hyper-parameters associated with the model, the featureset used for model building and the dataset used to generate the featureset.
  2. Data from Model Building: Data from model building activity is tracked. This includes data about the model parameters (post optimization) and optimization parameters (learning rates, batch-sizes, optimization technique etc.)
  3. Data from Model Performance: Data about the model performance is tracked. This includes performance observed in development and deployed model performance.


Arangopipe has two components:

  1. Arangopipe
  2. ArangopipeAdmin

ArangopipeAdmin is an administrative component. It is meant to provision projects and users into Arangopipe. When projects and users have been provisioned in Arangopipe, they can start using Arangopipe to track data from their machine learning experiments. To begin with, data scientists can register entities like datasets, featuresets and model meta-data with Arangopipe. Registeration yields an identifier for the entity that they can use to reference the entity in their subsequent interaction with Arangopipe. Information provided during registeration includes a component name that they can use to lookup the identifier for the entity using the lookup API. When data scientists have refined their models to a point where they are ready to track it and log its performance during model development, they can do so with a simple API call. If the model is deployment ready, they can indicate this by adding a deployment tag as part of the data provided to the model tracking API. When models have been deployed, Arangopipe administrators provision a deployment entitiy in Arangopipe to start tracking the serving performance of the deployed model. As serving performance becomes available, it can be recorded against this deployed entity.

Getting Started

To get started with Arangoipe using a Jupyter Notebook, do the following:

  1. Install docker

  2. Pull the arangopipe docker image by running:

    docker pull arangopipe/apsi

  3. Start Arangopipe together with Jupyter by running

    docker run -it -p 6529:8529 -p 8888:8888 apsi

  4. Point your browser to: http://localhost:8888 to get to a Jupyter notebook. The default notebook password is root

  5. Point your browser to: http://localhost:6529 to get to the ArangoDB web user interface.

  6. Browse the documentation and examples provided using the file browser available from the Jupyter notebook.

Arangopipe Graph Model

Graph representation of Arangopipe entities

Data Dictionary

Arangopipe represents metadata as a graph. The nodes of the graph above are the principal elements about which metadata is gathered. These elements are high level abstractions that are encountered in any machine learning pipeline. A brief description of each of these elements is provided. Elements of the data model are either nodes or edges.

  1. Dataset: This node captures metadata about datasets. Examples of attributes could be the storage location (URL), source system, creation date, summary statistics etc. .
  2. Featureset: This node captures metadata about the features in the dataset. A featureset is obtained by applying a transformation to a dataset.
  3. (Edge) Featureset - Dataset: Captures the dataset the associated featureset was generated from. Details of the transformation, for example the jupyter notebook that performs the transformation could be captured as part of the edge data.
  4. Run: Captures metadata about the execution of a pipeline, for example the start time and the end time, status of execution (errors encountered) etc. .
  5. Project: Captures metadata about the project associated with a pipeline. This is created with ArangopipeAdmin
  6. Model: Captures metadata about the model. JSON serialized representations of model metadata can be stored if desiered. For example, if the model is used for hyperparameter optimization. The hyperparameter space can be stored in JSON serialized format.
  7. DevPerf: Captures metadata about the performance metrics gathered during execution of the pipeline. The metric captured depends on the purpose of the model. It could be the root mean square error (RMSE) for a regression model or the best performing model and associated hyperparameters for a hyperparameter optimization model.
  8. Deployment: Captures metadata about a particular production deployment. This could include details like the scheduled date, current status (scheduled, active, archived )etc.
  9. ServingPerf: Captures the serving performance for a particular period. This is associated with a deployment and could include a collection of metrics, for example model performance metrics, average response time etc. .
  10. (Edge) Deployment - Model: Captures the model associated with a deployment
  11. (Edge) Deployment - SevPerf: Captures the serving performance associated with a deployment.
  12. (Edge) Run - Model: Captures the model associated with a pipeline execution
  13. (Edge) Run - DevPerf: Captures the model performance observed in development
  14. (Edge) Run - Dataset: Captures the dataset associated with a pipeline execution
  15. (Edge) Run - Featureset: Captures the featureset associated with a pipeline execution.
  16. Model Params: This captures the hyperparameters and the parameters associated with model development.
  17. (Edge) Run - Model Params: This captures the model parameters obtained with a pipeline execution.
  18. (Edge) Deployment - Featureset: This captures the featureset associated with a deployment.
  19. (Edge) Deployment - ModelParams: This captures the model parameters used with a deployment.
  20. (Edge) Project - Models: This captures the models associated with a project.

The data associated with the nodes and edges of the graph are stored as documents. The documents do not have a fixed structure and represent data using key-value pairs. This offers flexibility and permits users to decide the metadata elements that they would like to store. This also permits users to store metadata from any machine learning tech stack in Arangopipe.

Installing Arangopipe

This repository contains Arangopipe and examples to illustrate how it can be used with machine learning tools like hyperopt and MLFlow. To install Arangopipe, do the following:

  1. Install ArangoDB

    docker run -p 8529:8529 -e ARANGO_ROOT_PASSWORD=openSesame arangodb

  2. Install pre-requisites

    pip install -r requirements.txt

  3. Install Arangopipe

    pip install -i arangopipe

The tests durectory contains examples that illustrate how Arangopipe can be used with other machine learning libraries. For example, the mlflow directory provides examples of how Arangopipe can be used with mlflow. To run these examples, you will need to install mlflow first. Similarly, to see how Arangopipe can be used to with hyper-parameter optimization experiments, look at the examples in the hyperopt directory. To run these examples, you will need to have hyperopt installed.

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