A Python tool to automatically build (and test) configurations for BGP route servers.
A Python tool to automatically build (and test) feature-rich configurations for BGP route servers.
How it works
Two YAML files provide general policies and clients configurations options:
cfg: rs_as: 64496 router_id:
"192.0.2.2"filtering: irrdb: enforce_origin_in_as_set: True enforce_prefix_in_as_set: True rpki_bgp_origin_validation: enabled: True reject_invalid: True ...
clients: - asn: 64511 ip: -
"192.0.2.11"- "2001:db8:1:1::11"irrdb: as_sets: - "RIPE::AS-FOO"...
ARouteServer acquires external information to enrich them: i.e. bgpq4/bgpq3 for IRR data, PeeringDB for max-prefix limit and AS-SETs, RPKI ROAs, …
Jinja2 built-in templates are used to render the final route server’s configuration file.
Currently, BIRD (>= 1.6.3 up to 1.6.8), BIRD v2 (starting from 2.0.7), BIRD v3 (only for testing, still in pre-release/alpha) and OpenBGPD (OpenBSD >= 7.0 also OpenBGPD Portable >= 7.0) are supported, with almost feature parity between them.
Validation and testing of the configurations generated with this tool are performed using the built-in live tests framework: Docker instances are used to simulate several scenarios and to validate the behaviour of the route server after configuring it with ARouteServer. More details on the Live tests section.
A Docker-based playground is available to experiment with the tool in a virtual IXP environment.
Also, a Docker image is provided to start building rich and secure configurations in a couple of minutes.
Path hiding mitigation techniques (RFC7947 section 2.3.1).
Basic filters (mostly enabled by default):
NEXT_HOP enforcement (strict / same AS - RFC7948 section 4.8);
minimum and maximum IPv4/IPv6 prefix length;
maximum AS_PATH length;
reject invalid AS_PATHs (containing private/invalid ASNs);
reject AS_PATHs containing transit-free or never via route-servers ASNs (using PeeringDB info_never_via_route_servers attribute);
max-prefix limit based on global or client-specific values or on PeeringDB data.
Prefixes and origin ASNs validation (also in tag-only mode):
IRR-based filters (RFC7948 section 4.6.2);
AS-SETs configured manually or fetched from PeeringDB;
support for IRR sources (RIPE::AS-FOO, RADB::AS-BAR);
white lists support;
extended dataset for filters generation:
RPKI ROAs used as route objects;
Origin AS from ARIN Whois database dump;
NIC.BR Whois data (slide n. 26) from Registro.br;
RPKI-based filtering (BGP Prefix Origin Validation);
ROAs can be retrieved from publicly available JSON files or from a local validating cache;
Route Leak Prevention and Detection Using BGP Roles (RFC9234).
Blackhole filtering support:
optional NEXT_HOP rewriting;
signalling via BGP Communities (BLACKHOLE and custom communities);
client-by-client control over propagation.
Graceful shutdown support:
honor the GRACEFUL_SHUTDOWN BGP community received from clients (draft-ietf-grow-bgp-gshut-11);
allow to perform a graceful shutdown of the route server itself.
Control and informative BGP communities:
prefix/origin ASN present/not present in IRRDBs data;
do (not) announce to any / peer / on RTT basis;
prepend to any / peer / on RTT basis;
add NO_EXPORT / NO_ADVERTISE to any / peer;
32bit ASNs mapping to 16bit ASNs for announcement control BGP communities;
Euro-IX large BGP communities to track reject reasons;
custom informational BGP communities.
Optional session features on a client-by-client basis:
prepend route server ASN (RFC7947 section 18.104.22.168);
GTSM (Generalized TTL Security Mechanism - RFC5082);
ADD-PATH capability (RFC7911).
Automatic building of clients list:
integration with IXP-Manager;
fetch lists from PeeringDB records and Euro-IX member list JSON files.
IX-F Member Export JSON files creation.
The Playground, to experiment with the tool in a virtual IXP environment.
Invalid routes reporter, to log or report invalid routes and their reject reason.
A comprehensive list of features can be found within the comments of the distributed configuration file on GitHub or on the documentation web page.
More feature are already planned: see the Future work section for more details.
Full documentation can be found on ReadTheDocs: https://arouteserver.readthedocs.org/
Euro-IX “Learn with us: ARouteServer tutorial”, 28 July 2021: video (33:13)
RIPE74, 10 May 2017, Connect Working Group: video (9:53), slides (PDF)
Salottino MIX, 30 May 2017: slides
Mentions / endorsements:
Job Snijders, LACNIC29, 3 May 2018: slides (PDF)
Anurag Bhatia, APNIC46, 12 September 2018: video, slides (PDF)
Claudio Jeker, RIPE Labs, 28 November 2018: OpenBGPD - Adding Diversity to the Route Server Landscape.
Who is using ARouteServer?
CHIX, BIRD and OpenBGPD.
CNX, BIRD v2.
GigaPIX, BIRD and BIRD v2.
IX Australia, BIRD v2.
Netnod, BIRD and GoBGP1.
NIXI Mumbai (GPX), BIRD.
NZIX, BIRD v2.
Are you using it? Do you want to be listed here? Drop me a message!
1: GoBGP configurations are generated using a fork of the project which is still WIP and that hopefully will be merged upstream in the future.
Bug? Issues? Support requests?
But also suggestions? New ideas?
Please create an issue on GitHub or drop me a message.
A Slack channel is also available on the network.toCode() community: arouteserver.
New: add support for OpenBGPD 8.0, also added to the integration testing suite.
New: add early support for BIRD v3 (current release 3.0alpha2 <https://bird.network.cz/pipermail/bird-users/2023-May/016913.html>__), for testing purposes only.
This release breaks backward compatibility (BIRD configs only): the default target version used to build BIRD configurations (when the --target-version argument is not given) is now the latest from the version 2 of BIRD (2.13 at the moment); previously it was 1.6.8. Use the --target-version 1.6.8 command line argument to build 1.6 compatible configurations.
Please note: BIRD 1 will reach end of life at the end of the year 2023.
New: add support for BIRD 2.13, also added to the integration testing suite.
New: support to build configurations for multiple route servers at once.
Providing a list of values in the router_id setting of the general.yml file allows ARouteServer to build configurations for multiple route servers during the same execution.
For more details see Building configurations for multiple route servers on the doc web site.
Fix: ixf-member-export (to build an Euro-IX JSON export file from clients.yml) now sets the routeserver flag of members to True.
See also GitHub issue 120.
New: add support for OpenBGPD 7.8, also added to the integration testing suite.
Deprecation: support for overly old OpenBGPD versions (< 7.0) is removed.
See GitHub PR 117.
New: add support for BIRD 2.0.11, also added to the integration testing suite.
New: mapping of 32bit ASNs to 16bit private ASNs for announcement control standard BGP communities.
A new feature is added to allow 32bit ASN clients to be mapped to 16bit ASNs in the standard BGP communities used for announcement control. This feature allows clients to use the 16bit mapped ASN as the peer_as value for standard BGP communities like do not announce to $PEER. In those communities, the 32bit ASN will be represented by the 16bit value which is mapped to it.
For details on how to configure this feature, see the documentation, “BGP Communities” section.
See also GitHub issue 101.
New: add support for RFC9234 Route Leak Prevention and Detection Using Roles.
A new configuration option is available in general.yml to enable RFC9234 roles (supported by BIRD >= 2.0.11 and OpenBGPD >= 7.5, even though discouraged until 7.8 will be out). When that’s set, BGP sessions on the route server are configured to announce the route-server role and routes received from clients and tagged with the OTC (Only To Customer) attribute are dropped.
This option can be enabled in backward compatibility mode in the general.yml file, and can also be tuned on a client-by-client basis via the clients.yml file.
Details can be found in the documentation page of general.yml.
New: anchors in HTML pages.
The route server policy textual representation HTML files generated via the html command now have anchors at the various headers and sub-headers, so when referring other parties to the policy they can be pointed directly to the relevant section.
See also GitHub issue 119.
Fix: minor issues with the HTML pages.
Wrong URL in some links and a misleading reference to a wrong mailing list post about private ASNs.
See also GitHub issue 119.
Please note: starting with the next release, the default target version used to build BIRD configurations (when the --target-version argument is not given) will be the latest from the 2.x major version; until now it was 1.6.8. Operators will need to use the --target-version 1.6.8 command line argument to build BIRD 1.x compatible configurations.
Deprecation: the ARIN Whois OriginAS feature (config knob use_arin_bulk_whois_data, documented in Use ARIN Whois database to accept routes) is being deprecated.
Per Recommended Draft Policy ARIN-2021-8, the “Autonomous System Originations” field is going to be removed from the ARIN database. Consequentially, this feature that is based on that is going to be deprecated as well and will be dropped in future releases of ARouteServer.
Operators that will run ARouteServer with use_arin_bulk_whois_data.enabled set to True will see a warning message being logged, about the deprecation.
The publicly available intermediate data relay which was running on the NLNOG infrastructure already removed the source file, which was used to fetch those records. So, operators willing to support this feature will need to provide their own version of the file.
See also GitHub issue 116.
No new functionalities nor bug fixes here, just a change in the releases of Python which are supported and tested.
Tests are no longer performed for Python 3.6 (EoL).
Tests for Python 3.10 and 3.11 are introduced: 3.11 is the release used to perform the integration tests.
Docker images are built on top of Python 3.11 and PyPy 3.9.
New: add support for OpenBGPD 7.6 and 7.7, also added to the integration testing suite (portable edition only).
New: add support for BIRD 2.0.10, also added to the integration testing suite.
New: add support for OpenBGPD 7.5, also added to the integration testing suite (portable edition only).
New (OpenBGPD): add support for ADD-PATH (on version 7.5 or above).
Improvement: abort the configuration building process as soon as one enricher fails.
This shorten the user feedback in case of errors that unavoidably would make the final configuration broken and not usable.
Fix: remove RGNET from the list of default IRR sources.
To remove it from existing deployments, or to add it back, users can edit the arouteserver.yml file, bgpq3_sources section.
See also GitHub issue 111.
New: add support for OpenBGPD 7.4, also added to the integration testing suite (portable edition only).
Fix: pin down urllib3 version to avoid issues on upgrade.
See also GitHub issue 110.
Fix: the playground Docker image was not building anymore.
Go and AliceLG birdwatcher versions have been bumped to the latest available.
Improvement: use bulk queries to get clients’ records from PeeringDB.
Clients’ details (such as IRR records and max-prefix limits) are now retrieved from PeeringDB using bulk API queries, where multiple ASNs are checked at once.
This speeds up the configuration building process and reduces the number of queries to PeeringDB, reducing the risk of hitting the API rate limit.
See also GitHub issue 107.
Fix: update the requirements.
The min. version of Jinja2 reported in the requirements file was not enough to satisfy the needs of the templates.
See also GitHub issue 106.
Fix: allow setting PeeringDB API key to mitigate anonymous API throttling mechanism.
ARouteServer can now be instructed to use an API key to perform authentication against the PeeringDB API server. This can be done by setting the environment variable SECRET_PEERINGDB_API_KEY or by storing the same key inside one of the following well-known files: ~/.arouteserver/peeringdb_api.key, ~/.peeringdb_api.key.
This should mitigate the effects of the anonymous API throttling mechanism introduced on PeeringDB.
See also GitHub issue 107.
Improvement: retry on PeeringDB API failure or rate-limit.
In case of failure or rate-limit of the PeeringDB API the tool now retries the same query multiple times.
See also GitHub issue 107.
New: add support for OpenBGPD 7.3, also added to the integration testing suite (portable edition only).
New: md command, to build a textual representation in Markdown format.
This command works like the html command and can be used to build a textual representation of the route server’s configuration policy in Markdown format.
For more details see the Textual representation section of the documentation.
New: add custom_options to the clients definition file.
This new section can be used to add BGP-speaker-specific arbitrary lines of configuration to the file generated by ARouteServer.
For more details see the Client custom options.>`__ section of the documentation.
See also GitHub PR 104.
Improvement (BIRD): skip NEXT_HOP check for IPv6 link-local clients.
Due to a limitation of BIRD, it is not possible to verify the NEXT_HOP attribute of routes announced by IPv6 clients configured using link-local addresses. The configurations generated using this release skip that check (upon operator’s approval if such clients are present).
See also GitHub PR 104.
Fix: detect infeasible extended BGP communities when a 32bit ASN is used for the route server.
When the route server uses a 32bit ASN, certain extended BGP communities may end being configured to match multiple 32bit values, which is not possible because the way they are encoded.
This release detects similar situations in advance and aborts the configuration building process.
See also GitHub PR 104.
Fix: import limit is not set if PeeringDB records are not found.
For clients not configured with a specific max-prefix value, when a PeeringDB record was not found the value from the general limit was not used to build the import limit configuration. The tool was expected to fallback to the general_limit_ipv4 value instead.
See also GitHub issue 105.
New: Add support for BIRD 2.0.9 (also included into the integration testing suite).
Improvement (OpenBGPD): improve readability of the configurations.
A better formatting of the output configuration allows a better readability. Also, wherever possible, extended communities are removed using wildcard matching, allowing a more compact configuration.
See also GitHub issue 97 and 99.
Improvement (Docker image): use bgpq4 version 1.4.
The Docker image was using version 1.2.
Improvement (Docker image): PyPy3-based image added.
The Docker images based on PyPy3 will have tags in the form latest-pypy3 and <version>-pypy3 (like 1.14.0-pypy3).
Improvements: drop dependencies on libraries needed for Python 2 compatibility.
Also, tests are now performed using Python 3.6, 3.8 and 3.9 too.
Fix: avoid running bgpq4 using the -3 option.
It seems that the -3 CLI option has been dropped in bgpq4 and is no longer supported (it was added as a way to not break compatibility with bgpq3 syntax).
See also GitHub issue 95.
Fix (OpenBGPD): syntax error when prepend functionalities were configured with ‘std’ communities only and 32bit ASN clients were present.
See also GitHub issue 98.
Improvement: better explaination of when error messages can be ignored.
See also GitHub issue 96.
New (OpenBGPD): use the expires attribute of ROAs from rpki-client format.
In OpenBGPD configurations (starting with 7.2), the expires attribute of ROAs gathered from JSON feeds that contain it is passed on into the configuration of the roa-set.
See also GitHub issue 92.
New: add the --merge-file option to the ixf-member-export command, to include user-created content into the IX-F Member Export JSON file.
For more details on how it works please check the documentation.
See also GitHub issue 89.
Improvement: in the ixf-member-export command, the value of IXP ID can now be set via the --ixp-id in addition to the existing --ixp_id option.
In the future, the --ixp_id version of the option will be dropped. A warning message will be shown when the deprecated version of that command line argument is used.
Improvement: ask for 16bit placeholder ASN in configure when the route-server is on a 32bit ASN.
When the configure command is used to generate the policy for a route-server running on a 32bit ASN, a prompt asks the operator which 16bit placeholder ASN should be used to setup the BGP communities. So far, the fixed value 65534 was used.
See also GitHub issue 88.
Improvement (OpenBGPD): use as-set to configure the list of “never via route server” ASNs.
This change reduces the size of the configuration and hopefully makes the filter processing faster.
See also GitHub issue 90.
Fix: when the route-server ASN was a 32bit value, the Euro-IX Large BGP Communities automatically configured via configure were using the 16bit placeholder ASN.
When the configure command was used to build the genera.yml policy for route-servers running on 32bit ASNs, the Large BGP Communities used to map route reject causes to Euro-IX codes were using the 16bit placeholder ASN instead of the actual route-server’s 32bit ASN.
Fix: better error handling for clients configured with no IP address.
When a client was mistakenly configured with no IP addresses, the program raised an unhandled exception, instead of providing a good feedback to the user.
See also GitHub issue 87.
New: add support for OpenBGPD 7.2, also added to the integration testing suite (portable edition only).
Improvement: better handling of IRRd query failures.
Multiple hosts can now be configured as servers used for the IRR queries performed via bgpq3/bgpq4. In case of timeout or failure, the next host in the list is used. A timeout of 2 minutes is used by default. These settings can be modified in the arouteserver.yml file.
See also GitHub issue 85.
Fix: the HTML representation of RPKI validation custom communities was broken.
After adding custom RPKI validation communities implemented as part of v1.10.0 the route server configuration textual representation file hada small cosmetic problem.
See also GitHub issue 83.
New: add support for custom BGP communities to track rejected routes.
A new section of the general.yml file (reject_cause_map) allows to configure custom BGP communities for each reject reason (the list can be found on the Reject reasons paragraph of on the doc site).
When this is implemented along with reject_policy set to tag or tag_and_reject, ad-hoc custom BGP communities can be used to describe why a route was rejected by the route server.
New: add support for custom BGP communities to internally track the outcome of BGP Origin Validation (or the lack of it).
3 new BGP communities are introduced to track the outcome of BGP Origin Validation (if enabled): rpki_bgp_origin_validation_valid, rpki_bgp_origin_validation_unknown and rpki_bgp_origin_validation_invalid. These communities can be used to classify routes depending on the their validation state using custom values, in addition to RFC8097 communities. They are not announced to clients, but rather they are meant to be used only internally within the route server, just to make it easier the integration with external tools, like looking glasses.
An additional fourth BGP community is also introduced, to classify routes for which BGP Origin Validation has not been performed: rpki_bgp_origin_validation_not_performed. When configured, this community is added when BOV is not enabled, or when it is not performed for some specific reasons (only blackhole route processing at the moment). Contrary to the 3 previous ones, this community is announced to the clients.
See also GitHub issue 78.
New: Euro-IX Large BGP Communities are included into the policy generated by the configure command.
This feature leverages the new reject_cause_map option commented above.
The general.yml file generated by the configure command now includes a mapping between internal reject codes and the communities proposed in the Euro-IX Large BGP Community standard document.
Please note: to make the policies generated by configure consistent between BIRD and OpenBGPD, the reject_policy option for the latter is now set to tag (so rejected routes are kept in OpenBGPD but are still not advertised to the route server clients).
In addition to this, some of the BGP communities set by the configure command have been changed in order to match those suggested in the Euro-IX document above.
New: check-config command, to verify configuration files (general.yml and clients.yml).
This command can be used to verify that the content of the two main configuration files is valid, without building the configurations.
See also GitHub PR 82 and issue 79.
Improvement (OpenBGPD): informational extended BGP communities are now scrubbed from outbound routes.
Certain informational extended BGP communities that need dynamic values (like the one used to track the reject code of a route that is discarded when reject_policy is set to tag) were not scrubbed from outbound routes, because of lack of wildcard matching in OpenBGPD. Since this feature was recently added to the BGP speaker, they are now removed.
Fix (OpenBGPD): make behaviour of rpki_bgp_origin_validation.reject_invalid consistent with BIRD.
Contrary to what reject_invalid: False might seem doing, the actual behaviour it is designed for is to still prevent the propagation of INVALID routes when RPKI BOV is enabled. When it’s set to True (the default value) the BGP daemons are configured to immediately drop INVALID routes in the inbound filters; when it’s set to False those routes are accepted but not propagated to clients, they are blocked in the outbound filters: basically they are just kept internally within the route server to allow analysis and troubleshooting.
While the BIRD implementation of reject_invalid: False was working fine, a bug was found in the OpenBGPD one that prevented those routes from being blocked in the outbound direction, letting them to be propagated to clients.
New: Add support for OpenBGPD 7.1, also added to the integration testing suite (portable edition only).
Improvement: provide hint on how to change URL for external IRR DB data sources.
See also GitHub issue 77.
Fix (OpenBGPD only): RFC8097 communities were not added after BGP Origin Validation.
The BGP Prefix Origin Validation State Extended Communities were not added when RPKI OV was performed. INVALID routes were still dropped when the route server was configured to do so (those routes are internally marked using locally-meaningful communities).
Improvement: RPKI ROAs files are checked for stale data.
The JSON files fetched from validating caches are now checked to detect stale data (rpki-client and OctoRPKI formats include this information) and they are ignored if the data they contain is no longer valid. In this case, the next URL in the rpki_roas.ripe_rpki_validator_url list is used.
By default, files whose content is older than 21600 seconds (6 hours) are ignored; it’s possible to change this option via the newly introduced rpki_roas.ignore_cache_files_older_than setting.
Where available (rpki-client format only at this time), also the VRP expiration time is checked.
As a consequence of this, the default ARouteServer cache expiration time for RPKI ROAs JSON files has been reduced to 60 minutes, to avoid caching ROAs that would turn out being expired at the next use of their cached copy.
Improvement: new order for the default URLs of the RPKI JSON files.
Since the RIPE NCC RPKI Validator is now in EoL, the URL of the JSON file that points to rpki-validator.ripe.net has been moved as the last resort option for rpki_roas.ripe_rpki_validator_url. The one exposed in the rpki-client dashboard has been added.
Please note: this change only affects the default configuration file that ships with ARouteServer and is not be automatically reflected in existing configurations that route-servers operators are already using. If you wish this setup to be reflected in your configuration, please update your general.yml file accordingly.
Improvement: add the logging option to --use-local-files argument, to allow customization of logging settings.
Details on the documentation: Logging configuration of the BGP daemon.
See also GitHub issue 75.
New: Add support for OpenBGPD 7.0, also added to the integration testing suite (portable edition only).
Please note: starting with this release, since the default target version for OpenBGPD is 7.0, path-hiding mitigation will be enabled by default by the configure command. This option can be modified in the general.yml file.
Starting with this release, the default target version for OpenBGPD will be the latest stable (6.9 in this case). Use the --target-version CLI option if you want to build your configurations for a previous release of OpenBGPD.
New: Add support for OpenBGPD/OpenBSD 6.9 and OpenBGPD Portable 6.9p0, also added to the integration testing suite.
New (OpenBGPD): add support for RTR sessions starting with version 6.9.
Please note the following issues with OpenBGPD 6.9 if you want to enable RTR sessions; you might want to apply the available patches:
Invalid argument error and RTR session not coming up (issue #23 on GitHub and “bgpd, fix RTR connect” post on openbsd-tech)
non blocking connect() call for RTR session establishment (“bgpd behaviour when RTR endpoint is not available” post on openbgpd-users and “bgpd, non-blocking rtr connect” post on openbsd-tech)
New (OpenBGPD): enable support for path-hiding mitigation.
Even though OpenBGPD supports path-hiding mitigation starting with version 6.9, the feature is not automatically enabled by the configure command because of some issues that might impair the stability of the routing ecosystem:
withdrawal of 2nd best route with rde evaluate all (issue #21 on GitHub and “bgpd fix for rde evaluate all” post on openbsd-tech)
advertisement of 2nd best routes on reload with rde evaluate all (issue #21 on GitHub and “bgpd better reload behaviour” post on openbsd-tech)
Please apply the existing patches before enabling it on a production environment, and acknowledge the error produced by ARouteServer using the --ignore-issues path_hiding_69 CLI option.
Improvement: the default list of “transit free” ASNs has been updated and some networks have been removed.
See also GitHub PR73.
Improvement (Docker image): generate HTML representation of the route server configuration through the Docker image.
See also GitHub PR70 and issue 69.
Fix (Docker image): make RS_ASN, ROUTER_ID and LOCAL_PREFIXES environment variables not required when a custom general.yml file is used.
See also GitHub PR68.
Fix: the “Reject reasons” table in the HTML representation was rendered improperly.
See also GitHub issue 71.
New: Add support for BIRD 2.0.8 (also included into the integration testing suite).
New: Docker image to easily build route-server configurations.
For more details, see the docker directory.
Improvement: change the default value of bgpq3_path to bgpq4.
The bgpq4 tool is now referenced as the default one in the bgpq3_path configuration line of arouteserver.yml.
Please note: operators who are using the tool and who left the bgpq3_path configuration line unset will now need to either explicitly configure that line to point to their bgpq3 binary or to make sure bgpq4 is available on their system.
Fix: the ixf-member-export command now produces a JSON file compliant with version 1.0 of the Euro-IX schema.
See also GitHub PR65.
New: irr-as-set command, to build the route server AS-SET object for IRR databases.
This new command can be used to build the AS-SET RPSL object that describes the ASes and AS-SETs of route server clients. Details and usage: https://arouteserver.readthedocs.io/en/latest/USAGE.html#irr-as-set
Related: issue #49 on GitHub.
Improvement (BIRD only): tag_and_reject is now the default reject policy set by the configure command.
When the configure command is initially used to setup ARouteServer and to generate the general.yml file, the reject policy that it configures is tag_and_reject if BIRD is specified as the route server daemon.
Fix: setup-templates was not generating the correct backup of customized templates.
The bug only affected the upgrade procedure of deployments where the Jinja2 templates were locally customized. More details on the comments of commit 2ea6df69106d473f9f4170c65f929bab4a0d7676.
Improvement: multihop support.
For BIRD, this option can be configured only when path-hiding mitigation is turned off.
More details on GitHub PR61.
Improvement (BIRD only): allow count_rejected_routes: True in BIRD 2.0.7 when the patch is used.
A patch for BIRD 2.0.7 was released to address the bug that leads the daemon to crash when a configuration is built using count_rejected_routes: True. This release adds a new locally meaningful fictitious version of BIRD that can be used to overcome the limitation enforced in ARouteServer 1.0.1, by signalling to the tool the usage of a patched version of BIRD (--target-version 2.0.7+b962967e).
See the notes for the 1.0.1 release for more details.
New: Add support for OpenBGPD/OpenBSD 6.8 and OpenBGPD Portable 6.8p1, also added to the integration testing suite.
Fix (BIRD only): change default behaviour to count rejected routes towards the max-prefix limit threshold.
So far, routes received by the route server and rejected as a result of ingress filtering were not counted towards the max-prefix limit threshold; this release changes the default behaviour in a way that they are now taken into account.
Example: a peer is configured with max-prefix limit 10 and action ‘shutdown’. It announces 15 routes, 5 of which are rejected due to inbound filters. BIRD route servers configured using previous releases will not perform any action on that peer, while a configuration generated with this release will lead to the shutdown of the BGP session with that peer.
In case the previous implementation of the max-prefix limit is the desired one, it can be restored by setting the new configuration statement that has been introduced with this release, count_rejected_routes, to False. More details in the general.yml file.
BIRD 2.0.7 users, please note: if you are using ARouteServer to configure route servers which are based on BIRD 2.0.7, you’ll get an error message at configuration build time. This is due to the fact that in BIRD 2.0.7 there is a bug that affects configurations generated using the statement that implements the new default behaviour for max-prefix limit handling. The error message will show you the options to unblock the config generation, but in any case it will not be possible to implement this new way of handling the max-prefix limit.
No changes, just make it “stable”!
New: Add support for OpenBGPD/OpenBSD 6.7 and OpenBGPD Portable 6.7p0, also added to the integration testing suite.
Fix: BIRD, use bgp_path.last since it’s consistent with RFC 6907 7.1.9-11 <https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc6907#section-7.1.9> (RPKI BOV of routes whose AS_PATH ends with an AS_SET).
More info: https://email@example.com/msg05152.html
Related: PR #56 on GitHub.
New feature: tag_and_reject reject policy for BIRD.
Invalid routes can be tagged with informational BGP communities and then discarded by BIRD. With this option, alice-lg reject reasons are supported nicely, whilst keeping show routes all filtered working to keep birdwatcher happy.
Related: PR #57 on GitHub.
Improvement: clients-from-euroix command, option --merge-from-custom-file to customise the list of clients generated from an Euro-IX JSON file.
More details on how to use this option can be found running arouteserver clients-from-euroix --help-merge-from-custom-file.
Improvement: add support for bgpq4.
At least version 0.0.5 is required.
Related: PR #53 on GitHub.
Fix: clients-from-euroix command, route server detection on Euro-IX schema versions 0.7 and 1.0.
In version 0.7 and 1.0 of the Euro-IX member list JSON file the way the route server information are exported changed. The clients-from-euroix command was no longer able to filter out the IP addresses that represent the route server of the same IXP for which the members are processed, basically generating a client entry for the same route server being configured.
New feature: never via route-servers ASNs filtering.
To drop routes containing an ASN which is classified as “never via route-servers” on PeeringDB (info_never_via_route_servers attribute).
Please note: this feature is enabled by default.
Related: issue #55 on GitHub.
Improvement: add alice-lg/birdwatcher support to BIRD configs.
Changes the default BIRD time format to support alice-lg/birdwatcher out of the box.
Improvement: include a table with the reject codes in the HTML output.
Related: issue #54 on GitHub.
New: add support for BIRD v2.
Please note: BIRD v2 support is in early stages. Before moving any production platform to instances of BIRD v2 configured with this tool, please review the configurations carefully and run some simulations.
New: OpenBGPD/OpenBSD 6.6, OpenBGPD Portable 6.6p0 and BIRD 1.6.8 added to the integration testing suite.
Fix: prevent environment variables with unknown escapes (like u) from interrupting the execution.
Related: issue #50 on GitHub.
Fix: handle more formats for ROAs exported from the public instances of RIPE and NTT validators.
A new way of representing ASNs (without the “AS” prefix) and new TA names which were not matched by the default values of rpki_roas.allowed_trust_anchors prevented ROAs from being imported and correctly processed when the default settings were used.
This is the last release of ARouteServer for which Python 2.7 compatibility is guaranteed. From the next release, any new feature will not be tested against that version of Python.
New: OpenBGPD Portable <https://github.com/openbgpd-portable/openbgpd-portable> (release 6.5p1) also supported.
Release 6.5p1 of OpenBGPD Portable edition passed the integration testing suite.
New: add support for OpenBGPD/OpenBSD 6.5 enhancements.
Support for matching multiple communities at the same time allows to create more readable configurations.
Improvement: OpenBGPD, some filters refinement.
Avoid checking AS0 in AS_PATH since 6.4. No needs to check routes of an address family different than the one used for the session.
As announced with release 0.20.0, OpenBGPD/OpenBSD 6.2 is no longer tested. Also OpenBGPD/OpenBSD 6.3 tests have been decommissioned. Starting with this release, tests will be executed only against the 2 most recent releases of OpenBGPD/OpenBSD and against the last release of the supported major versions of BIRD. The implementation of new features may break compatibility of the configurations built for unsupported releases.
Deprecation: SAVVIS IRR removed from the list of default sources used by bgpq3.
Fix (minor): truncate the max length of AS-SET names to 64 characters.
BIRD supports only names no longer than 64 characters.
Related: issue #47 on GitHub.
Improvement: when ripe-rpki-validator-cache is set as the source of ROAs, multiple URLs can now be specified to fetch data from.
URLs will be tried in the same order as they are configured; if the attempt to download ROAs from the first URL fails, the second URL will be tried, an so on.
By default, the RIPE NCC public instance of the RIPE RPKI Validator will be tried first, then the NTT instance. The list of URLs can be set in the general.yml configuration file, roas.ripe_rpki_validator_url option.
This is the last release of ARouteServer for which OpenBGPD/OpenBSD 6.1 and 6.2 CI tests are ran. From the next release, any new feature will not be tested against these versions of OpenBGPD. Users are encouraged to move to newer releases.
New: add support for OpenBGPD/OpenBSD 6.4 enhancements.
Use new sets for prefixes, ASNum, and origins (prefix + source-as), and also RPKI ROA sets.
Improvement: OpenBGPD, reduce the number of rules by combining some into the same rule.
Improvement: route server policies definition files built using the configure command now have RPKI BGP Origin Validation and “use-ROAs-as-route-objects” enabled by default.
As announced with release 0.19.0, OpenBGPD/OpenBSD 6.0 is no longer tested. The implementation of new features may break compatibility of the configurations built for unsupported releases.
Most of this release is based on the work made by Claudio Jeker.
Fix (BIRD configuration only): change bgp_path.last with bgp_path.last_nonaggregated.
When a route is originated from the aggregation of two different routes using the AS_SET, bgp_path.last always returns 0, so the origin ASN validation against IRR always fails.
Related: issue #34 on GitHub.
This is the last release of ARouteServer for which OpenBGPD/OpenBSD 6.0 CI tests are ran. Starting with the next release, any new feature will not be tested against version 6.0 of OpenBGPD. Users are encouraged to move to newer releases.
New: use NIC.BR Whois data from Registro.br to enrich the dataset used for route validation.
Details: RIPE76, Practical Data Sources For BGP Routing Security.
Related: issue #28 on GitHub.
New: introduce support for OpenBGPD/OpenBSD 6.4.
OpenBSD 6.4 is not released yet, this is just in preparation of it.
Related: issue #31 on GitHub.
Fix (minor): RIPE NCC RPKI Validator v3 expects Accept: text/json as HTTP header.
Related: PR #29 on GitHub.
New: add support for BIRD 1.6.4 and OpenBGPD/OpenBSD 6.3.
This release breaks backward compatibility (OpenBGPD configs only): the default target version used to build OpenBGPD configurations (when the --target-version argument is not given) is now 6.2; previously it was 6.0. Use the --target-version 6.0 command line argument to build 6.0 compatible configurations.
Improvement: transit-free ASNs filters are applied also to sessions toward transit-free peers.
Related: issue #21 on GitHub.
Fix (minor): better handling of user answers in configure and setup commands.
Fix: clients-from-peeringdb, list of IXPs retrieved from PeeringDB and no longer from IXFDB.
Fix: clients-from-euroix command, use the configured cache directory.
Fix: configure command, omit extended communities for OpenBGPD configurations.
This is to avoid the need of using the --ignore-issues extended_communities command line argument.
Improvement: environment variables expansion when YAML configuration files are read.
Fix: minor installation issues.
New feature: allow to set the source of IRR objects.
AS-SETs can be prepended with an optional source: RIPE::AS-FOO, RIPE::AS64496:AS-FOO.
New feature: support for RPKI-based Origin Validation added to OpenBGPD configurations.
RPKI ROAs must be loaded from a RIPE RPKI Validator cache file (local or via HTTP). Mostly inspired by Job Snijders’ tool https://github.com/job/rtrsub
Improvement: RPKI ROAs can be loaded from a local file too.
The file must be in RIPE RPKI Validator cache format.
Fix (minor): remove internal communities before accepting blackhole routes tagged with a custom blackhole community.
This bug did not affect routes tagged with the BLACKHOLE community; anyway, the internal communities were scrubbed before routes were announced to clients.
Fix: avoid empty lists of prefixes when a client’s white_list_pref contains only prefixes for an IP version different from the current one.
Fix: handle the new version of the JSON schema built by arin-whois-bulk-parser.
Improvement: OpenBGPD, more flexibility for inbound communities values.
This allows to use inbound ‘peer_as’ communities which overlap with other inbound communities whose last part is a private ASN.
New feature: use ARIN Whois database dump to authorize routes.
This feature allows to accept those routes whose origin ASN is authorized by a client AS-SET, whose prefix has not a corresponding route object but is covered by an ARIN Whois record for the same origin ASN.
Improvement: extend the use of RPKI ROAs as route objects and ARIN Whois database dump to tag_as_set-only mode.
Before of this, the RPKI ROAs as route objects and ARIN Whois DB dump features were used only when origin AS and prefix enforcing was set. Starting with this release they are used even when enforcing is not configured and only the tag_as_set mode is used.
New feature: configure and show_config support commands.
configure: it can be used to quickly generate a route server policy definition file (general.yml) on the basis of best practices and suggestions.
show_config: to display current configuration settings and also options that have been left to their default values.
New feature: ixf-member-export command, to build IX-F Member Export JSON files from the list of clients.
Improvement: cache expiry time values can be set for each external resource type: PeeringDB info, IRR data, …
Fix: BIRD, “Unknown instruction 8574 in same (~)” error when reloading IPv6 configurations.
A missing case for the !~ operator triggers this bug when neighbors are established and trying to reload bird6 configuration.
Related: issue #20 on GitHub.
This release breaks backward compatibility (OpenBGPD configs only): for OpenBGPD configurations, starting with this release the Site of Origin Extended BGP communities in the range 65535:* (soo 65535:*) are reserved for internal reasons.
New feature: use RPKI ROAs as if they were route objects.
This feature allows to accept those routes whose origin ASN is authorized by a client AS-SET, whose prefix is not but it is covered by a RPKI ROA for the same origin ASN.
Related: issue #19 on GitHub.
New feature: automatic checking for new releases.
This can be disabled by setting check_new_release to False in arouteserver.yml.
Improvement: routes accepted solely because of a white_list_route entry are now tagged with the route_validated_via_white_list BGP community.
Fix: on OpenBGPD configurations, in case of duplicate definition of a client’s AS-SETs, duplicate BGP informational communities were added after the IRR validation process.
New feature: an option to set RFC1997 well-known communities (NO_EXPORT/NO_ADVERTISE) handling policy: pass-through or strict RFC1997 behaviour.
This breaks backward compatibility: previously, NO_EXPORT/NO_ADVERTISE communities were treated accordingly to the default implementation of the BGP speaker daemon (BIRD, OpenBGPD). Now, ARouteServer’s default setting is to treat routes tagged with those communities transparently, that is to announce them to other clients and to pass-through the original RFC1997 communities.
Improvement: when using PeeringDB records to configure the max-prefix limits, a margin is took into account to accomodate networks that fill the PeeringDB records with their exact route announcement count.
This breaks backward compatibility: if using max-prefix from PeeringDB, current limits will be raised by the default increment values (+100, +15%): this behaviour can be reverted to the pre-v0.13.0 situation by explicitly setting the max_prefix.peering_db.increment configuration section to 0/0.
Related: issue #12 on GitHub.
New feature: client-level white lists for IRRdb-based filters.
This allows to manually enter routes that must always be accepted by IRRdb-level checks and prefixes and ASNs that must be treated as if they were included within client’s AS-SETs.
Related: issue #16 on GitHub.
Improvement: always take the AS*n* macro into account when building IRRdb-based filters.
Related: issue #15 on GitHub.
Fix: an issue on OpenBGPD builder class was preventing features offered via large BGP communities only from being actually implemented into the final configuration.
Related: issue #11 on GitHub.
Fix an issue that was impacting templates upgrading under certain circumstances.
Related: issue #10 on GitHub.
OpenBGPD 6.2 support.
New feature: Graceful BGP session shutdown support, to honor GRACEFUL_SHUTDOWN communities received from clients and also to perform graceful shutdown of the route server itself (--perform-graceful-shutdown command line argument).
Python 3.4 support.
Improvement: GT registry removed from the sources used to gather info from IRRDB.
Related: PR #8 on GitHub.
Improvement: multiple AS-SETs used for the same client are now grouped together and queried at one time. This allows to leverage bgpq3’s ability and speed to aggregate results in order to have smaller configuration files.
New feature: when IRRDB-based filters are enabled and no AS-SETs are configured for a client, if the cfg.filtering.irrdb.peering_db option is set ARouteServer tries to fetch their values from the client’s ASN record on PeeringDB.
Related: issue #7 on GitHub.
Improvement: config building process performances,
reduced memory consumption by moving IRRDB information from memory to temporary files;
responses for empty/missing resources are also cached;
fix a wrong behaviour that led to multiple PeeringDB requests for the same ASN.
Improvement: clients-from-euroix command, the new --merge-from-peeringdb option can be used to integrate missing information into the output clients list by fetching AS-SETs and max-prefix limit from PeeringDB.
Fix: OpenBGPD, an issue was causing values > 65535 to be used in standard BGP communities matching.
Fix: remove quotes from clients description.
Fix: OpenBGPD, syntax error for prefix lists with ‘range X - X’ format.
Fix: clients-from-euroix command, members with multiple vlan objects with the same vlan_id were not properly listed in the output, only the first object was used.
Improvement: BIRD, new default debug options (states, routes, filters, interfaces, events, was all).
If needed, they can be overwritten using the header custom .local file.
Fix: enrichers errors handling reported a generic message with no further details.
Fix: HTTP 404 error handling for “Entity not found” error from PeeringDB.
Fix: OpenBGPD, large prefix lists were causing a “string too long” error.
Fix: OpenBGPD, clients descriptions longer than 31 characters were not properly truncated.
New feature: RTT-based communities to control propagation of routes on the basis of peers round trip time.
Improvement: in conjunction with the “tag” reject policy, the rejected_route_announced_by BGP community can be used to track the ASN of the client that announced an invalid route to the server.
Fix: when the “tag” reject policy is used, verify that the reject_cause BGP community is also set.
Fix: default user configuration path not working.
New feature: reject policy configuration option, to control how invalid routes must be treated: immediately discarded or kept for troubleshooting purposes, analysis or statistic reporting.
New tool: invalid routes reporter.
Fix: the following networks have been removed from the bogons.yml file: 22.214.171.124/22, 126.96.36.199/21, 188.8.131.52/29.
New feature: custom BGP communities can be configured on a client-by-client basis to tag routes entering the route server (for example, for informative purposes).
Fix: validation of BGP communities configuration for OpenBGPD.
Error is given if a peer-AS-specific BGP community overlaps with another community, even if the last part of the latter is a private/reserved ASN.
Improvement: the custom !include <filepath> statement can be used now in YAML configuration files to include other files.
More details here.
Improvement: IRRDB-based filters can be configured to allow more specific prefixes (allow_longer_prefixes option).
OpenBGPD 6.1 support: enable large BGP communities support.
Improvement: the clients-from-peeringdb command now uses the IX-F database to show a list of IXP and their PeeringDB ID.
Improvement: enable NEXT_HOP rewriting for IPv6 blackhole filtering requests on OpenBGPD after OpenBSD 6.1 fixup.
Related: issue #3.
Improvement: BIRD, client-level .local file.
Improvement: next-hop checks, the authorized_addresses option allows to authorize IP addresses of non-client routers for NEXT_HOP attribute of routes received from a client.
Fix: avoid the use of standard communities in the range 65535:x.
Improvement: option to set max-prefix restart timer for OpenBGPD.
Deleted feature: tagging of routes a’ la RPKI-Light has been removed.
The reject_invalid flag, that previously was on general scope only, now can be set on a client-by-client basis.
The roa_valid, roa_invalid, and roa_unknown communities no longer exist.
Related: issue #4 on GitHub
This breaks backward compatibility.
New feature: BIRD hooks to add site-specific custom implementations.
Improvement: BIRD local files.
This breaks backward compatibility: previously, *.local, *.local4 and *.local6 files that were found in the same directory where the BIRD configuration was stored were automatically included. Now, only the header([4|6]).local and footer([4|6]).local files are included, depending on the values passed to the --use-local-files command line argument.
Improvement: setup command and program’s configuration file.
The default path of the cache directory (cache_dir option) has changed: it was /var/lib/arouteserver and now it is cache, that is a directory which is relative to the cfg_dir option (by default, the directory where the program’s configuration file is stored).
OpenBGPD support (some limitations apply).
Add MD5 password support on clients configuration.
The build command used to generate route server configurations has been removed in favor of BGP-speaker-specific sub-commands: bird and openbgpd.
New --test-only flag for builder commands.
New --clients-from-euroix command to build the clients.yml file on the basis of records from an Euro-IX member list JSON file.
This also allows the integration with IXP-Manager.
New BGP communities: add NO_EXPORT and/or NO_ADVERTISE to any client or to specific peers.
New option (set by default) to automatically add the NO_EXPORT community to blackhole filtering announcements.
setup-templates command to just sync local templates with those distributed within a new release.
Multithreading support for tasks that acquire data from external sources (IRRDB info, PeeringDB max-prefix).
Can be set using the threads option in the arouteserver.yml configuration file.
New template-context command, useful to dump the list of context variables and data that can be used inside a template.
New empty AS-SETs handling: if an AS-SET is empty, no errors are given but only a warning is logged and the configuration building process goes on.
Any client with IRRDB enforcing enabled and whose AS-SET is empty will have its routes rejected by the route server.
Fix local files usage among IPv4/IPv6 processes.
Before of this release, only .local files were included into the route server configuration, for both the IPv4 and IPv6 configurations. After this, .local files continue to be used for both the address families but .local4 and .local6 files can also be used to include IP version specific options, depending on the IP version used to build the configuration. Details here.
# pull from GitHub master branch or use pip: pip install --upgrade arouteserver # install the new template files into local system arouteserver setup
Add local static files into the route server’s configuration.
First beta version.
The filtering.rpsl section of general and clients configuration files has been renamed into filtering.irrdb.
The command line argument --template-dir has been renamed into --templates-dir.
New options in the program’s configuration file: bgpq3_host and bgpq3_sources, used to set bgpq3 -h and -S arguments when gathering info from IRRDBs.
New command to build textual representations of configurations: html.
New command to initialize a custom live test scenario: init-scenario.
New feature: selective path prepending via BGP communities.
The control_communities general option has been removed: it was redundant.
Improved communities configuration and handling.
Fix issue on standard communities matching against 32-bit ASNs.
Fix issue on IPv6 prefix validation.
New feature: RPKI-based filtering/tagging.
New feature: transit-free ASNs filtering.
Program command line: subcommands + clients-from-peeringdb.
More logging and some warning.
Fix issue with GTSM default value.
Add default route to bogons.
Better as-sets handling and cache handling.
Config syntax change: clients ‘as’ -> ‘asn’.
AS-SETs at AS-level.
Live tests: path hiding mitigation scenario.
Improvements in templates.
Fix some cache issues.
System setup via arouteserver --setup.
First push on GitHub.
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