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Optimize serializers automatically with select_related(), prefetch_related(), defer() and only()

Project description

AutoRelated

AutoRelated package automatically creates correct use of select_related(), prefetch_related() and only() methods of django for django-rest serializers.

  • Pass your serializer to Tracer object
  • Build your query with the returned parameters
  • Your query is optimized

Requirements

AutoRelated is developed and tested against;

  • Django version: 3.0, 3.0.5
  • Django REST framework version: 3.10.3, 3.11.0
  • Python version: 3.6, 3.7, 3.8

It requires only:

  • Django
  • Django REST framework

For development in addition to above:

  • Django Debug Toolbar

Installation

To install it use

$ pip install auto-related

Usage

If you have a serializer like this defined in your serializers.py file;

from restframework import serializers

class SomeSerializer(serializer.ModelSerializer):
    field=SomeotherSerializer(many=True)
    .
    .
    .

You can use it in your views like this;

from auto_related.tracer import Trace, optimized_queryset_given_trails
from rest_framework import status,generics

class ParentList(generics.ListAPIView):
    serializer_class = SomeSerializer
    def get_queryset(self):
        t=Tracer(SomeSerializer)
        traces=t.trace()
        s,p=optimized_queryset_given_trails(traces)
        return SomeSerializer.model.objects.select_related(*s)\
                                            .prefetch_related(*p)\
                                            .only(*t.build_only())

Or you can use mixins that basically do the same thing

from auto_related.mixin import ViewMixin, ViewMixinWithOnlyOptim
from rest_framework import status,generics

#this mixin does not use only() and defer() optimization
class ParentList(ViewMixin, generics.ListAPIView):
    serializer_class = SomeSerializer
    # you can pass extra parameters here for SerializerMethodField if you do not use auto-related's MethodField
    queryset=Parent.objects.all() 

#this mixin uses only() and defer() optimization
class ParentList(ViewMixinWithOnlyOptim, generics.ListAPIView):
    serializer_class = SomeSerializer
    queryset=Parent.objects.all()
If you have a SerializerMethodField:

If you have a SerializerMethodField in your serializer which requires a queryset to be evaluated then it cannot be detected by auto-related automatically since inspecting a function is really hard. As a solution you can use a MethodField from auto-related.method_field which is almost same as SerializerMethodField except that it has an sources attribute which later could be used by auto-related to determine correct use of select_related(), prefetch_related() and only().

from auto_related.method_field import MethodField
class SomeSerializerWithMethodField(serializer.ModelSerializer):
    field1=MethodField(many=True, sources=['related_object_set'])
    field2=MethodField(many=True, sources=['child__related_object_set', 'related_object_set'])

    get_field1(self, obj):
        # here related_object is accessed hence it sould be added to sources 
        return obj.related_object_set.all().count()

    get_field2(self, obj):
        # here related_object and child.related_object is accessed hence they sould be added to sources 
        return obj.child.related_object_set.all().count() + obj.related_object_set.all().count()

    class Meta:
        model=modelA

class AnotherSerializer(serializer.ModelSerializer):
    # You can use above serializer which includes a SerializerMethodField in another serializer safely.
    # This way you do not need to deal with nested usage of SerilizerMethodField. 
    # They are automatically prepended with necessary model and field names when used in another serializer.
    # Also sources are automatically splitted into select_related and prefetch_related in a way 
    # which minimizes database hits.
    field=SomeSerializerWithMethodField(many=True, source='modelA')

    class Meta:
        model=modelB

MethodField's implementation is almost same with the SerializerMethodField from rest-framework. In fact if you do not pass an sources argument to it, it is the same. Hence you can import like auto_related.method_field import MethodField as SerializerMethodField without changing your code, and you only set sources argument for the necessary fields.

How It Works

First a util function get_all_sources() inspects a serializer deeply by iterating over all of its fields including fields of the nested serializers. Say that you have serializer like this;

class SomeSerializer(serializer.ModelSerializer):
    field=SomeOtherSerializer(many=True, source='some_other')
    text=CharField()

class SomeOtherSerializer(serializer.ModelSerializer):
    name=CharField()
    attr=IntegerField()     

then all sources of a serializer is obtained by;

get_all_sources(SomeSerializer)
#returns ['field', 'text',' some_other.name', 'some_other.attr']

which is all attributes that this serializer will access when it is passed with a data. We somehow have to inspect those sources to decide what to prefetch.

Then, the tracer object traces all these sources on model that this serializer is assigned to. For example some_other.attr source first visits some_other relational field and then attr integerfield of SomeOther model. Note that those fields has nothing to do with rest framework fields, they are django's field objects. Fields helps us to decide what to prefetch. For instance, If a field is a related or reverse related field then it could be said that it should be prefetched. However there are two methods to do that in django which are select_related and prefetch_related. Fields classes helps to decide which is which. For example a onetoone field can be prefetched using select_related but we should use prefetch_related for manytomany fields or reverse related fields etc..

Development

Want to contribute? Great!

Currently no automated tests. You can clone the repo and run the test project;

$ cd projectfolder/autorelated/tests
$ python manage.py runserver

Django toolbar is installed in the project so that you can examine how many queries are executed and lots of other things as well for testing purposes. For instance you can go to http://localhost:8080/test/course and http://localhost:8080/test/course/slow to compare speed and query count difference between auto_related applied and not applied queries. Each url in the test project has its counter part ...url/slow which does not use auto_related and only use model.objects.all() as queryset.

Todos

  • Writing Tests
  • Examining queryset or model instances passed to serializers to check if they are cached and properly configured and if not optimize them automatically.
  • Utilizing values() instead of only() when django model instance is not needed.
  • To be able to use whole package as a debug tool which could warn for missing optimizations when DEBUG=True

License

MIT

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