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Microsoft Azure Azure Data Tables Client Library for Python

Project description

Azure Tables client library for Python

Azure Tables is a NoSQL data storage service that can be accessed from anywhere in the world via authenticated calls using HTTP or HTTPS. Tables scales as needed to support the amount of data inserted, and allow for the storing of data with non-complex accessing. The Azure Tables client can be used to access Azure Storage or Cosmos accounts. This document covers azure-data-tables.

Please note, this package is a replacement for azure-cosmosdb-tables which is now deprecated. See the migration guide for more details.

Source code | Package (PyPI) | API reference documentation | Samples

Disclaimer

Azure SDK Python packages support for Python 2.7 has ended 01 January 2022. For more information and questions, please refer to https://github.com/Azure/azure-sdk-for-python/issues/20691 Python 3.7 or later is required to use this package. For more details, please refer to Azure SDK for Python version support policy.

Getting started

The Azure Tables SDK can access an Azure Storage or CosmosDB account.

Prerequisites

Create account

Install the package

Install the Azure Tables client library for Python with pip:

pip install azure-data-tables

Create the client

The Azure Tables library allows you to interact with two types of resources:

  • the tables in your account
  • the entities within those tables. Interaction with these resources starts with an instance of a client. To create a client object, you will need the account's table service endpoint URL and a credential that allows you to access the account. The endpoint can be found on the page for your storage account in the Azure Portal under the "Access Keys" section or by running the following Azure CLI command:
# Get the table service URL for the account
az storage account show -n mystorageaccount -g MyResourceGroup --query "primaryEndpoints.table"

Once you have the account URL, it can be used to create the service client:

from azure.data.tables import TableServiceClient
service = TableServiceClient(endpoint="https://<my_account_name>.table.core.windows.net/", credential=credential)

For more information about table service URL's and how to configure custom domain names for Azure Storage check out the official documentation

Types of credentials

The credential parameter may be provided in a number of different forms, depending on the type of authorization you wish to use. The Tables library supports the following authorizations:

  • Shared Key
  • Connection String
  • Shared Access Signature Token
Creating the client from a shared key

To use an account shared key (aka account key or access key), provide the key as a string. This can be found in your storage account in the Azure Portal under the "Access Keys" section or by running the following Azure CLI command:

az storage account keys list -g MyResourceGroup -n MyStorageAccount

Use the key as the credential parameter to authenticate the client:

from azure.core.credentials import AzureNamedKeyCredential
from azure.data.tables import TableServiceClient

credential = AzureNamedKeyCredential("my_account_name", "my_access_key")

service = TableServiceClient(endpoint="https://<my_account_name>.table.core.windows.net", credential=credential)
Creating the client from a connection string

Depending on your use case and authorization method, you may prefer to initialize a client instance with a connection string instead of providing the account URL and credential separately. To do this, pass the connection string to the client's from_connection_string class method. The connection string can be found in your storage account in the Azure Portal under the "Access Keys" section or with the following Azure CLI command:

az storage account show-connection-string -g MyResourceGroup -n MyStorageAccount
from azure.data.tables import TableServiceClient
connection_string = "DefaultEndpointsProtocol=https;AccountName=<my_account_name>;AccountKey=<my_account_key>;EndpointSuffix=core.windows.net"
service = TableServiceClient.from_connection_string(conn_str=connection_string)
Creating the client from a SAS token

To use a shared access signature (SAS) token, provide the token as a string. If your account URL includes the SAS token, omit the credential parameter. You can generate a SAS token from the Azure Portal under Shared access signature or use one of the generate_*_sas() functions to create a sas token for the account or table:

from datetime import datetime, timedelta
from azure.data.tables import TableServiceClient, generate_account_sas, ResourceTypes, AccountSasPermissions
from azure.core.credentials import AzureNamedKeyCredential, AzureSasCredential

credential = AzureNamedKeyCredential("my_account_name", "my_access_key")
sas_token = generate_account_sas(
    credential,
    resource_types=ResourceTypes(service=True),
    permission=AccountSasPermissions(read=True),
    expiry=datetime.utcnow() + timedelta(hours=1),
)

table_service_client = TableServiceClient(endpoint="https://<my_account_name>.table.core.windows.net", credential=AzureSasCredential(sas_token))

Key concepts

Common uses of the Table service included:

  • Storing TBs of structured data capable of serving web scale applications
  • Storing datasets that do not require complex joins, foreign keys, or stored procedures and can be de-normalized for fast access
  • Quickly querying data using a clustered index
  • Accessing data using the OData protocol and LINQ filter expressions

The following components make up the Azure Tables Service:

  • The account
  • A table within the account, which contains a set of entities
  • An entity within a table, as a dictionary

The Azure Tables client library for Python allows you to interact with each of these components through the use of a dedicated client object.

Clients

Two different clients are provided to interact with the various components of the Table Service:

  1. TableServiceClient -
    • Get and set account setting
    • Query, create, and delete tables within the account.
    • Get a TableClient to access a specific table using the get_table_client method.
  2. TableClient -
    • Interacts with a specific table (which need not exist yet).
    • Create, delete, query, and upsert entities within the specified table.
    • Create or delete the specified table itself.

Entities

Entities are similar to rows. An entity has a PartitionKey, a RowKey, and a set of properties. A property is a name value pair, similar to a column. Every entity in a table does not need to have the same properties. Entities can be represented as dictionaries like this as an example:

entity = {
    'PartitionKey': 'color',
    'RowKey': 'brand',
    'text': 'Marker',
    'color': 'Purple',
    'price': '5'
}
  • create_entity - Add an entity to the table.
  • delete_entity - Delete an entity from the table.
  • update_entity - Update an entity's information by either merging or replacing the existing entity.
    • UpdateMode.MERGE will add new properties to an existing entity it will not delete an existing properties
    • UpdateMode.REPLACE will replace the existing entity with the given one, deleting any existing properties not included in the submitted entity
  • query_entities - Query existing entities in a table using OData filters.
  • get_entity - Get a specific entity from a table by partition and row key.
  • upsert_entity - Merge or replace an entity in a table, or if the entity does not exist, inserts the entity.
    • UpdateMode.MERGE will add new properties to an existing entity it will not delete an existing properties
    • UpdateMode.REPLACE will replace the existing entity with the given one, deleting any existing properties not included in the submitted entity

Examples

The following sections provide several code snippets covering some of the most common Table tasks, including:

Creating a table

Create a table in your account and get a TableClient to perform operations on the newly created table:

from azure.data.tables import TableServiceClient
table_service_client = TableServiceClient.from_connection_string(conn_str="<connection_string>")
table_name = "myTable"
table_client = table_service_client.create_table(table_name=table_name)

Creating entities

Create entities in the table:

from azure.data.tables import TableServiceClient
from datetime import datetime

PRODUCT_ID = u'001234'
PRODUCT_NAME = u'RedMarker'

my_entity = {
    u'PartitionKey': PRODUCT_NAME,
    u'RowKey': PRODUCT_ID,
    u'Stock': 15,
    u'Price': 9.99,
    u'Comments': u"great product",
    u'OnSale': True,
    u'ReducedPrice': 7.99,
    u'PurchaseDate': datetime(1973, 10, 4),
    u'BinaryRepresentation': b'product_name'
}

table_service_client = TableServiceClient.from_connection_string(conn_str="<connection_string>")
table_client = table_service_client.get_table_client(table_name="myTable")

entity = table_client.create_entity(entity=my_entity)

Querying entities

Querying entities in the table:

from azure.data.tables import TableClient
my_filter = "PartitionKey eq 'RedMarker'"
table_client = TableClient.from_connection_string(conn_str="<connection_string>", table_name="myTable")
entities = table_client.query_entities(my_filter)
for entity in entities:
    for key in entity.keys():
        print("Key: {}, Value: {}".format(key, entity[key]))

Optional Configuration

Optional keyword arguments can be passed in at the client and per-operation level. The azure-core reference documentation describes available configurations for retries, logging, transport protocols, and more.

Retry Policy configuration

Use the following keyword arguments when instantiating a client to configure the retry policy:

  • retry_total (int): Total number of retries to allow. Takes precedence over other counts. Pass in retry_total=0 if you do not want to retry on requests. Defaults to 10.
  • retry_connect (int): How many connection-related errors to retry on. Defaults to 3.
  • retry_read (int): How many times to retry on read errors. Defaults to 3.
  • retry_status (int): How many times to retry on bad status codes. Defaults to 3.
  • retry_to_secondary (bool): Whether the request should be retried to secondary, if able. This should only be enabled of RA-GRS accounts are used and potentially stale data can be handled. Defaults to False.

Other client / per-operation configuration

Other optional configuration keyword arguments that can be specified on the client or per-operation.

Client keyword arguments:

  • connection_timeout (int): Optionally sets the connect and read timeout value, in seconds.
  • transport (Any): User-provided transport to send the HTTP request.

Per-operation keyword arguments:

  • raw_response_hook (callable): The given callback uses the response returned from the service.
  • raw_request_hook (callable): The given callback uses the request before being sent to service.
  • client_request_id (str): Optional user specified identification of the request.
  • user_agent (str): Appends the custom value to the user-agent header to be sent with the request.
  • logging_enable (bool): Enables logging at the DEBUG level. Defaults to False. Can also be passed in at the client level to enable it for all requests.
  • headers (dict): Pass in custom headers as key, value pairs. E.g. headers={'CustomValue': value}

Troubleshooting

General

Azure Tables clients raise exceptions defined in Azure Core. When you interact with the Azure table library using the Python SDK, errors returned by the service respond ot the same HTTP status codes for REST API requests. The Table service operations will throw a HttpResponseError on failure with helpful error codes.

For examples, if you try to create a table that already exists, a 409 error is returned indicating "Conflict".

from azure.data.tables import TableServiceClient
from azure.core.exceptions import HttpResponseError
table_name = 'YourTableName'

service_client = TableServiceClient.from_connection_string(connection_string)

# Create the table if it does not already exist
tc = service_client.create_table_if_not_exists(table_name)

try:
    service_client.create_table(table_name)
except HttpResponseError:
    print("Table with name {} already exists".format(table_name))

Logging

This library uses the standard logging library for logging. Basic information about HTTP sessions (URLs, headers, etc.) is logged at INFO level.

Detailed DEBUG level logging, including request/response bodies and unredacted headers, can be enabled on a client with the logging_enable argument:

import sys
import logging
from azure.data.tables import TableServiceClient
# Create a logger for the 'azure' SDK
logger = logging.getLogger('azure')
logger.setLevel(logging.DEBUG)

# Configure a console output
handler = logging.StreamHandler(stream=sys.stdout)
logger.addHandler(handler)

# This client will log detailed information about its HTTP sessions, at DEBUG level
service_client = TableServiceClient.from_connection_string("your_connection_string", logging_enable=True)

Similarly, logging_enable can enable detailed logging for a single operation, even when it is not enabled for the client:

service_client.create_entity(entity=my_entity, logging_enable=True)

Next steps

Get started with our Table samples.

Several Azure Tables Python SDK samples are available to you in the SDK's GitHub repository. These samples provide example code for additional scenarios commonly encountered while working with Tables.

Common Scenarios

These code samples show common scenario operations with the Azure Tables client library. The async versions of the samples (the python sample files appended with _async) show asynchronous operations.

Additional documentation

For more extensive documentation on Azure Tables, see the Azure Tables documentation on docs.microsoft.com.

Known Issues

A list of currently known issues relating to Cosmos DB table endpoints can be found here.

Contributing

This project welcomes contributions and suggestions. Most contributions require you to agree to a Contributor License Agreement (CLA) declaring that you have the right to, and actually do, grant us the rights to use your contribution. For details, visit https://cla.microsoft.com.

When you submit a pull request, a CLA-bot will automatically determine whether you need to provide a CLA and decorate the PR appropriately (e.g., label, comment). Simply follow the instructions provided by the bot. You will only need to do this once across all repos using our CLA.

This project has adopted the Microsoft Open Source Code of Conduct. For more information see the Code of Conduct FAQ or contact opencode@microsoft.com with any additional questions or comments.

Impressions

Release History

12.4.1 (2022-10-11)

Bugs Fixed

  • Fix handling of client-side exceptions that get raised during service requests (such as #21416) (#24788)

Other Changes

  • Python 3.6 is no longer supported. Please use Python version 3.7 or later.
  • Bumped minimum dependency on azure-core to >=1.24.0.
  • Bumped minimum dependency on msrest to >=0.7.1.
  • Added dependency yarl with version range <2.0,>=1.0.

12.4.0 (2022-05-10)

Features Added

  • Support for multitenant authentication (#24278)

Bugs Fixed

  • Fixed bug where odmtype tag was not being included for boolean and int32 types even when a full EdmProperty tuple was passed in. This is needed for CLI compatibility.

12.3.0 (2022-03-10)

Bugs Fixed

  • Validation of the table name has been removed from the constructor of the TableClient. Instead individual APIs will validate the table name and raise a ValueError only if the service rejects the request due to the table name not being valid (#23106)
  • Fixed hard-coded URL scheme in batch requests (#21953)
  • Improved documentation for query formatting in query_entities APIs (#23235)
  • Removed unsecure debug logging

Other Changes

  • Python 2.7 is no longer supported. Please use Python version 3.6 or later.
  • Bumped dependency on azure-core to >=1.15.0

12.2.0 (2021-11-10)

Warning This release involves a bug fix that may change the behaviour for some users. Partition and Row keys that contain a single quote character (') will now be automatically escaped for upsert, update and delete entity operations. Partition and Row keys that were already escaped, or contained duplicate single quote char ('') will now be treated as unescaped values.

Bugs Fixed

  • Resolved bug where strings couldn't be used instead of enum value for entity Update Mode (#20247).
  • Resolved bug where single quote characters in Partition and Row keys were not escaped correctly (#20301).

Features Added

  • Added support for async iterators in `aio.TableClient.submit_transaction (#21083, thank you yashbhutoria).

Other Changes

  • Bumped dependency on msrest to >=0.6.21

12.1.0 (2021-07-06)

Features Added

  • Storage Accounts only: TableClient and TableServiceClients can now use azure-identity credentials for authentication. Note: A TableClient authenticated with a TokenCredential cannot use the get_table_access_policy or set_table_access_policy methods.

12.0.0 (2021-06-08)

Breaking

  • EdmType.Binary data in entities will now be deserialized as bytes in Python 3 and str in Python 2, rather than an EdmProperty instance. Likewise on serialization, bytes in Python 3 and str in Python 2 will be interpreted as binary (this is unchanged for Python 3, but breaking for Python 2, where str was previously serialized as EdmType.String)
  • TableClient.create_table now returns an instance of TableItem.
  • All optional parameters for model constructors are now keyword-only.
  • Storage service configuration models have now been prefixed with Table, including TableAccessPolicy, TableMetrics, TableRetentionPolicy, TableCorsRule
  • All parameters for TableServiceClient.set_service_properties are now keyword-only.
  • The credential parameter for all Clients is now keyword-only.
  • The method TableClient.get_access_policy will now return None where previously it returned an "empty" access policy object.
  • Timestamp properties on TableAccessPolicy instances returned from TableClient.get_access_policy will now be deserialized to datetime instances.

Fixes

  • Fixed support for Cosmos emulator endpoint, via URL/credential or connection string.
  • Fixed table name from URL parsing in TableClient.from_table_url classmethod.
  • The account_name attribute on clients will now be pulled from an AzureNamedKeyCredential if used.
  • Any additional odata metadata is returned in entity's metadata.
  • The timestamp in entity metadata is now deserialized to a timestamp.
  • If the prefer header is added in the create_entity operation, the echo will be returned.
  • Errors raised on a 412 if-not-match error will now be a specific azure.core.exceptions.ResourceModifiedError.
  • EdmType.DOUBLE values are now explicitly typed in the request payload.
  • Fixed de/serialization of list attributes on TableCorsRule.

12.0.0b7 (2021-05-11)

Breaking

  • The account_url parameter in the client constructors has been renamed to endpoint.
  • The TableEntity object now acts exclusively like a dictionary, and no longer supports key access via attributes.
  • Metadata of an entity is now accessed via TableEntity.metadata attribute rather than a method.
  • Removed explicit LinearRetry and ExponentialRetry in favor of keyword parameter.
  • Renamed filter parameter in query APIs to query_filter.
  • The location_mode attribute on clients is now read-only. This has been added as a keyword parameter to the constructor.
  • The TableItem.table_name has been renamed to TableItem.name.
  • Removed the TableClient.create_batch method along with the TableBatchOperations object. The transactional batching is now supported via a simple Python list of tuples.
  • TableClient.send_batch has been renamed to TableClient.submit_transaction.
  • Removed BatchTransactionResult object in favor of returning an iterable of batched entities with returned metadata.
  • Removed Batching context-manager behavior
  • EntityProperty is now a NampedTuple, and can be represented by a tuple of (entity, EdmType).
  • Renamed EntityProperty.type to EntityProperty.edm_type.
  • BatchErrorException has been renamed to TableTransactionError.
  • The location_mode is no longer a public attribute on the Clients.
  • The only supported credentials are AzureNamedKeyCredential, AzureSasCredential, or authentication by connection string
  • Removed date and api_version from the TableItem class.

Fixes

  • Fixed issue with Cosmos merge operations.
  • Removed legacy Storage policies from pipeline.
  • Removed unused legacy client-side encryption attributes from client classes.
  • Fixed sharing of pipeline between service/table clients.
  • Added support for Azurite storage emulator
  • Throws a RequestTooLargeError on transaction requests that return a 413 error code
  • Added support for Int64 and Binary types in query filters
  • Added support for select keyword parameter to TableClient.get_entity().
  • On update_entity and delete_entity if no etag is supplied via kwargs, the etag in the entity will be used if it is in the entity.

12.0.0b6 (2021-04-06)

  • Updated deserialization of datetime fields in entities to support preservation of the service format with additional decimal place.
  • Passing a string parameter into a query filter will now be escaped to protect against injection.
  • Fixed bug in incrementing retries in async retry policy

12.0.0b5 (2021-03-09)

  • This version and all future versions will require Python 2.7 or Python 3.6+, Python 3.5 is no longer supported.
  • Adds SAS credential as an authentication option
  • Bumps minimum requirement of azure-core to 1.10.0
  • Bumped minimum requirement of msrest from 0.6.10 to 0.6.19.
  • Adds support for datetime entities with milliseconds
  • Adds support for Shared Access Signature authentication

12.0.0b4 (2021-01-12)

  • Fixes an issue where query_entities kwarg parameters would not work with multiple parameters or with non-string parameters. This now works with multiple parameters and numeric, string, boolean, UUID, and datetime objects.
  • Fixes an issue where delete_entity will return a ClientAuthenticationError when the '@' symbol is included in the entity.

12.0.0b3 (2020-11-12)

  • Add support for transactional batching of entity operations.
  • Fixed deserialization bug in list_tables and query_tables where TableItem.table_name was an object instead of a string.
  • Fixed issue where unrecognized entity data fields were silently ignored. They will now raise a TypeError.
  • Fixed issue where query filter parameters were being ignored (#15094)

12.0.0b2 (2020-10-07)

  • Adds support for Enumerable types by converting the Enum to a string before sending to the service

12.0.0b1 (2020-09-08)

This is the first beta of the azure-data-tables client library. The Azure Tables client library can seamlessly target either Azure Table storage or Azure Cosmos DB table service endpoints with no code changes.

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