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Microsoft Azure Key Vault Administration Client Library for Python

Project description

Azure Key Vault Administration client library for Python

Note: The Administration library only works with Managed HSM – functions targeting a Key Vault will fail.

Azure Key Vault helps solve the following problems:

  • Vault administration (this library) - role-based access control (RBAC), and vault-level backup and restore options
  • Cryptographic key management (azure-keyvault-keys) - create, store, and control access to the keys used to encrypt your data
  • Secrets management (azure-keyvault-secrets) - securely store and control access to tokens, passwords, certificates, API keys, and other secrets
  • Certificate management (azure-keyvault-certificates) - create, manage, and deploy public and private SSL/TLS certificates

Package (PyPI) | API reference documentation | Product documentation

Disclaimer

Azure SDK Python packages support for Python 2.7 has ended 01 January 2022. For more information and questions, please refer to https://github.com/Azure/azure-sdk-for-python/issues/20691

Getting started

Install packages

Install azure-keyvault-administration and azure-identity with pip:

pip install azure-keyvault-administration azure-identity

azure-identity is used for Azure Active Directory authentication as demonstrated below.

Prerequisites

  • An Azure subscription
  • Python 3.6 or later
  • A managed HSM. If you need to create one, see the final two steps in the next section for details on creating the managed HSM with the Azure CLI.

Authenticate the client

This document demonstrates using DefaultAzureCredential to authenticate as a service principal. However, this package's clients accept any azure-identity credential. See the azure-identity documentation for more information about other credentials.

Create and Get credentials

This Azure Cloud Shell snippet shows how to create a new service principal. Before using it, replace "your-application-name" with a more appropriate name for your service principal.

  • Create a service principal:

    az ad sp create-for-rbac --name http://your-application-name --skip-assignment
    

    Output:

    {
        "appId": "generated app id",
        "displayName": "your-application-name",
        "name": "http://your-application-name",
        "password": "random password",
        "tenant": "tenant id"
    }
    
  • Take note of the service principal objectId

    az ad sp show --id <appId> --query objectId
    

    Output:

    "<your-service-principal-object-id>"
    
  • Use the output to set AZURE_CLIENT_ID ("appId" above), AZURE_CLIENT_SECRET ("password" above) and AZURE_TENANT_ID ("tenant" above) environment variables. The following example shows a way to do this in Bash:

    export AZURE_CLIENT_ID="generated app id"
    export AZURE_CLIENT_SECRET="random password"
    export AZURE_TENANT_ID="tenant id"
    
  • Create the managed HSM and grant the above mentioned service principal authorization to perform administrative operations on the managed HSM (replace <your-resource-group-name> and <your-managed-hsm-name> with your own, unique names and <your-service-principal-object-id> with the value from above):

    az keyvault create --hsm-name "<your-managed-hsm-name>" --resource-group "<your-resource-group-name>" --administrators <your-service-principal-object-id> --location "<your-azure-location>"
    

    This service principal is automatically added to the "Managed HSM Administrators" built-in role.

  • Activate your managed HSM to enable key and role management. Detailed instructions can be found in this quickstart guide. Create three self signed certificates and download the Security Domain for your managed HSM:

    Important: Create and store the RSA key pairs and security domain file generated in this step securely.

    openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -nodes -keyout cert_0.key -x509 -days 365 -out cert_0.cer
    openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -nodes -keyout cert_1.key -x509 -days 365 -out cert_1.cer
    openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -nodes -keyout cert_2.key -x509 -days 365 -out cert_2.cer
    az keyvault security-domain download --hsm-name "<your-managed-hsm-name>" --sd-wrapping-keys ./certs/cert_0.cer ./certs/cert_1.cer ./certs/cert_2.cer --sd-quorum 2 --security-domain-file <your-managed-hsm-name>-SD.json
    
  • Use the above mentioned managed HSM name to retrieve details of your managed HSM instance which also contains your manged HSM URL (hsmUri):

    az keyvault show --hsm-name "<your-managed-hsm-name>"
    

Controlling access to your managed HSM

The designated administrators assigned during creation are automatically added to the "Managed HSM Administrators" built-in role, who are able to download a security domain and manage roles for data plane access, among other limited permissions.

To perform other actions on keys, you need to assign principals to other roles such as "Managed HSM Crypto User", which can perform non-destructive key operations:

az keyvault role assignment create --hsm-name <your-managed-hsm-name> --role "Managed HSM Crypto User" --scope / --assignee-object-id <principal-or-user-object-ID> --assignee-principal-type <principal-type>

Please read best practices for properly securing your managed HSM.

Create a client

Once the AZURE_CLIENT_ID, AZURE_CLIENT_SECRET and AZURE_TENANT_ID environment variables are set, DefaultAzureCredential will be able to authenticate the clients.

There are two clients available in this package – below are snippets demonstrating how to construct each one of these clients. Constructing a client also requires your managed HSM's URL, which you can get from the Azure CLI (shown above).

Create a KeyVaultAccessControlClient
from azure.identity import DefaultAzureCredential
from azure.keyvault.administration import KeyVaultAccessControlClient

credential = DefaultAzureCredential()

client = KeyVaultAccessControlClient(vault_url="https://my-managed-hsm-name.managedhsm.azure.net/", credential=credential)
Create a KeyVaultBackupClient
from azure.identity import DefaultAzureCredential
from azure.keyvault.administration import KeyVaultBackupClient

credential = DefaultAzureCredential()

client = KeyVaultBackupClient(vault_url="https://my-managed-hsm-name.managedhsm.azure.net/", credential=credential)

Key concepts

Role Definition

A role definition defines the operations that can be performed, such as read, write, and delete. It can also define the operations that are excluded from allowed operations.

A role definition is specified as part of a role assignment.

Role Assignment.

A role assignment is the association of a role definition to a service principal. They can be created, listed, fetched individually, and deleted.

KeyVaultAccessControlClient

A KeyVaultAccessControlClient manages role definitions and role assignments.

KeyVaultBackupClient

A KeyVaultBackupClient performs full key backups, full key restores, and selective key restores.

Examples

This section contains code snippets covering common tasks:

List all role definitions

List the role definitions available for assignment.

from azure.identity import DefaultAzureCredential
from azure.keyvault.administration import KeyVaultAccessControlClient, KeyVaultRoleScope

credential = DefaultAzureCredential()

client = KeyVaultAccessControlClient(vault_url="https://my-managed-hsm-name.managedhsm.azure.net/", credential=credential)

# this will list all role definitions available for assignment
role_definitions = client.list_role_definitions(KeyVaultRoleScope.GLOBAL)

for definition in role_definitions:
    print(definition.id)
    print(definition.role_name)
    print(definition.description)

Set, Get, and Delete a role definition

set_role_definition can be used to either create a custom role definition or update an existing definition with the specified name.

import uuid
from azure.identity import DefaultAzureCredential
from azure.keyvault.administration import (
    KeyVaultAccessControlClient,
    KeyVaultDataAction,
    KeyVaultPermission,
    KeyVaultRoleScope
)

credential = DefaultAzureCredential()

client = KeyVaultAccessControlClient(vault_url="https://my-managed-hsm-name.managedhsm.azure.net/", credential=credential)

# create a custom role definition
permissions = [KeyVaultPermission(allowed_data_actions=[KeyVaultDataAction.READ_HSM_KEY])]
created_definition = client.set_role_definition(KeyVaultRoleScope.GLOBAL, permissions=permissions)

# update the custom role definition
permissions = [
    KeyVaultPermission(allowed_data_actions=[], denied_data_actions=[KeyVaultDataAction.READ_HSM_KEY])
]
updated_definition = client.set_role_definition(
    KeyVaultRoleScope.GLOBAL, permissions=permissions, role_name=created_definition.name
)

# get the custom role definition
definition = client.get_role_definition(KeyVaultRoleScope.GLOBAL, role_name=definition_name)

# delete the custom role definition
deleted_definition = client.delete_role_definition(KeyVaultRoleScope.GLOBAL, role_name=definition_name)

List all role assignments

Before creating a new role assignment in the next snippet, list all of the current role assignments:

from azure.identity import DefaultAzureCredential
from azure.keyvault.administration import KeyVaultAccessControlClient, KeyVaultRoleScope

credential = DefaultAzureCredential()

client = KeyVaultAccessControlClient(vault_url="https://my-managed-hsm-name.managedhsm.azure.net/", credential=credential)

# this will list all role assignments
role_assignments = client.list_role_assignments(KeyVaultRoleScope.GLOBAL)

for assignment in role_assignments:
    print(assignment.name)
    print(assignment.principal_id)
    print(assignment.role_definition_id)

Create, Get, and Delete a role assignment

Assign a role to a service principal. This will require a role definition id from the list retrieved in the above snippet and the principal object id retrieved in the Create and Get credentials section.

from azure.identity import DefaultAzureCredential
from azure.keyvault.administration import KeyVaultAccessControlClient, KeyVaultRoleScope

credential = DefaultAzureCredential()

client = KeyVaultAccessControlClient(vault_url="https://my-managed-hsm-name.managedhsm.azure.net/", credential=credential)

role_definition_id = "<role-definition-id>"  # Replace <role-definition-id> with the id of a definition returned from the previous example
principal_id = "<your-service-principal-object-id>"

# first, let's create the role assignment
role_assignment = client.create_role_assignment(KeyVaultRoleScope.GLOBAL, role_definition_id, principal_id)
print(role_assignment.name)
print(role_assignment.principal_id)
print(role_assignment.role_definition_id)

# now, we get it
role_assignment = client.get_role_assignment(KeyVaultRoleScope.GLOBAL, role_assignment.name)
print(role_assignment.name)
print(role_assignment.principal_id)
print(role_assignment.role_definition_id)

# finally, we delete this role assignment
role_assignment = client.delete_role_assignment(KeyVaultRoleScope.GLOBAL, role_assignment.name)
print(role_assignment.name)
print(role_assignment.principal_id)
print(role_assignment.role_definition_id)

Perform a full key backup

Back up your entire collection of keys. The backing store for full key backups is a blob storage container using Shared Access Signature authentication.

For more details on creating a SAS token using the BlobServiceClient, see the sample here. Alternatively, it is possible to generate a SAS token in Storage Explorer

from azure.identity import DefaultAzureCredential
from azure.keyvault.administration import KeyVaultBackupClient

credential = DefaultAzureCredential()
client = KeyVaultBackupClient(vault_url="https://my-managed-hsm-name.managedhsm.azure.net/", credential=credential)

# blob storage container URL, for example https://<account name>.blob.core.windows.net/backup
blob_storage_url = "<your-blob-storage-url>"
sas_token = "<your-sas-token>"  # replace with a sas token to your storage account

# Backup is a long-running operation. The client returns a poller object whose result() method
# blocks until the backup is complete, then returns an object representing the backup operation.
backup_poller = client.begin_backup(blob_storage_url, sas_token)
backup_operation = backup_poller.result()

# this is the Azure Storage Blob URL of the backup
print(backup_operation.folder_url)

Perform a full key restore

Restore your entire collection of keys from a backup. The data source for a full key restore is a storage blob accessed using Shared Access Signature authentication. You will also need the azure_storage_blob_container_uri from the above snippet.

For more details on creating a SAS token using the BlobServiceClient, see the sample here. Alternatively, it is possible to generate a SAS token in Storage Explorer

from azure.identity import DefaultAzureCredential
from azure.keyvault.administration import KeyVaultBackupClient

credential = DefaultAzureCredential()
client = KeyVaultBackupClient(vault_url="https://my-managed-hsm-name.managedhsm.azure.net/", credential=credential)

sas_token = "<your-sas-token>"  # replace with a sas token to your storage account

# URL to a storage blob, for example https://<account name>.blob.core.windows.net/backup/mhsm-account-2020090117323313
blob_url = "<your-blob-url>"

# Restore is a long-running operation. The client returns a poller object whose wait() method
# blocks until the restore is complete.
restore_poller = client.begin_restore(blob_url, sas_token)
restore_poller.wait()

Troubleshooting

See the azure-keyvault-administration troubleshooting guide for details on how to diagnose various failure scenarios.

General

Key Vault clients raise exceptions defined in azure-core. For example, if you try to get a role assignment that doesn't exist, KeyVaultAccessControlClient raises ResourceNotFoundError:

from azure.identity import DefaultAzureCredential
from azure.keyvault.administration import KeyVaultAccessControlClient
from azure.core.exceptions import ResourceNotFoundError

credential = DefaultAzureCredential()
client = KeyVaultAccessControlClient(vault_url="https://my-managed-hsm-name.managedhsm.azure.net/", credential=credential)

try:
    client.get_role_assignment("/", "which-does-not-exist")
except ResourceNotFoundError as e:
    print(e.message)

Clients from the Administration library can only be used to perform operations on a managed HSM, so attempting to do so on a Key Vault will raise an error.

Next steps

Content forthcoming

Additional Documentation

For more extensive documentation on Azure Key Vault, see the API reference documentation.

For more extensive documentation on Managed HSM, see the service documentation.

Contributing

This project welcomes contributions and suggestions. Most contributions require you to agree to a Contributor License Agreement (CLA) declaring that you have the right to, and actually do, grant us the rights to use your contribution. For details, visit https://cla.microsoft.com.

When you submit a pull request, a CLA-bot will automatically determine whether you need to provide a CLA and decorate the PR appropriately (e.g., label, comment). Simply follow the instructions provided by the bot. You will only need to do this once across all repos using our CLA.

This project has adopted the Microsoft Open Source Code of Conduct. For more information, see the Code of Conduct FAQ or contact opencode@microsoft.com with any additional questions or comments.

Impressions

Release History

4.1.0 (2022-03-28)

Features Added

  • Key Vault API version 7.3 is now the default
  • Added support for multi-tenant authentication when using azure-identity 1.8.0 or newer (#20698)

Other Changes

  • (From 4.1.0b3) Python 2.7 is no longer supported. Please use Python version 3.6 or later.
  • (From 4.1.0b3) Updated minimum azure-core version to 1.20.0
  • (From 4.1.0b2) To support multi-tenant authentication, get_token calls during challenge authentication requests now pass in a tenant_id keyword argument (#20698). See https://aka.ms/azsdk/python/identity/tokencredential for more details on how to integrate this parameter if get_token is implemented by a custom credential.

4.1.0b3 (2022-02-08)

Other Changes

  • Python 2.7 is no longer supported. Please use Python version 3.6 or later.
  • Updated minimum azure-core version to 1.20.0
  • (From 4.1.0b2) To support multi-tenant authentication, get_token calls during challenge authentication requests now pass in a tenant_id keyword argument (#20698)

4.1.0b2 (2021-11-11)

Features Added

  • Added support for multi-tenant authentication when using azure-identity 1.7.1 or newer (#20698)

Other Changes

  • Updated minimum azure-core version to 1.15.0

4.1.0b1 (2021-09-09)

Features Added

  • Key Vault API version 7.3-preview is now the default

4.0.0 (2021-06-22)

Changed

  • Key Vault API version 7.2 is now the default
  • KeyVaultAccessControlClient.delete_role_assignment and .delete_role_definition no longer raise an error when the resource to be deleted is not found
  • Raised minimum azure-core version to 1.11.0

Added

  • KeyVaultAccessControlClient.set_role_definition accepts an optional assignable_scopes keyword-only argument

Breaking Changes

  • KeyVaultAccessControlClient.delete_role_assignment and .delete_role_definition return None
  • Changed parameter order in KeyVaultAccessControlClient.set_role_definition. permissions is now an optional keyword-only argument
  • Renamed BackupOperation to KeyVaultBackupResult, and removed all but its folder_url property
  • Removed RestoreOperation and SelectiveKeyRestoreOperation classes
  • Removed KeyVaultBackupClient.begin_selective_restore. To restore a single key, pass the key's name to KeyVaultBackupClient.begin_restore:
    # before (4.0.0b3):
    client.begin_selective_restore(folder_url, sas_token, key_name)
    
    # after:
    client.begin_restore(folder_url, sas_token, key_name=key_name)
    
  • Removed KeyVaultBackupClient.get_backup_status and .get_restore_status. Use the pollers returned by KeyVaultBackupClient.begin_backup and .begin_restore to check whether an operation has completed
  • KeyVaultRoleAssignment's principal_id, role_definition_id, and scope are now properties of a properties property
    # before (4.0.0b3):
    print(KeyVaultRoleAssignment.scope)
    
    # after:
    print(KeyVaultRoleAssignment.properties.scope)
    
  • Renamed KeyVaultPermission properties:
    • allowed_actions -> actions
    • denied_actions -> not_actions
    • allowed_data_actions -> data_actions
    • denied_data_actions -> denied_data_actions
  • Renamed argument role_assignment_name to name in KeyVaultAccessControlClient.create_role_assignment, .delete_role_assignment, and .get_role_assignment
  • Renamed argument role_definition_name to name in KeyVaultAccessControlClient.delete_role_definition and .get_role_definition
  • Renamed argument role_scope to scope in KeyVaultAccessControlClient methods

4.0.0b3 (2021-02-09)

Added

  • KeyVaultAccessControlClient supports managing custom role definitions

Breaking Changes

  • Renamed KeyVaultBackupClient.begin_full_backup() to .begin_backup()
  • Renamed KeyVaultBackupClient.begin_full_restore() to .begin_restore()
  • Renamed BackupOperation.azure_storage_blob_container_uri to .folder_url
  • Renamed id property of BackupOperation, RestoreOperation, and SelectiveKeyRestoreOperation to job_id
  • Renamed blob_storage_uri parameters of KeyVaultBackupClient.begin_restore() and .begin_selective_restore() to folder_url
  • Removed redundant folder_name parameter from KeyVaultBackupClient.begin_restore() and .begin_selective_restore() (the folder_url parameter contains the folder name)
  • Renamed KeyVaultPermission attributes:
    • actions -> allowed_actions
    • data_actions -> allowed_data_actions
    • not_actions -> denied_actions
    • not_data_actions -> denied_data_actions
  • Renamed KeyVaultRoleAssignment.assignment_id to .role_assignment_id
  • Renamed KeyVaultRoleScope enum values:
    • global_value -> GLOBAL
    • keys_value -> KEYS

4.0.0b2 (2020-10-06)

Added

  • KeyVaultBackupClient.get_backup_status and .get_restore_status enable checking the status of a pending operation by its job ID (#13718)

Breaking Changes

  • The role_assignment_name parameter of KeyVaultAccessControlClient.create_role_assignment is now an optional keyword-only argument. When this argument isn't passed, the client will generate a name for the role assignment. (#13512)

4.0.0b1 (2020-09-08)

Added

  • KeyVaultAccessControlClient performs role-based access control operations
  • KeyVaultBackupClient performs full vault backup and full and selective restore operations

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