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A Python security linter from OpenStack Security

Project description


A Python AST-based static analyzer from OpenStack Security Group.

Bandit provides a framework for performing analysis against Python source code,
utilizing the ast module from the Python standard library.

The ast module is used to convert source code into a parsed tree of Python
syntax nodes. Bandit allows users to define custom tests that are performed
against those nodes. At the completion of testing, a report is generated that
lists security issues identified within the target source code.

Bandit is distributed as an installable package. To clone and install in a
Python virtual environment::

$ git clone
$ cd bandit
$ virtualenv venv
$ source venv/bin/activate
$ python install

To test the new installation::

$ pip install tox
$ tox -epy27

To run PEP8 tests on diffs::

$ tox -v -epep8

Example usage across a code tree, showing one line of context for each issue::

$ find ~/openstack-repo/keystone -name '*.py' | xargs bandit -n 1

Example usage across the examples/ directory, showing three lines of context
and only reporting on the high-severity issues::

$ bandit examples/*.py -n 3 -lll

Example usage across the examples/ directory, showing one line of context and
running only tests in the ShellInjection profile::

$ bandit examples/*.py -n 1 -p ShellInjection


$ bandit -h
usage: bandit [-h] [-a AGG_TYPE] [-n CONTEXT_LINES] [-c CONFIG_FILE]
[-p PROFILE] [-l] [-o OUTPUT_FILE] [-d]
file [file ...]

Bandit - a Python source code analyzer.

positional arguments:
file source file/s to be tested

optional arguments:
-h, --help show this help message and exit
-a AGG_TYPE, --aggregate AGG_TYPE
group results by (vuln)erability type or (file) it
occurs in
number of context lines to print
-c CONFIG_FILE, --configfile CONFIG_FILE
test config file (default: bandit.yaml)
-p PROFILE, --profile PROFILE
test set profile in config to use (defaults to all
-l, --level results level filter
-f {txt,json}, --format {txt,json}
output format for STDOUT or file
write report to filename
-d, --debug turn on debug mode

The default configuration file is bandit.yaml. This specifies a number of
global options, and allows the creation of separate test profiles to include
or exclude specific tests when Bandit is run.

Additional configuration files can be created and passed to Bandit as a
command line argument.

In the event that a line of code triggers a Bandit issue, but that the line
has been reviewed and the issue is a false positive or acceptable for some
other reason, the line can be marked with a '# nosec' and any results
associated with it will not be reported.

For example, although this line may cause Bandit to report a potential
security issue, it will not be reported::

self.process = subprocess.Popen('/bin/echo', shell=True) # nosec

Vulnerability Tests
Vulnerability tests or 'plugins' are defined in files in the plugins directory.

Tests are written in Python and are autodiscovered from the plugins directory.
Each test can examine one or more type of Python statements. Tests are marked
with the types of Python statements they examine (for example: function call,
string, import, etc).

Tests are executed by the BanditNodeVisitor object as it visits each node in
the AST.

Test results are maintained in the BanditResultStore and aggregated for output
at the completion of a test run.

Writing Tests
To write a test:
- Identify a vulnerability to build a test for, and create a new file in
examples/ that contains one or more cases of that vulnerability.
- Consider the vulnerability you're testing for, mark the function with one
or more of the appropriate decorators:
- @checks_functions
- @checks_imports
- @checks_strings
- Create a new Python source file to contain your test, you can reference
existing tests for examples.
- The function that you create should take a parameter "context" which is
an instance of the context class you can query for information about the
current element being examined. You can also get the raw AST node for
more advanced use cases. Please see the file for more.
- Extend your Bandit configuration file as needed to support your new test.
- Execute Bandit against the test file you defined in examples/ and ensure
that it detects the vulnerability. Consider variations on how this
vulnerability might present itself and extend the example file and the test
function accordingly.


Bandit wiki:

Python AST module documentation:

Green Tree Snakes - the missing Python AST docs:

Documentation of the various types of AST nodes that Bandit currently covers
or could be extended to cover:

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