Skip to main content

Package provides Binary-, RedBlack- and AVL-Trees in Python and Cython.

Project description

Binary Tree Package


This package provides Binary- RedBlack- and AVL-Trees written in Python and Cython/C.

This Classes are much slower than the built-in dict class, but all iterators/generators yielding data in sorted key order. Trees can be uses as drop in replacement for dicts in most cases.

Source of Algorithms

AVL- and RBTree algorithms taken from Julienne Walker:

Trees written in Python

  • BinaryTree – unbalanced binary tree

  • AVLTree – balanced AVL-Tree

  • RBTree – balanced Red-Black-Tree

Trees written with C-Functions and Cython as wrapper

  • FastBinaryTree – unbalanced binary tree

  • FastAVLTree – balanced AVL-Tree

  • FastRBTree – balanced Red-Black-Tree

All trees provides the same API, the pickle protocol is supported.

Cython-Trees have C-structs as tree-nodes and C-functions for low level operations:

  • insert

  • remove

  • get_value

  • min_item

  • max_item

  • prev_item

  • succ_item

  • floor_item

  • ceiling_item


  • Tree() -> new empty tree;

  • Tree(mapping) -> new tree initialized from a mapping (requires only an items() method)

  • Tree(seq) -> new tree initialized from seq [(k1, v1), (k2, v2), … (kn, vn)]


  • __contains__(k) -> True if T has a key k, else False, O(log(n))

  • __delitem__(y) <==> del T[y], del[s:e], O(log(n))

  • __getitem__(y) <==> T[y], T[s:e], O(log(n))

  • __iter__() <==> iter(T)

  • __len__() <==> len(T), O(1)

  • __max__() <==> max(T), get max item (k,v) of T, O(log(n))

  • __min__() <==> min(T), get min item (k,v) of T, O(log(n))

  • __and__(other) <==> T & other, intersection

  • __or__(other) <==> T | other, union

  • __sub__(other) <==> T - other, difference

  • __xor__(other) <==> T ^ other, symmetric_difference

  • __repr__() <==> repr(T)

  • __setitem__(k, v) <==> T[k] = v, O(log(n))

  • clear() -> None, remove all items from T, O(n)

  • copy() -> a shallow copy of T, O(n*log(n))

  • discard(k) -> None, remove k from T, if k is present, O(log(n))

  • get(k[,d]) -> T[k] if k in T, else d, O(log(n))

  • is_empty() -> True if len(T) == 0, O(1)

  • items([reverse]) -> generator for (k, v) items of T, O(n)

  • keys([reverse]) -> generator for keys of T, O(n)

  • values([reverse]) -> generator for values of T, O(n)

  • pop(k[,d]) -> v, remove specified key and return the corresponding value, O(log(n))

  • pop_item() -> (k, v), remove and return some (key, value) pair as a 2-tuple, O(log(n)) (synonym popitem() exist)

  • set_default(k[,d]) -> value, T.get(k, d), also set T[k]=d if k not in T, O(log(n)) (synonym setdefault() exist)

  • update(E) -> None. Update T from dict/iterable E, O(E*log(n))

  • foreach(f, [order]) -> visit all nodes of tree (0 = ‘inorder’, -1 = ‘preorder’ or +1 = ‘postorder’) and call f(k, v) for each node, O(n)

  • iter_items(s, e[, reverse]) -> generator for (k, v) items of T for s <= key < e, O(n)

  • remove_items(keys) -> None, remove items by keys, O(n)

slicing by keys

  • item_slice(s, e[, reverse]) -> generator for (k, v) items of T for s <= key < e, O(n), synonym for iter_items(…)

  • key_slice(s, e[, reverse]) -> generator for keys of T for s <= key < e, O(n)

  • value_slice(s, e[, reverse]) -> generator for values of T for s <= key < e, O(n)

  • T[s:e] -> TreeSlice object, with keys in range s <= key < e, O(n)

  • del T[s:e] -> remove items by key slicing, for s <= key < e, O(n)

start/end parameter:

  • if ‘s’ is None or T[:e] TreeSlice/iterator starts with value of min_key();

  • if ‘e’ is None or T[s:] TreeSlice/iterator ends with value of max_key();

  • T[:] is a TreeSlice which represents the whole tree;

TreeSlice is a tree wrapper with range check and contains no references to objects, deleting objects in the associated tree also deletes the object in the TreeSlice.

  • TreeSlice[k] -> get value for key k, raises KeyError if k not exists in range s:e

  • TreeSlice[s1:e1] -> TreeSlice object, with keys in range s1 <= key < e1
    • new lower bound is max(s, s1)

    • new upper bound is min(e, e1)

TreeSlice methods:

  • items() -> generator for (k, v) items of T, O(n)

  • keys() -> generator for keys of T, O(n)

  • values() -> generator for values of T, O(n)

  • __iter__ <==> keys()

  • __repr__ <==> repr(T)

  • __contains__(key)-> True if TreeSlice has a key k, else False, O(log(n))

prev/succ operations

  • prev_item(key) -> get (k, v) pair, where k is predecessor to key, O(log(n))

  • prev_key(key) -> k, get the predecessor of key, O(log(n))

  • succ_item(key) -> get (k,v) pair as a 2-tuple, where k is successor to key, O(log(n))

  • succ_key(key) -> k, get the successor of key, O(log(n))

  • floor_item(key) -> get (k, v) pair, where k is the greatest key less than or equal to key, O(log(n))

  • floor_key(key) -> k, get the greatest key less than or equal to key, O(log(n))

  • ceiling_item(key) -> get (k, v) pair, where k is the smallest key greater than or equal to key, O(log(n))

  • ceiling_key(key) -> k, get the smallest key greater than or equal to key, O(log(n))

Heap methods

  • max_item() -> get largest (key, value) pair of T, O(log(n))

  • max_key() -> get largest key of T, O(log(n))

  • min_item() -> get smallest (key, value) pair of T, O(log(n))

  • min_key() -> get smallest key of T, O(log(n))

  • pop_min() -> (k, v), remove item with minimum key, O(log(n))

  • pop_max() -> (k, v), remove item with maximum key, O(log(n))

  • nlargest(i[,pop]) -> get list of i largest items (k, v), O(i*log(n))

  • nsmallest(i[,pop]) -> get list of i smallest items (k, v), O(i*log(n))

Set methods (using frozenset)

  • intersection(t1, t2, …) -> Tree with keys common to all trees

  • union(t1, t2, …) -> Tree with keys from either trees

  • difference(t1, t2, …) -> Tree with keys in T but not any of t1, t2, …

  • symmetric_difference(t1) -> Tree with keys in either T and t1 but not both

  • is_subset(S) -> True if every element in T is in S (synonym issubset() exist)

  • is_superset(S) -> True if every element in S is in T (synonym issuperset() exist)

  • is_disjoint(S) -> True if T has a null intersection with S (synonym isdisjoint() exist)


  • from_keys(S[,v]) -> New tree with keys from S and values equal to v. (synonym fromkeys() exist)


from source:

python install

or from PyPI:

pip install bintrees

Compiling the fast Trees requires Cython and on Windows is a C-Compiler necessary (MingW works fine).

Download Binaries for Windows


this README.rst

bintrees can be found on at:


Version 2.0.2 - 2015-02-12

  • fixed foreach cython-function by Sam Yaple

Version 2.0.1 - 2013-10-01

  • removed __del__() method to avoid problems with garbage collection

Version 2.0.0 - 2013-06-01

  • API change: consistent method naming with synonyms for dict/set compatibility

  • code base refactoring

  • removed tree walkers

  • removed low level node stack implementation -> caused crashes

  • optimizations for pypy: iter_items(), succ_item(), prev_item()

  • tested with CPython2.7, CPython3.3, pypy-2.0 on Win7 and Linux Mint 15 x64 (pypy-1.9)

Version 1.0.3 - 2013-05-01

  • extended iter_items(startkey=None, endkey=None, reverse=reverse) -> better performance for slicing

  • Cython implementation of iter_items() for Fast_X_Trees()

  • added key parameter reverse to itemslice(), keyslice(), valueslice()

  • tested with CPython2.7, CPython3.3, pypy-2.0

Version 1.0.2 - 2013-04-01

  • bug fix: FastRBTree data corruption on inserting existing keys

  • bug fix: union & symmetric_difference - copy all values to result tree

Version 1.0.1 - 2013-02-01

  • bug fixes

  • refactorings by graingert

  • skip useless tests for pypy

  • new license: MIT License

  • tested with CPython2.7, CPython3.2, CPython3.3, pypy-1.9, pypy-2.0-beta1

  • unified line endings to LF

  • PEP8 refactorings

  • added floor_item/key, ceiling_item/key methods, thanks to Dai Mikurube

Version 1.0.0 - 2011-12-29

  • bug fixes

  • status: 5 - Production/Stable

  • removed useless TreeIterator() class and T.treeiter() method.

  • patch from Max Motovilov to use Visual Studio 2008 for building C-extensions

Version 0.4.0 - 2011-04-14

  • API change!!!

  • full Python 3 support, also for Cython implementations

  • removed user defined compare() function - keys have to be comparable!

  • removed T.has_key(), use ‘key in T’

  • keys(), items(), values() generating ‘views’

  • removed iterkeys(), itervalues(), iteritems() methods

  • replaced index slicing by key slicing

  • removed index() and item_at()

  • repr() produces a correct representation

  • installs on systems without cython (tested with pypy)

  • new license: GNU Library or Lesser General Public License (LGPL)

Version 0.3.2 - 2011-04-09

  • added itemslice(startkey, endkey), keyslice(startkey, endkey), valueslice(startkey, endkey) - slicing by keys

  • tested with pypy 1.4.1, damn fast

  • Pure Python trees are working with Python 3

  • No Cython implementation for Python 3

Version 0.3.1 - 2010-09-10

  • runs with Python 2.7

Version 0.3.0 - 2010-05-11

  • low level functions written as c-module only interface to python is a cython module

  • support for the pickle protocol

Version 0.2.1 - 2010-05-06

  • added delslice del T[0:3] -> remove treenodes 0, 1, 2

  • added discard -> remove key without KeyError if not found

  • added heap methods: min, max, nlarges, nsmallest …

  • added Set methods -> intersection, differnce, union, …

  • added slicing: T[5:10] get items with position (not key!) 5, 6, 7, 8, 9

    T[5] get item with key! 5

  • added index: T.index(key) -> get position of item <key>

  • added item_at: T.item_at(0) -> get item at position (not key!) 0

    T.item_at(0) O(n)! <==> T.min_item() O(log(n))

Version 0.2.0 - 2010-05-03

  • TreeMixin Class as base for Python-Trees and as Mixin for Cython-Trees

Version 0.1.0 - 2010-04-27

  • Alpha status

  • Initial release

Project details

Download files

Download the file for your platform. If you're not sure which to choose, learn more about installing packages.

Source Distributions (87.1 kB view hashes)

Uploaded Source

bintrees-2.0.2.tar.gz (69.9 kB view hashes)

Uploaded Source

Built Distributions

bintrees-2.0.2.win32-py3.4.exe (247.2 kB view hashes)

Uploaded Source

bintrees-2.0.2.win32-py2.7.exe (252.0 kB view hashes)

Uploaded Source

bintrees-2.0.2-cp34-none-win32.whl (49.3 kB view hashes)

Uploaded CPython 3.4 Windows x86

bintrees-2.0.2-cp27-none-win32.whl (49.0 kB view hashes)

Uploaded CPython 2.7 Windows x86

Supported by

AWS AWS Cloud computing and Security Sponsor Datadog Datadog Monitoring Fastly Fastly CDN Google Google Download Analytics Microsoft Microsoft PSF Sponsor Pingdom Pingdom Monitoring Sentry Sentry Error logging StatusPage StatusPage Status page