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Author and execute multiverse analysis

Project description


Author and visualize multiverse analysis with ease.

Boba has a domain specific language (Boba DSL) for writing multiverse specifications, and a visual analysis interface (Boba Visualizer) for exploring multiverse outcomes. Boba comes with a command line tool to parse your DSL specification and generate universe scripts, execute all scripts with a single command, merges outputs into a table, and invoke the visualizer.

  • works with both python and R, and other scripting languages to come

  • handles simple parameter substitution as well as complex code flow dependency

  • offers interactive visualizations for exploring consequential decisions, uncertainty, model fit, and more


You might download and install the latest version of this software from the Python package index (PyPI):

pip install --upgrade boba
pip install --upgrade boba-visualizer


To author your multiverse, please refer to the specification rules. Here is a simple example to get you started!

To parse your specification and generate actual scripts, invoke boba and pass in the path to your template script and your JSON spec:

boba compile --script

To execute the multiverse, namely running all the generated scripts, use:

boba run --all

To start the Boba Visualizer after getting the intermediate output files, use:


For more command line options, see CLI. For more information about the Boba Visualizer, see this project.



If you are interested in this work, please see our research paper and consider citing our work:

  title={Boba: Authoring and visualizing multiverse analyses},
  author={Yang Liu and Alex Kale and Tim Althoff and Jeffrey Heer},


1.1.2 (2021-04-25)

  • Remove the dependency on boba-visualizer

1.1.1 (2021-04-25)

  • Support the Boba monitor

1.1.0 (2020-10-07)

  • Add support for arbitrary language

  • Various bug fixes

1.0.0 (2020-07-31)

  • Support continuous placeholder variable

  • Support running the multiverse across multiple processes

  • Improve boba run, such that it is not dependent on the OS

  • Various bug fixes

  • Integrate boba visualizer

0.1.4 (2020-04-19)

  • Combine JSON spec with the template

  • Support inline definition for placeholder variables

  • Support inline constraint at block declaration

  • Support linked decisions

  • Infer ADG from specification

  • Update examples

  • Various bug fixes

0.1.3 (2019-11-30)

  • Revise authoring syntax to support decision blocks and constraints

  • Revise CLI, with separate commands to compile and to run

  • Improve execution

  • Add the hurricane example

0.1.2 (2019-09-19)

  • Fix bugs

0.1.1 (2019-09-19)

  • Support R

  • Improve CLI options

  • Support a built-in variable {{_n}}, which represents the universe number

  • Support “before_execute” and “after_execute” hooks in the JSON spec

  • Update examples

0.1.0 (2019-08-26)

  • First release on PyPI.

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