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bootstrap an ubuntu filesystem

Project description

an uBUNTu bootSTRAP utility.

Use buntstrap to bootstrap an ubuntu (or any debian-based) root filesystem using apt.

The default configuration is to use uchroot to enter the rootfs and configure packages. This requires the newuidmap setuid helper. On ubuntu install the newuidmap package. buntstrap is also capable of using posix chroot (though you’ll need to run buntstrap as root) or proot (which you will need to install).

Example

Create a minimal rootfs capable of running nano using a linux user namespace and default uid/gid maps.:

:~$ buntstrap --apt-include-essential false \
              --apt-include-priorities required \
              --apt-packages dpkg nano \
              -- /tmp/rootfs

:~$ uchroot /tmp/rootfs
:/# TERM=xterm nano

Create the same rootfs but make it bootable (i.e. files are really owned by system users, such as root):

:~$ sudo buntstrap --chroot-impl=chroot \
                   --apt-include-essential false \
                   --apt-include-priorities required \
                   --apt-packages dpkg nano \
                   -- /tmp/rootfs

:~$ sudo chroot /tmp/rootfs
:/# nano

Create a minimal rootfs with ipython. Note that some of the pip package dependencies required in the installation of ipython will build python extension modules so we have to add build-essential and python-dev to the apt package list:

:~$ buntstrap --apt-include-essential false \
              --apt-include-priorities required \
              --apt-packages dpkg build-essential python-dev \
              --pip-packages ipython \
              -- /tmp/rootfs

:~$ uchroot --binds /dev/urandom \
            --exbin /usr/local/bin/ipython \
            -- /tmp/rootfs/

Usage

usage: buntstrap [-h] [-v] [-l {debug,info,warning,error}] [-c CONFIG]
                [--apt-include-essential [APT_INCLUDE_ESSENTIAL]]
                [--apt-sources APT_SOURCES] [--pip-wheelhouse PIP_WHEELHOUSE]
                [--apt-http-proxy APT_HTTP_PROXY]
                [--apt-size-report APT_SIZE_REPORT]
                [--external-debs [EXTERNAL_DEBS [EXTERNAL_DEBS ...]]]
                [--pip-packages [PIP_PACKAGES [PIP_PACKAGES ...]]]
                [--binds [BINDS [BINDS ...]]] [--apt-clean [APT_CLEAN]]
                [--apt-skip-update [APT_SKIP_UPDATE]]
                [--architecture {amd64,arm64,armhf}]
                [--apt-packages [APT_PACKAGES [APT_PACKAGES ...]]]
                [--suite {trusty,utopic,vivid,wily,xenial,yakkety,zesty,artful}]
                [--dpkg-configure-retry-count DPKG_CONFIGURE_RETRY_COUNT]
                [--qemu-binary QEMU_BINARY]
                [--apt-include-priorities [APT_INCLUDE_PRIORITIES [APT_INCLUDE_PRIORITIES ...]]]
                [--rootfs ROOTFS] [--chroot-impl {none,chroot,proot,uchroot}]
                [rootfs]

Bootstrap an ubuntu rootfs.

positional arguments:
  rootfs                path of the rootfs to bootstrap

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -v, --version         show program's version number and exit
  -l {debug,info,warning,error}, --log-level {debug,info,warning,error}
                        Increase log level to include info/debug
  -c CONFIG, --config CONFIG
                        Configuration file to use
  --apt-include-essential [APT_INCLUDE_ESSENTIAL]
                        If true, then we will request a list of all
                        "essential" packages from apt and include them in the
                        installation.
  --apt-sources APT_SOURCES
                        This is the string contents of the apt sources list
                        used to bootstrap the system. The file will be written
                        into the target rootfs before executing apt but will
                        be removed afterward.
  --pip-wheelhouse PIP_WHEELHOUSE
                        If installing any packages through pip, you can re-use
                        an existing wheelhouse to cache binary wheels and
                        speed up repeated bootstrapping. Specify the
                        wheelhouse directory here
  --apt-http-proxy APT_HTTP_PROXY
                        If not none, then we'll set the http proxy environment
                        variables for APT using this. If apt-cacher-ng is
                        installed an active it is usually at
                        http://localhost:3142. The function
                        ``config.get_apt_cache_url()`` will check for apt-
                        cacher-ng and return it if found, otherwise None.
  --apt-size-report APT_SIZE_REPORT
                        If you would like buntstrap to write out a package
                        size report then specify here the output path where
                        you would like that report to go.
  --external-debs [EXTERNAL_DEBS [EXTERNAL_DEBS ...]]
                        If you have any plain .deb packages to install inside
                        the rootfs list them here. They will be extracted
                        along with those downloaded by apt and configured with
                        the rest.
  --pip-packages [PIP_PACKAGES [PIP_PACKAGES ...]]
                        List of python package to install using pip. Note that
                        if this list is not empty then `python-pip` will be
                        included in apt_packages (if it is not already) and
                        pip will be installed itself with `pip install
                        --upgrade pip`. If you want to pin a specific version
                        of pip then make sure you list it here.
  --binds [BINDS [BINDS ...]]
                        List of paths to bind-mount to the target rootfs. If a
                        path is a realfile it will be copied into the rootfs
                        and deleted afterward. If it is a directory then it
                        will be bind-mounted (or emulated in the proot case)
  --apt-clean [APT_CLEAN]
                        If true, the apt archive cache and other state files
                        are cleaned up. Use this if you want to reduce the
                        size of your rootfs.
  --apt-skip-update [APT_SKIP_UPDATE]
                        If you already have a rootfs that has been
                        bootstrapped and you wish to (re)-install packages you
                        can set this true to skip the `apt-get` update step.
                        This is mostly useful during debugging/testing
                        iteration.
  --architecture {amd64,arm64,armhf}
                        dpkg architecture of the rootfs to build. If you'd
                        like to know what architecture you're currently on,
                        try running `dpkg --print-architecture`.
  --apt-packages [APT_PACKAGES [APT_PACKAGES ...]]
                        List of packages to install with apt
  --suite {trusty,utopic,vivid,wily,xenial,yakkety,zesty,artful}
                        this is only used to select reasonable defaults if you
                        leave out some configuration parameters, but specify
                        the ubuntu target suite here.
  --dpkg-configure-retry-count DPKG_CONFIGURE_RETRY_COUNT
                        Sometimes a package will fail to configure correctly
                        only because it hasn't correctly declared it's
                        dependencies and it gets configured out of order. An
                        easy work around is to just retry dpkg --configure
                        again. Set here the number of times to try execugind
                        `dpkg --configure`.
  --qemu-binary QEMU_BINARY
                        If you are cross-arch bootstrapping from amd64 to arm
                        then specify here the path to the qemu-static binary
                        that should be copied into the target rootfs during
                        chroot execution. ``config.get_qemu_binary(arch)`` is
                        a convenience function which returns the default path
                        for the qemu-static binary for arm64 or armhf
  --apt-include-priorities [APT_INCLUDE_PRIORITIES [APT_INCLUDE_PRIORITIES ...]]
                        Specify the set of priority package lists to include.
                        'required': dpkg wont function without these
                        'important': standard set of minimal unix programs
                        'standard': reasonably small but not too limited
                        character-mode system
  --rootfs ROOTFS       This is the directory of the rootfs to bootstrap.
  --chroot-impl {none,chroot,proot,uchroot}
                        Use this chroot application

For most executions of buntstrap you’ll probably want to utilize a configuration file. Most configuration options can be overridden (or primarily specified) by command line arguments. The command line argument name is the same as the config file variable with undersore (_) replaced by dash (-).

from buntstrap import chroot
from buntstrap import config

# dpkg architecture of the rootfs to build. If you'd like to know what
# architecture you're currently on, try running `dpkg --print-architecture`.
architecture = u"amd64"

# this is only used to select reasonable defaults if you leave out some
# configuration parameters, but specify the ubuntu target suite here.
suite = u"xenial"

# Which chroot application to use. There are three builtin options:
# 1. PosixApp : uses posix ``chroot`` and must be run as root
# 2. ProotApp : uses ``proot``
# 3. UchrootApp : uses ``uchroot`` which creats a user namespace. All files
#    in the target rootfs will have uid/gid ownership with mapped values
chroot_app = chroot.UchrootApp

# This is the directory of the rootfs to bootstrap.
rootfs = '/tmp/rootfs'

# If not none, then we'll set the http proxy environment variables for APT
# using this. If apt-cacher-ng is installed an active it is usually at
# http://localhost:3142. This function will check for apt-cacher-ng and
# return it if found, otherwise None.
apt_http_proxy = config.get_apt_cache_url()

# List of packages to install with apt
apt_packages = []

# If true, then we will request a list of all "essential" packages from apt
# and include them in the installation.
apt_include_essential = True

# Specify the set of priority package lists to include.
apt_include_priorities = [
    'required',  # dpkg wont function without these
    'important',  # standard set of minimal unix programs
    'standard',  # reasonably small but not too limited character-mode system
]

# This is the string contents of the apt sources list used to bootstrap the
# system. The file will be written into the target rootfs before executing
# apt but will be removed afterward.
apt_sources = u"""
# NOTE(josh): these sources are used to bootstrap the rootfs and should be
# omitted from after initial package installation. You should not see this
# file on a live system.

deb [arch={arch}] {ubuntu_url} {suite} main universe multiverse
deb [arch={arch}] {ubuntu_url} {suite}-updates main universe multiverse
deb [arch={arch}] http://ppa.launchpad.net/lttng/stable-2.9/ubuntu {suite} main
deb [arch={arch}] http://ppa.launchpad.net/nginx/stable/ubuntu {suite} main
""".format(arch=architecture,
          ubuntu_url=config.get_ubuntu_url(architecture),
          suite=suite)

# If you already have a rootfs that has been bootstrapped and you wish to
# (re)-install packages you can set this true to skip the `apt-get` update
# step. This is mostly useful during debugging/testing iteration.
apt_skip_update = False

# If you would like buntstrap to write out a package size report then specify
# here the output path where you would like that report to go.
apt_size_report = None

# If true, the apt archive cache and other state files are cleaned up. Use this
# if you want to reduce the size of your rootfs.
apt_clean = True

# If you have any plain .deb packages to install inside the rootfs list them
# here. They will be extracted along with those downloaded by apt and configured
# with the rest.
external_debs = []

# If there are any patches that you need to apply or mucking around that you
# need to do before executing dpkg --configure, then create this hook here.
# It will be executed inside the chroot so feel free to mess with any
# files you need.


def user_quirks():
  pass


# Sometimes a package will fail to configure correctly only because it hasn't
# correctly declared it's dependencies and it gets configured out of order.
# An easy work around is to just retry dpkg --configure again. Set here the
# number of times to try execugind `dpkg --configure`.
dpkg_configure_retry_count = 1

# If installing any packages through pip, you can re-use an existing wheelhouse
# to cache binary wheels and speed up repeated bootstrapping. Specify the
# wheelhouse directory here
pip_wheelhouse = None

# List of python package to install using pip. Note that if this list is not
# empty then `python-pip` will be included in apt_packages (if it is not
# already) and pip will be installed itself with `pip install --upgrade pip`.
# If you want to pin a specific version of pip then make sure you list it here.
pip_packages = []

# If you are cross-arch bootstrapping from amd64 to arm then specify here the
# path to the qemu-static binary that should be copied into the target rootfs
# during chroot execution. `get_qemu_binary(arch)` is a convenience function
# which returns the default path for the qemu-static binary for arm64 or amd64
qemu_binary = config.get_qemu_binary(architecture)

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