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Highly trained cats for managing servers.

Project description

CatOps

Highly trained cats for managing servers.

Dedicated server support agent.

What is CatOps

CatOps is a very simple NoOps framework for deploying your own ChatOps bot.

Commands you wish to add to your CatOps implementation are added to a plugins folder in the same directory, and will then be automatically imported and callable using the function name.

Why CatOps

  • NoOps.

    • Deploy, rewrite, and redeploy FaaS easily with no worrying about setting up and managing servers.
    • Only charged when CatOps is called.
  • Codify common maintenance procedures.

    • Perform high level actions without intimate low level knowledge.
    • Prevent errors doing complicated but routine tasks.
  • Unify documentation.

    • CatOps can act as a unified go-to location for help, merging/pooling all documentation into one place.
  • Transparency.

    • Team members can see all actions taken by others in solving a problem. Organic learning.
    • No 'go-to' person for certain maintenance tasks.
    • Everyone aware of server changes. No-one surprised that the server is down if they see /meow restart server in the chat.
    • Spread knowledge; everyone becomes equally capable of solving problems.
    • Out of date help messages or documentation is more obvious to everyone.
  • Context-aware suggestions, suggest actions and display help depending on context.

    • Docs/procedures/etc are useful, but can be too much to read through, hard to find, not up to date.
    • Reduce clutter when trying to figure out next actions.
  • Reduce context switching.

    • No need for bash, Linux, ssh or VPN to fix most server issues.
    • No checking server logs.
    • Easily accesible and readble output.
  • Control access.

    • Only gives necessary access, no unnecessary ssh-ing into production!

Features

  • Completely NoOps.
  • Easily extensible.
  • Pay per invocation.
  • Provider agnostic.

Quick Start

  1. Install catops pip install catops
  2. Run meow install [--template] [--target-dir]
  3. Adjust the template according to your needs e.g. add Slack OAuth tokens, adjust service names etc.
  4. Install serverless dependencies npm install in the template directory.
  5. Run serverless deploy
  6. Configure your Slack app (i.e. set Slash command/Bot endpoint URLs to appropriate URLs)

Example

Handler

Every Lambda function needs a handler, which takes arguments (event, context). In this case, it is necessary to respond instantly to the request with a 200 so the handler below calls the actual functionality asynchronously and then returns a 200 response.

Example Handler

import json
from six.moves.urllib.parse import parse_qs
import requests
import boto3
from catops import convert_dispatch


def respond(event, context):
    """Call handler.main asynchronously and then return instant response."""
    lambda_client = boto3.client('lambda')
    response = {'statusCode':'200'}
    # Call actual function asynchronously
    lambda_client.invoke(
        FunctionName='CatOps-dev-dispatcher',
        InvocationType='Event',
        Payload=json.dumps(event))
    return response


def main(event, context):
    """Main lamda function logic, to be called asynchronously."""
    params = parse_qs(event.get('body'))
    payload = convert_dispatch(params)
    username =  params.get('user_name', ['catops'])[0] 

    # Post to Slack channel
    response_url = params.get('response_url')
    if type(response_url) is list:
        response_url = response_url[0]
    r = requests.post(response_url, data=json.dumps(payload))
    if not r.ok:
        print(r)
        print(r.reason)
        print(r.text)
    return

Plugins

CatOps works around plugins.

  • Plugins are python files stored in the 'plugins/' directory.
  • CatOps scans this directory for valid functions to import.
  • All files and/or functions starting with _ are ignored. (_ means they are private and will not be added to the CatOps dispatcher)
  • Other functions are added to the CatOps dispatcher and can be called via /catops <functionname> [argv]
  • All functions need to have the arguments (argv, params)
    • argv will contain the arguments passed to the function e.g. for /catops role --user t.user, argv will contain `['role', '--user', 't.user']
    • params will contain the parse Lambda event body, which contains all the information from Slack e.g. {"text": ... , "username": ..., "response_url": ...}.

Example plugin

"""example.py - example plugin for ChatOps."""
from catops import create_slack_payload

def ping(argv, params):
    """Check is working."""
    text = '@{} Meow!'.format(params.get('user_name', ['CatOps'])[0]),
    return create_slack_payload(text=text)

Serverless configuration

service: CatOps

package:
  include:
    - handler.py
    - plugins/**

custom:
  pythonRequirements:
    slim: true

provider:
  name: aws
  stage: ${opt:stage, 'dev'}
  runtime: python3.6
  profile: serverless
  # Permissions for the lambda function
  # If using boto3, ensure correct permissions
  # have been granted to the lambda function
  iamRoleStatements:
    - Effect: Allow
      Action:
        - lambda:InvokeFunction
        - lambda:InvokeAsync
      Resource: "*"

functions:
  dispatcher:
    handler: handler.main
  respond:
    handler: handler.respond
    events:
      - http:
          path: ping
          method: post

plugins:
  - serverless-python-requirements

Deploy and Test

serverless deploy
serverless invoke --function dispatcher --path /path/to/json/data --log

See examples and templates for more.

Useful functions

# auth.py
def verify_request(event, slack_secret, timeout=True):
    """Verify that Lambda event came from Slack"""

def get_user_slack(event, oauth, team_id=None, channel_id=None):
    """Check whether user exists and is in specified team and channel.

    Arguments:
        event       - AWS Lambda event
        oauth       - Slack OAUTH token
        team_id     - Slack team_id (workspace, i.e. BBOXX)
        channel_id  - Channel user must be in
    Returns:
        False, err_msg
        True, user_dict with id, name, team_id, channel_id, email
    """

# dispatcher.py
def dispatch(command, params=None, plugin_dir='plugins/'):
    """Create Dispatcher object and run parse_command on (command, params)"""

# helpers.py
def get_slack_colour(level):
    """Return Slack colour value based on log level."""

def get_text(params):
    """Return event_text from parse_qs event.get('body')."""

def create_slack_attachment(fallback=None,
                            color=None,
                            pretext=None,
                            author_name=None,
                            author_link=None,
                            author_icon=None,
                            title=None,
                            title_link=None,
                            text=None,
                            fields=None,
                            image_url=None,
                            thumb_url=None,
                            footer=None,
                            footer_icon=None,
                            ts=None
    ):
    """Create slack attachment payload
    See https://api.slack.com/docs/message-attachments for more info.

    Arguments:
        fallback - Required plain-text summary of the attachment
        [color] - Colour of the attachment
        [pretext] - Optional text that appears above the attachment block
        [author_name]
        [author_link]
        [author_icon] - URL to author icon
        [title] - Title of the attachment
        [title_link]
        [text] - Optional text that appears inside the attachment
        [fields] - Array of dicts containing more values
        [image_url] - URL to image attached
        [thumb_url] - URL to image thumbnail
        [footer] - Footer message
        [footer_icon] - URL to footer icon
        [ts] - timestamp
    """

def create_slack_payload(response_type='ephemeral', text="", attachments=None):
    """Create a Slack payload formatted correctly."""

def convert_dispatch(params, convert_function=None, plugin_dir='plugins/'):
    """Call dispatch and convert the output accordingly into a payload."""

# slack_handler.py

class SlackHandler(logging.Handler):
    """Logger slack_handler which posts json log body to lambda_url."""

# install.py

def install(argv=None):
    """Install catops serverless Slack template."""

# parser.py 
class ArgumentParserError(Exception):
    """Error raised by ArgumentParser"""
    pass


class CatParser(argparse.ArgumentParser):
    """Overrides error method to throw an error instead of exiting"""
    def error(self, message):
        raise ArgumentParserError(message)

Installation

sudo apt-get install npm
sudo npm install -g serverless
npm install serverless-python-requirements
pip install catops

Install serverless-python-requirements in the same dir as serverless.yml.

Limitations

  • Passive rather than active; needs to be triggered (e.g. by Slack slash commands (could run it every command))
  • Limitations of FaaS
    • Max size (256MB for AWS Lambda)
    • Execution time limit (5 minute for AWS Lambda)
    • No state (recommend using a cloud-based database for state e.g. DynamoDB for AWS)
  • No autocomplete inside of Slack.

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