Skip to main content

A simple tool to generate a call graph for calls within Windows CMD (batch) files.

Project description

cmd-call-graph

Build Status PyPI

A simple tool to generate a call graph for calls within Windows CMD (batch) files.

The tool is available on PyPI: https://pypi.org/project/cmd-call-graph/

By default, it takes the input file as stdin and outputs the resulting file to stdout, outputting logs and errors to stderr.

Output Examples

Given the following CMD script:

@echo off
call :foo
goto :eof
:bar
    echo "in bar"
    call :baz
    call :baz
:baz
    echo "in baz"
    call powershell.exe Write-Host "Hello World from PowerShell"

:foo
    echo "In foo"
    goto :bar

This script would generate the following graph:

call graph

If the --show-all-calls option is enabled, then the following graph would be generated:

call graph showall

If both the --show-all-calls and --show-node-stats options are enabled:

call graph showall showstats

Invocation Examples

Invocation example for Ubuntu Linux and WSL (Windows Subsystem for Linux), assumes Python and pip are installed:

$ pip install cmd-call-graph
$ cmd-call-graph < your-file.cmd > your-file-call-graph.dot 2>log

The resulting dot file can be rendered with any dot renderer. Example with graphviz (VIEWER could be explorer.exe under Windows):

$ sudo apt install graphviz
$ dot -Tpng your-file-call-graph.dot > your-file-call-graph.png
$ $VIEWER your-file-call-graph.png

Example with PowerShell:

PS C:\> choco install graphviz python3 pip
PS C:\> cmd-call-graph.exe -i your-file.cmd -o your-file-call-graph.dot
PS C:\> dot.exe -Tpng your-file-call-graph.dot -O
PS C:\> explorer.exe your-file-call-graph.dot.png

Types of entities represented

The script analyzes CMD scripts, and represents each block of text under a given label as a node in the call graph.

Node properties

Each node always contains the line number where it starts, except if the node is never defined in the code, which can happen in case of programming errors, dynamic node names (e.g., %command%) and the eof pseudo-node.

If a node causes the program to exit, it is marked as terminating.

If --show-node-stats is set, extra stats about each node are displayed, if present:

  • number of lines of code (LOC);
  • number of external calls.

Special nodes

There are 2 special nodes:

  • _begin_ is a pseudo-node inserted at the start of each call graph, which represents the start of the script, which is by definition without a label;
  • eof, which may or may not be a pseudo-node. In CMD, eof is a special node that is used as target of goto to indicate that the current "subroutine" should terminate, or the whole program should terminate if the call stack is empty.

The eof node is automatically removed if it's a pseudo-node and it's not reached via call or nested connections.

The _begin_ pseudo-node is removed if there is another node starting at line 1.

Types of connections

  • goto: if an edge of type goto goes from A to B, it means that in the code within the label A there is an instruction in the form goto :B.
  • call: if an edge of type call goes from A to B, it means that in the code within the label A there is an instruction in the form call :B.
  • nested: if an edge of type nested goes from A to B, it means that in the code within the label A ends directly where B starts, and there is no goto or exit statement at the end of A which would prevent the execution from not going into B as A ends.

Example of a nested connection:

A:
  echo "foo"
  echo "bar"
B:
  echo "baz"

The above code would lead to a nested connection between A and B.

Command-line options

  • --show-all-calls: create one edge for each individual call/goto, rather than just one for each type of connections (which is the default). Leads to a busier but more accurate graph;
  • --show-node-stats: augments each node in the graph with additional information about the node (i.e., number of lines of code, number of external calls);
  • --nodes-to-hide: hides the list of nodes passed as a space-separated list after this parameter.
  • -v or --verbose: enable debug output, which will be sent to the log file;
  • -l or --log-file: name of the log file. If not specified, the standard error file is used;
  • -i or --input: name of the input file. If not specified, the standard input file is used;
  • -o or --output: name of the output file. If not specified, the standard output file is used.

Legend for Output Graphs

The graphs are self-explanatory: all information is codified with descriptive labels, and there is no information conveyed only with color or other types of non-text graphical hint.

Colors are used to make the graph easier to follow, but no information is conveyed only with color.

Here is what each color means in the graph:

  • Orange: goto connection;
  • Blue: call connection;
  • Teal: nested connection;
  • Light gray: background for terminating nodes

Why?

Sometimes legacy code bases may contain old CMD files. This tool allows to generate a visual representation of the internal calls within the script.

Contributing

This project welcomes contributions and suggestions. Most contributions require you to agree to a Contributor License Agreement (CLA) declaring that you have the right to, and actually do, grant us the rights to use your contribution. For details, visit https://cla.microsoft.com.

When you submit a pull request, a CLA-bot will automatically determine whether you need to provide a CLA and decorate the PR appropriately (e.g., label, comment). Simply follow the instructions provided by the bot. You will only need to do this once across all repos using our CLA.

This project has adopted the Microsoft Open Source Code of Conduct. For more information see the Code of Conduct FAQ or contact opencode@microsoft.com with any additional questions or comments.

Unit tests

Run unit tests from the project root either with the built-in unittest module:

python -m unittest discover

Or by using pytests, which can produce reports both for unit test success and for code coverage, by using the following invocation:

pip install pytest
pip install pytest-cov
pytest tests --doctest-modules --junitxml=junit/test-results.xml --cov=callgraph --cov-report=xml --cov-report=html

Project details


Download files

Download the file for your platform. If you're not sure which to choose, learn more about installing packages.

Files for cmd-call-graph, version 1.0.2
Filename, size File type Python version Upload date Hashes
Filename, size cmd_call_graph-1.0.2-py3-none-any.whl (11.5 kB) File type Wheel Python version py3 Upload date Hashes View hashes
Filename, size cmd-call-graph-1.0.2.tar.gz (9.8 kB) File type Source Python version None Upload date Hashes View hashes

Supported by

Elastic Elastic Search Pingdom Pingdom Monitoring Google Google BigQuery Sentry Sentry Error logging AWS AWS Cloud computing DataDog DataDog Monitoring Fastly Fastly CDN SignalFx SignalFx Supporter DigiCert DigiCert EV certificate StatusPage StatusPage Status page