Skip to main content

A small Zope 3 package (which also works with Zope 2.10+ and Five) that allows you to attach ratings to content.

Project description

This package provides an infrastructure for adding ratings to Zope content. It supports multiple categorized ratings per content object and includes views for displaying those ratings. For Plone rating support, please see plone.contentratings.

Detailed Documentation

Content Ratings

This is a simple python package driven by Zope 3, which lets users (including un-authenticated users) rate content. It provides a set of interfaces, adapters and views to allow the application of ratings to any IAnnotatable object.


  • BTrees
  • persistent
  • zope.annotations
  • zope.component
  • zope.componentvocabulary
  • zope.container
  • zope.interface
  • zope.lifecycleevent
  • zope.location
  • zope.schema
  • zope.tales

All of these packages are included in Zope 2.12+ and Plone 4.0+. This package is tested with Plone 4.0-4.3.

Using contentratings in Your Packages or Products

First install it somewhere in your python path (not in your Products directory), $INSTANCE_HOME/lib/python may be a good place to start using it with zope. It can be installed as an egg from the Python Cheeseshop (PyPI).

You’ll need to load the zcml for this package, so make sure that the configure.zcml for your application contains:

<include package="contentratings" />

If you want to allow some content to be rated you must mark it as annotatable. This is because the Rating Storage is contained in an annotation on the content object. The standard way to do this is to to add the following to your product’s configure.zcml:

<content class=".content.MyContentClass">

Rating Categories

This package provides an infrastructure for defining Rating Categories. A Rating Category is an object implementing the IRatingCategory interface, specifying a title, description (for the UI), view_name (how the rating should be rendered and managed in the UI), TALES expressions which determine when ratings can be viewed or set (read_expr and write_expr), an order (for the UI), and finally a storage (a factory which creates a persistent implementation of a rating API to be stored in an annotation). All of these attributes except title are optional, with sensible default values provided. Any object may have multiple Rating Categories applied to it each registered with a unique name.

The Default Categories

This package’s default configuration provides two rating categories. One for user ratings, and one for editorial ratings. They are registered for the marker interfaces IUserRatable and IEditorRatable respectively. The TALES expressions used to determine when they apply are designed to work with objects contained in a Zope 2 CMF application (primarily for backwards compatibility with older versions of contentratings which used direct permission checks). Unless they want to allow all users to set and read the ratings, other applications will need to define categories with custom conditions.

Let’s demonstrate how these categories might be used. We need to create some content and mark it with our marker interface:

>>> from zope.container.sample import SampleContainer
>>> content = SampleContainer()
>>> from contentratings.interfaces import IUserRatable
>>> from zope.interface import alsoProvides
>>> alsoProvides(content, IUserRatable)

Now we can adapt to the rating category using the IUserRating interface:

>>> from contentratings.interfaces import IUserRating
>>> adapted = IUserRating(content)
>>> adapted.title
u'User Rating'
>>> float(adapted.averageRating)
>>> rating = adapted.rate(7.0)
>>> float(adapted.averageRating)
>>> adapted.numberOfRatings
>>> rating = adapted.rate(8.0, 'me')
>>> float(adapted.averageRating)
>>> adapted.numberOfRatings

For more details on the IUserRating API see tests/userstorage.txt.

Editorial ratings are applied similarly, but have a much simpler implementation:

>>> from contentratings.interfaces import IEditorRatable, IEditorialRating
>>> alsoProvides(content, IEditorRatable)
>>> adapted = IEditorialRating(content)
>>> adapted.title
u'Editor Rating'
>>> adapted.rating is None
>>> adapted.rating = 6.0
>>> float(adapted.rating)
>>> adapted.rating = 8.0
>>> float(adapted.rating)

See tests/editorialstorage.txt for details on how the IEditorialRating API works.

Let’s remove these markers now so that we can examine custom categories:

>>> from zope.interface import noLongerProvides
>>> noLongerProvides(content, IUserRatable)
>>> noLongerProvides(content, IEditorRatable)
>>> IUserRatable(content) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
Traceback (most recent call last):
TypeError: ('Could not adapt', ...)
>>> IEditorialRating(content) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
Traceback (most recent call last):
TypeError: ('Could not adapt', ...)

Custom Rating Categories

There are two ways to create a new rating category, declaratively using ZCML, or programatically using the category factory directly from python. Let’s look at the ZCML way first. To make it work we need to enable the zcml directive:

>>> from zope.configuration import xmlconfig
>>> import contentratings
>>> context = xmlconfig.file('meta.zcml', contentratings)

Loading the package configuration will do the above automatically.

Now we register our rating category using the contentratings:category directive:

>>> context = xmlconfig.string("""
... <configure
...    xmlns:contentratings="">
...  <contentratings:category
...      for="zope.container.sample.SampleContainer"
...      title="My Rating Category"
...      />
... </configure>""", context=context)

Here we have made use of all of the category default values. As a result we have registered a category which uses the default ZODB storage and IUserRating API, with no restrictions on who can get and set ratings. We can verify this easily since the categories are simply adapters providing the rating interface provided by the (default) storage:

>>> from contentratings.interfaces import IUserRating
>>> from zope.container.sample import SampleContainer
>>> content = SampleContainer()
>>> adapted = IUserRating(content)
>>> IUserRating.providedBy(adapted)
>>> adapted.context is content
>>> adapted.title
u'My Rating Category'

Note that because we provided no name in the configuration, the adapter was registered as the default (unnamed) adapter. The name of the category is the name under which the adapter is registered and it is stored in the category’s name attribute:


To provide multiple categories, just register them with unique names:

>>> context = xmlconfig.string("""
... <configure
...    xmlns:contentratings="">
...  <contentratings:category
...      for="zope.container.sample.SampleContainer"
...      title="My Other Rating Category"
...      name="other"
...      />
... </configure>""", context=context)
>>> from zope.component import getAdapter
>>> adapted = getAdapter(content, IUserRating, name=u'other')
>>> adapted.title
u'My Other Rating Category'

If we wanted to accomplish the same thing programatically, we could instantiate the factory directly and register it as an adpater:

>>> from contentratings.category import RatingsCategoryFactory
>>> category = RatingsCategoryFactory(title=u'Another Title', name=u'another')
>>> from zope.component import provideAdapter
>>> provideAdapter(category, adapts=(SampleContainer,), provides=IUserRating,
...                name=u'another')
>>> adapted = getAdapter(content, IUserRating, name=u'another')
>>> adapted.title
u'Another Title'

This involves some redundancy, since the interface provided by the storage has to be explicitly declared, and the category name has to be provided twice. Otherwise they are equivalent.

Note that categories are adapters, and adapters may only be registered under the same name for different interfaces/classes. As usual, for a given name, the adapter registered for the most specific interface will be chosen.

The Rating Manager

When the adapter corresponding to a given rating category is queried, the object returned is not actually a Rating Category itself, but a Rating Manager:

>>> adapted # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<contentratings.category.RatingCategoryAdapter ...>
>>> from contentratings.interfaces import IRatingManager
>>> IRatingManager.providedBy(adapted)

The Rating Manager provides the API of the storage, and also many of the attributes of the category. It protects direct access to the storage by checking the expressions specified for the category. The manager is implemented as a multi-adapter on the category and the context, but generally it should not be retrieved directly. The category adapter is responsible for retrieving it. The manager is responsible for setting up the category specific storage on the content object.

>>> adapted.category # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<contentratings.category.RatingsCategoryFactory ...>
>>> adapted.context # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
<zope...container.sample.SampleContainer ...>
>>> # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
< ...>
>>> isinstance(,

Since the rating manager is responsible for security checks and populating the TALES expression context, it is very likely that applications will want to replace this component (locally or for specific content) with a subclass to provide application specific security.

The Views

The Rating Views

Each category has an associated view_name which is simply the name of a view registered for the rating interface (e.g. IUserRating) to be used when rendering the category in the UI. These are looked up on the Rating Manager and have access to the IRatingManager API, as well as the protected rating storage API, as provided by the manager (e.g. IUserRating).

Resuable base classes for rating views are provided in browser/ (BasicUserRatingView and BasicEditorialRatingView). These views use a named vocabulary to validate input and use the IRatingManager API to determine who can and cannot rate content. The package configuration provides a few rating views by default:

ratings_view (default):  A rating using 1-5 large (25px) stars
small_stars: A rating using 1-5 small (10px) stars
three_small_stars: A rating using 1-3 small (10px) stars

These are each highly customizable using CSS. They are all registered for IUserRating. Additionally, there is a rating_view is registered for IEditorialRating.

The views are responsible for looking up a rating vocabulary and validating user input, as well as rendering the user interface. The security is enforced by the Rating Manager used by the view, however the view may go directly to the storage from rating manager if it wants to override the expression checking (e.g. showing a user their own ratings, though they cannot see others). Creating new views (e.g. non-starred ratings) is quite simple.

A utility is provided for efficiently determining a reusable session key in a generic manner. This can be used to prevent repeat voting from anonymous users. Applications which implement their own anonymous session tracking mechanisms may override this utility locally if desired.

The Aggregator Views

There are also views which find all the rating categories available on the content object being viewed, rendering them in order. These are intended to be used within a viewlet, portlet, macro, or similar. The aggregator view for user ratings is called user-ratings and the one for editorial ratings is called editorial-ratings.

The Storage

Though the UserRatingStorage should be sufficient fr most usecases, this package provides a simplemechanism for using custom objects for storing ratings. Two storage factory implementations are included, both of which use the ZODB for storing ratings: one implementing the IUserRating interface and the other the IEditorialRating interface. The former is intended to be used for any content which will be rated (or voted on) by multiple users. The latter stores a single “editorial” rating on content, and exists primarily for backwards compatibility.

A custom sotrage factory (possibly sub-classed from one of the included implementations), can be specified using the storage attribute of the zcml directive, or storage parameter of the rating category factory.

Not only are the storages replaceable, they can implement completely custom APIs for managing ratings. Though the need for this is is probably limited, you may create a custom storage API by making an interface for managing ratings, and having that interface provide IRatingType. See the storage documentation in tests/ for more information.

Why a New Rating Package

There are already the ATRatings, lovely.rating, iqpp.rating, and iqpp.plone.rating packages, why do we need another package?

First, contentratings preceeds all of those except ATRatings, which is useful only under Plone with Archetypes content. contentratings was originally a very simple package intended to make it easy for developers to add ratings to their products and applications. However, there appears to be much demand for an end-user product to facilitate adding ratings to existing content objects.

Unfortunately, none of these packages offer direct support for multiple ratings on a single content object, which appears to be a common need. It also (along with lovely.rating) decouples the rating scoring system from the view in a manner which is probably undesirable for a product which wants to allow user customization of ratings. Changing these packages to support these use-cases would have required a complete rewrite. As a result, I rewrote the simplest (and most familiar) of these rating packages to support these usecases, and also created a new package to integrate this new functionality for Plone end-users (see plone.contentratings).


  • Provide view customization examples
  • Make the views work with Zope 3 authentication
  • Port the KSS view from plone.contentratings into contentratings (it currently depends on some plone KSS commands)




  • Maurizio Delmonte

(feel free to add your name above if you have made significant contributions)

Thanks To:

  • Geoff Davis author of ATRatings from which icons and ideas were stolen.
  • Philipp von Weitershausen author of Web Component Development with Zope 3 which provides a nice example of an annotation based rating product, which was the starting point for this implementation.
  • Kai Diefenbach author of iqpp.plone.rating from which other icons and UI ideas were stolen.
  • Some icons are from Mark James’ Silk icon set 1.3
  • The star rating is based on CSS Star Rating Redux via iqpp.plone.rating


1.1 (2013-09-20)

  • Update to support Zope 2.13 and Plone 4.0 through 4.3 and clear up dependencies.

1.0-final (2011-08-21)

  • Template markup fixes for chameleon compatibility.
  • Added Basque and Catalan translations.

1.0-rc3 (2011-05-12)

  • Optimize for average/count calculations with large numbers of ratings. Improve performance of most recent rating lookup.
  • Fixes for Plone 4.1

1.0-rc2 (2010-11-28)

  • Don’t use a CSS id in view only rating view so that listings with ratings can still have valid html.

1.0-rc1 (2010-08-31)

  • Add support for view only rating views.
  • Remove _v attribute caching.
  • Plone 4 / Zope 2.12 compatibility (still works on Plone 3.3.4 / Zope 2.10.11):
    • Don’t depend on Products.__ac_permissions__
    • Import ApplicationDefaultPermissions from AccessControl.Permission
    • Fix tests:
      •, README.txt: SampleContainer class may come from zope.* and*
      • Date may or may not be followed by semicolon
    • browser/ add publishTraverse method to BasicEditorialRatingView, to prevent faulty traversal.
    • and Subclass IObjectRatedEvent from IObjectEvent (instead of from IObjectModifiedEvent) to prevent permissions errors.
  • Added this file

0.2 (2009-05-11)

Project details

Download files

Download the file for your platform. If you're not sure which to choose, learn more about installing packages.

Files for contentratings, version 1.1
Filename, size File type Python version Upload date Hashes
Filename, size (120.4 kB) File type Source Python version None Upload date Hashes View

Supported by

AWS AWS Cloud computing Datadog Datadog Monitoring Facebook / Instagram Facebook / Instagram PSF Sponsor Fastly Fastly CDN Google Google Object Storage and Download Analytics Microsoft Microsoft PSF Sponsor Pingdom Pingdom Monitoring Salesforce Salesforce PSF Sponsor Sentry Sentry Error logging StatusPage StatusPage Status page