Skip to main content

c-style preprocessor for Python

Project description

Welcome to repository of cpypp

cpypp is the implementation of a c-stype preprocessor for Python Programming Languages 2.7+

A preprocessor is a program that takes a input Source Code written using some programming language syntax and outputs an output Source Code that translate, expand or modify original programming language.

For example, from this:

from cpypp import py_preprocessor
PYPP = py_preprocessor()
PYPP.parse(__file__, __name__)

"""This source will work in both Python versions"""

def main():

   #ifdef __PYTHON2__
   #expand print "This will work in", "Python 2", "like a charm"
   #else
   print("This will work in Python 3 like a charm")
   #endif

if __name__ == "__main__": main()

to this if we are using Python 3+

"""This source will work in both Python versions"""

def main():

   print("This will work in Python 3 like a charm")

if __name__ == "__main__": main()

Introduction

I love to write code, and I love to keep my code clean and organized, specially when I publish it on github for example. I love to use the latest features of a language and I specially love debug with print and a lot of dashes '-' and so on.

But, when you write open source code, a lot of prints, dashes and latest features are not welcome. Your code has to install and run in as many Python versions and platforms it it cans, and be kept up to date, stable and without bugs. Python 2.7 support is dropped since January 2020, but far away from be replaced. There is a lot of stuff that keeps working on it and still will be for a long time. Why? Because the cost of conversion is expensive, needs time and effort. And all this code has to be mantained, keep evolving and will need packages updates that be compatible with then and, when they began their conversion process, it will not be at once.

So this was the motivation to get the best of both worlds (thank you for Hanna Montanna). Create a preprocessor for Python language that could keep final code clean, stable, runnable in any version of Python, working at run time, or used as a command line tool for batch conversion.

Installing

cpypp can be easily installed via common Python package managers such as pip.

$ pip install cpypp

You may also get the latest cpypp version by grabbing the source code from Github:

$ git clone https://github.com/wellrats/cpypp
$ cd cpypp
$ python setup.py install

To test your installation, cpypp come with a set of simple tutorials that can be executed once you have deployed the packages

python -m cpypp.tests.test_helloworld

or

python3 -m cpypp.tests.test_helloworld

Examples

cpypp comes with some examples to check it out go to cpypp install directory

$ cd $(dirname $(python -c "import cpypp; print(cpypp.__file__)"))
$ python tests/py2andpy3.py
$ python -m cpypp py2andpy3.py -o -
$ python -m cpypp py2andpy3.py -r -o -

Runtime or command line processor?

Usually a preprocessor do its job at compile time, but Python don’t have this feature so, pypy has two options do its job: at run time, when you are executing a source file as a script or as a import module, or using a command line tool. Which to choose is up to you and your motivations to use a preprocessor. Let’s see the diferences between then.

Runtime preprocessor

RunTime preprocessor is when you have the source code and wants to execute this code respecting the preprocessor directives. Probably you are a developer and want to insert some tests or let the code be prepared to future releases of Python, but don’t want this test code in your final code on GitHub or in you client, or wants be able to generate many diferent codes from this one. This source code can be executed as a script calling python yourscript.py or loaded as a module using import import your_module. Like was written before, Python does not implements a preprocessor feature at compile time, so cpypp will simulate it at run time.

But how can we do it at runtime? How can we modify a code that is compiled and running? The answer is obvious: We can’t. We can rewrite the code and executs it again, inside itself. In other words, we will execute the source code twice. The first version is the original version where directives are seen as comments by compiler. This code will be compiled and executed normally. During this execution when the PYPP.parse( ... code is executed, the trick happens. All code is read again, preprocessed and directives do their job and a brand new code is created. This new code is executed and takes place of original code.

There’s a little difference if original code is executed as a script or is being imported. When the variable __name__ has the value "__main__", cpypp assumes this is a script and not an import module. The differences are bellow:

How Python and cpypp works when source code is a script

First let’s see a graphical flow how Python and cpypp will do their job to guarantee that the preprocessor will work properly when running a script.

Flow
|
1️⃣ Python reads original .py script file
2️⃣ compiles it in memory (.pyc)
3️⃣ runs the compiled code
   |
   1️⃣ All code before "PYPP.parse( ..." is executed ✅✅
   2️⃣ When "PYPP.parse( ..." is called
   |  |
   |  1️⃣ PYPP reads original .py file
   |  2️⃣ parse directives, clean the code and saves new code in memory
   |  3️⃣ call exec( ... ) to execute all new code
   |  4️⃣ call sys.exit(0) to stop old code execution
   |
   3️⃣ All code after "PYPP.parse( ..." from original compiled code is DISCARDED ❌❌

Be atention to step 3.2.4. When the code is executed as a script we can stop the execution of the old code, because we have sure that the new code was all executed stand alone. But we still have a problem. All the code before PYPP.parse( ... was executed twice. Right ? Yes and No. We have tools to prevent its to happen. Let’s see an pratical example to understand better.

So the first step is instantiate a preprocessor in our source code:

from cpypp import py_preprocessor
PYPP = py_preprocessor()

❗️ YOU CAN NOT change this piece of code neither change PYPP. variable.

The reason is: When the preprocessor is doing its job, it will look for this piece of code and some references to PYPP variable so, it can be removed from final code.

The second step is write the directives in source code to give work to the preprocessor. Directives are like coments and can be written anywhere in the code. All the directives and its rules will be explained bellow.

#ifdef debug
print("I'm a debug line running in Python __VERSION__ and won't be present in final code')
#endif

The third step is call the preprocessor so it can do its job:

PYPP.parse(__file__, __name__)

❗️ DON’T CHANGE this line either.

and finally we have our test_script01.py with other little stuff as :

import sys
from cpypp import py_preprocessor
PYPP = py_preprocessor()

#exclude
if len(sys.argv) > 1 and sys.argv[1] == '-d': PYPP.define("debug")
#endexclude

print("PRINT me always but just once. I'm using Python __VERSION__ !!!")
PYPP.parse(__file__, __name__)

#ifdef debug
print("PRINT me only if '-d' used. I'm using Python __VERSION__ !!!")
#endif

So, let’s run it using python 3.7

$ python3 -m cpypp.tests.test_script01
PRINT me always but just once. I'm using Python __VERSION__ !!!
PRINT me always but just once. I'm using Python 3.7.6 !!!
$ python3 -m cpypp.tests.test_script01 -d
PRINT me always but just once. I'm using Python __VERSION__ !!!
PRINT me always but just once. I'm using Python 3.7.6 !!!
PRINT me only if '-d' used. I'm using Python 3.7.6 !!!

Well, it didn’t work as expected 😩. The first print was executed twice. The reason was explained earlier. All code before PYPP.parse( ... is executed at original code and at preprocessed code. To solve this we have many options. First let’s understand that this happens only to code that starts at column 1 (usually), with exception to classes and functions declarations. All code inside classes and funcions are executed only when called, but all the rest is executed instantly.

The options to solve this issue are:

  1. Move PYPP.parse( ... next to top of code so, there is no relevant code before it, but only the necessary to its own execution.
  2. Use the special logical condition if PYPP.parsed(): to all relevant code before PYPP.parse( .... This will prevent this code to be executed because this condition returns always False, so nothing inside will be executed with original code. The preprocessor recognizes this special logical condition, removes it completely from final code and reident the code to it’s original position.

With option 1 we have test_script02.py:

import sys
from cpypp import py_preprocessor

#exclude
if len(sys.argv) > 1 and sys.argv[1] == '-d': PYPP.define("debug")
#endexclude

PYPP.parse(__file__, __name__)

print("PRINT me always but just once. I'm using Python __VERSION__ !!!")

#ifdef debug
print("PRINT me only if '-d' used. I'm using Python __VERSION__ !!!")
#endif

With option 2 we have test_script03.py:

import sys
from cpypp import py_preprocessor
PYPP = py_preprocessor()

# This is just a comment

#exclude
if len(sys.argv) > 1 and sys.argv[1] == '-d': PYPP.define("debug")
#endexclude

if PYPP.parsed():
   print("PRINT me always but just once. I'm using Python __VERSION__ !!!")

   #ifdef debug
   print("PRINT me only if '-d' used. I'm using Python __VERSION__ !!!")
   #endif

PYPP.parse(__file__, __name__)

So, let’s try again …

$ python3 -m cpypp.tests.test_script02
PRINT me always but just once. I'm using Python 3.7.6 !!!
$ python3 -m cpypp.tests.test_script03 -d
PRINT me always but just once. I'm using Python 3.7.6 !!!
PRINT me only if '-d' used. I'm using Python 3.7.6 !!!

Yeah 😁. So the first rule of cpypp is that for scripts, we have to keep our PYPP.parse( ... call as next from top of code we can, or use if PYPP.parsed(): logical condition, or both, so our code can be processed the way we wants. Another very important rule is:

❗️ Your original source code HAS TO BE compilable in all Python versions, because this original source code has to run so the processor can do its job.

This means that a code like:

#ifdef __PYTHON2__
print "This is", "a debug code ", "and will NOT run  in Python 3"
#else
print("This is a debug code and is executes if we are using Python 3")
#endif

will not compile in Python 3 because second line will generate a syntax error. In these case if you can’t change the original code you can use the directive #expand as you see bellow.

#ifdef __PYTHON2__
#expand print "This is", "a debug code ", "and will NOT run  in Python 3"
#else
print("This is a debug code and is executes if we are using Python 3")
#endif

How Python and cpypp works when source code is a module to be imported

Now, let’s see a graphical flow how Python and cpypp will do their job to guarantee that the preprocessor will work properly when importing a module

Flow
|
1️⃣ Another Python scripts or module imports our original .py  file
2️⃣ Python reads original .py module file
3️⃣ compiles it in memory (.pyc)
4️⃣ loads, runs the compiled code and inserts an entry for it in ``sys.modules``
   |
   1️⃣ All code before "PYPP.parse( ..." is executed ✅✅
   2️⃣ When "PYPP.parse( ..." is called
   |  |
   |  1️⃣ PYPP reads original .py file
   |  2️⃣ parse directives, clean the code and save new code in a file
   |  3️⃣ call __import__( ... ) to load the new code in the same ``sys.modules`` entry
   |  4️⃣ new code is executed
   |
   3️⃣ All code after "PYPP.parse( ..." from original compiled code IS EXECUTED TOO ✅✅

There are diferences from a script code. We have sys.modules that has to be modified at runtime, we can’t call sys.exit because Python will halt and the most important, when the source file is a module to be imported all the original code will be executed no matter which place you write PYPP.parse( .... So we HAVE to use if PYPP.parsed(): logical condition to prevent our code to be executed twice and avoid unpredictable runtime errors write PYPP.parse(... after all references to PYPP. in source code. Let’s see some pratical examples to understand better.

You can protect only what is relevant. See import4.py

import os
from cpypp import py_preprocessor
PYPP = py_preprocessor()

class test_class(): # classes and functions are not a problem because are only compiled

      def __init__(self):
          print("This print has no problem")

GLOBAL_VARIABLE = "PYTHON vr __VERSION__"
# global variable definitions are most of time safe to become unprotected

if PYPP.parsed(): # but code like this has to be protected at all

   if os.path.isfile("/tmp/test.txt"):
      os.remove("/tmp/test.txt")

   print("module import4 imported and I was printed just once")

PYPP.parse(__file__, __name__)

Or you can protect the all code. See import5.py

import os
from cpypp import py_preprocessor
PYPP = py_preprocessor()

if PYPP.parsed(): # You can protect the all code

   class test_class(): # classes and functions are not a problem because are only compiled

         def __init__(self):
             print("This print has no problem")

   GLOBAL_VARIABLE = "PYTHON vr __VERSION__"
   # global variable definitions are most of time safe to become unprotected

   if os.path.isfile("/tmp/test.txt"):
      os.remove("/tmp/test.txt")

   print("module import5 imported and I was printed just once")

PYPP.parse(__file__, __name__)

Or you can protect nothing if you code has only global, classes and defs definitions. See test06_import_module.py

from cpypp import py_preprocessor
PYPP = py_preprocessor()

GLOBAL_VARIABLE = "PYTHON vr __VERSION__"
# global variable definitions are most of time safe to become unprotected
class test_class(): # classes and functions are not a problem because are only compiled

      def __init__(self):
          print("This print has no problem")

print("I don't care if this line is printed twice")

PYPP.parse(__file__, __name__)

Let’s import all of then

>>> cpypp.tests.imports import impor4
module import4 was imported and I was printed just once
>>> cpypp.tests.imports import impor5
module import5 was imported and I was printed just once
>>> cpypp.tests.imports import impor6
I don't care if this line is printed twice
I don't care if this line is printed twice

Yeah again😁. Here the rule is that for import modules, we have to use if PYPP.parsed(): logical condition, in the whole code if necessary, and write PYPP.parse (... at the end of our source code, so our code can be processed the way we wants.

Another thing that is very important:

❗️ if PYPP.parsed(): logical condition, CAN ALSO be replaced by if False and False:.
❗️ cpypp will understand this too.

Command line preprocessor

Command line preprocessor is when you have source code files and wants to generate new preprocessed files in batch mode. Probably you are a developer and want to insert copyright marks, or remove something from final code, like prints, debugs and so on, or you know exactly what version of Python will execute your code and wants to generate a final code totally compatible with it. Almost like C does with make.

Here we have no flow. It’s just a command line tool that has some parameters and you can run it from shell.

$ python2.7+ -m cpypp -r -d debug cpypp./tests/test_commandline01.pyp

❗️ The code generated is DIRECTLY DEPENDENT from the Python version you run the command line

Options

Usage: cpyppc [options] filename-or-directory [...]

-h, --help show this help message and exit
-v, --version print cpypp version
-d name same as #define. Ex. -d debug or -d "var=2+2" (eval 4)
-e EXT include files with only these extensions. default is '.py' and extensions must be separated with '|' char. Ex. '.py|.pypp'
-l MAXLEVELS levels to recurse into subdirectories. Use '0' to don’t recurse. Default is no limit
-p PATH directory to prepend to file names and paths before save processed files. The full path will be created if it does not exists
-f force overwrite of files when output file name has the same name of input file name
-r remove meta tags and commented lines from final code
-o FILE output file name when you are preprocessing just one file at once. Use '-o -' to stdout
-i FILE add all the files and directories listed in FILE to the list considered for compilation; Use '-' to read names from stdin
-q output only error messages; -qq will suppress the error messages as well
-c, --compileall
 compile each file after preprocessing. When this option is used, no preprocessed source file will be saved to disk and options '-o', '-r' and '-f' are discarded
-b use legacy (pre-PEP3147) compiled file locations. Valid only when '-c' is used

Examples

Let’s use one of our script files test_script03.py

import sys
from cpypp import py_preprocessor
PYPP = py_preprocessor()

# This is just a comment

#exclude
if len(sys.argv) > 1 and sys.argv[1] == '-d': PYPP.define("debug")
#endexclude

if PYPP.parsed():
   print("PRINT me always but just once. I'm using Python __VERSION__ !!!")

   #ifdef debug
   print("PRINT me only if '-d' used. I'm using Python __VERSION__ !!!")
   #endif

PYPP.parse(__file__, __name__)

Now let’s run cpypp and don’t remove metada to see all preprocessor work.

$ python3 -m cpypp cpypp/tests/test_script03.py -o -
import sys
# from cpypp import py_preprocessor
# PYPP = py_preprocessor()

# This is just a comment

# #exclude
# if len(sys.argv) > 1 and sys.argv[1] == '-d': PYPP.define("debug")
# #endexclude

# if PYPP.parsed():
print("PRINT me always but just once. I'm using Python 3.7.6 !!!")

# #ifdef debug
# print("PRINT me only if '-d' used. I'm using Python __VERSION__ !!!")
# #endif

Realize that any references to py_preprocessor were commented and the block if PYPP.parsed(): has been commented too and all code bellow was reidented. Let’s remove metada data now.

$ python3 -m cpypp -r cpypp/tests/test_script03.py -o -
import sys

# This is just a comment

print("PRINT me always but just once. I'm using Python 3.7.6 !!!")

❗️ As you can see there is NO DEPENDENCY in final code from cpypp.

Preprocessing and compiling code at once

cpypp can compile bytecode files (.pyc) directly from the preprocessed file without need to save the new file to disk an execute python -m compileall, and is as simple as this. Just use -c or --compileall option.

$ python -m cpypp --compileall diretory_or_file      # generate __pycache__/.pyc files
$ python -m cpypp -b --compileall diretory_or_file   # generate .pyc files at same dir

Your bytecodes (.pyc) where generated using the preprocessed file and are ready to deploy. For more information and usage execute python cpypp --help.

Expander

cpypp implements some expanders that look for names and special characters in the source code and replace then for defined values or expressions.

Name definitions expander

Any references to name definitions done with #define in source file will be replaced by its repr() value. Note than any references means any place where definition names appears, even inside strings. To avoid this replacement precede the name with '!' For example, the code:

#define SIZE 100 * 2
#define TEXT "cpypp" + " is " + "the best"

for i in range(0, SIZE): print(TEXT)
print("The value of !TEXT is TEXT")

after preprocessing will become:

for i in range(0, 200): print('cpypp is the best')
print("The value of TEXT is 'cpypp is the best'")

Expressions expander

For more complexes replacements there is expression expander. All text between expander begin mark '#{' and expander end mark }#' will be evaluated and replaced exactly at same place by its str() value. If you wants that replacement value be by its repr() value, insert a modifier at end of expression, without spaces from '}'. The modifiers are ',s for str() value and ',r' for repr() value. For example, the code:

#! env python#{__VERSION__[0]}#

#define VALUE 5 if __PYTHON2__ else 6
#define TEXT "cpypp" + " is " + "the best"

print("!VALUE + 1 = #{VALUE + 1}# and #{TEXT}# and #{TEXT,r}#")

after preprocessing with python2 will become:

#! env python2

print("VALUE + 1 = 6 and cpypp is the best and 'cpypp is the best'")

and after preprocessing with python3 will become:

#! env python3

print("VALUE + 1 = 7 and cpypp is the best and 'cpypp is the best'")

Directives

Name definitions (#define, #undef)

Define names, or names with values that will be stored in definition dictionary.

#define identifier [expression]

When the preprocessor encounters this directive, it creates an entry in its definition dictionary with name identifier and the value with evaluation of expression. If expression is ommited, True is used.

#define DEBUG
#define TABLE_SIZE (50 * 50 if __PYTHON2__ else 100 * 100)

block = list(" " * TABLE_SIZE)

#ifdef DEBUG
print("Debug is ON !!!")
#endif

To remove an entry from definition dictionary use

#undef identifier

Conditional inclusions (#if, #else, #endif and its variations)

These directives allow to include or discard part of the original code, also called code blocks if a certain condition is met or not. It works the same manner that if/elif/else in python. The diference is that we have #endif and its variations to close opened #if blocks cause we don’t have identation and there are more directives that gives more flexibility.

Here are all the conditional inclusions directives and how they are evalueted.

#ifdef identifier
Opens a block of code and includes its content if identifier is a name
in definition dictionary, no matter its value.
#ifndef identifier
Open a block of code and includes its content if identifier is not a name
in definition dictionary.
#if expression
Open a block of code and includes it if expression is evaluated to True.
#else
Closes the last opened block of code, opens a new block of code
and includes it if any block above and at same level was not True
#elif expression
Closes the last opened block of code, opens a new block of code
and includes it if expression is evaluated to True and any block
above and at same level was not True
#elifdef identifier
Closes the last opened block of code, opens a new block of code
and includes it if identifier is a name in definition dictionary,
no matter its value and any block above and at same level was not True.
#endif
Closes the last opened block of code at same level
#endififdef identifier
Same as #endif + #ifdef but at the same line
#endifif expression
Same as #endif + #if but at the same line
#endifall
Close all opened blocks no matter if they are inner or outter. Use with care.

Examples of Conditional inclusions

# compile block if DEBUG was defined before

#ifdef DEBUG
print("Debug is ON !!!")
#endif

# compile block if DEBUG was not defined or was excluded from definition dictionary

#undef DEBUG
#ifndef DEBUG
print("Debug is ON !!!")
#endif

# compile block if expression is True

# define INT_VER int(VERSION[0])
#if DEBUG is True and INT_VER > 2
print("Debug is ON and Python is 3+!!!")
#elif INT_VER == 2
print("Python certainly is 2.x")
#else
print("I'm sure Debug is ON or OFF :)")
#endif

Exclusion blocks (#exclude and #endexclude)

Depending of your code, sometimes you want to exclude an entire block of code if some conditions are met or not or not, or maybe you wants that only the preprocessor executes this portion of code, but wants remove this portion from final code. For this we have the directives #exclude and #endexclude. All inside this two directives will be completely exclude from final code, but will be seen by preprocessor.

#define NUMPY_E __import__("numpy").e
#define NUMPY_EULER_GAMA __import__("numpy").euler_gama
numpy_e = NUMPY_E
numpy_euler_gama = NUMPY_EULER_GAMA

We imported numpy package only at preprocessor time to get the values of these two constants and set two local variables. numpy package don’t need to be installed where the final code will execute. Neither cpypp as we already know.

Ignore blocks (#ignore and #endignore)

These directives do exactly what their name says. They ignore from the preprocessor an entire block of code.

#ignore
#define NONE "This defines will never occurs because this block is ignored"
#ifndef NONE
print("This !TEXT will be printed exactly how it is #{PRINT_ME#}") # Will print always
#endif
#endignore

Source file inclusion (#include and #includeident)

When the preprocessor finds an #include or #includeident directive it replaces it by the entire content of the specified file. The diference between #include and #includeident is that #include will always include each line of included file starting of column 1 and #includeident will always include each line of incuded file starting at same column where #includeident was written. There are two ways to use #include:

#include <filename>
When filename is specified between angle-backets, cpypp looks for the
filename in all directories listed in sys.path. The first existing file
will be included.
#include expression
When filename is not specified between angle-brackes, cpypp assumes that this
is an expression, evaluates it and the result as used as absolute path of file.
If the file exists it will be included.

Supose that include.py has the following content.

print("I'm an included file")

Now let’s see this code.

#include "include.py"
    #include "include.py"

if some_condition:
   #includeident "include.py"

If we check the preprocessed file we will find:

print("I'm an included file")
print("I'm an included file")

if some_condition:
   print("I'm an included file")

Code protection (#expand)

As you remember, the original code is compiled twice, one before the preprocessor and other after. So at both compiling steps the code must be correct and without syntax or grammar errors.

Sometimes we want to implement some features in our code that are not available in all Python versions, but we need that our code compile correctly so the preprocessor can do its work. For this we have #expand directive. If you had a piece of code that is not compatible with all versions of Python you put it as parameter of #expand. The first step of compiling will consider this line as a comment and will ignore it. And the preprocessor will do its job. For example:

#if __PYTHON2__
print "This","is", "a","python","program"
#else
print ("This is a python program")
#endif

The code above will generate a compile error if we try to run it on Python 3+, because the first print statement does not meet the Python 3 syntax. So the solution is to hide this code from first compiling. #expand will do this for us.

#if __PYTHON2__
#expand print "This","is", "a","python","program"
#else
print ("This is a python program")
#endif

Now the first compiling will occur with no problem no matter what Python version is used and the preprocessor will go on.

Contributing

Please send an email to wellrats@gmail.com

Download files

Download the file for your platform. If you're not sure which to choose, learn more about installing packages.

Files for cpypp, version 1.1.0
Filename, size File type Python version Upload date Hashes
Filename, size cpypp-1.1.0-py2.py3-none-any.whl (32.2 kB) File type Wheel Python version py2.py3 Upload date Hashes View hashes

Supported by

Elastic Elastic Search Pingdom Pingdom Monitoring Google Google BigQuery Sentry Sentry Error logging AWS AWS Cloud computing DataDog DataDog Monitoring Fastly Fastly CDN DigiCert DigiCert EV certificate StatusPage StatusPage Status page