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Automation and orchestration framework and CLI written in Python

Project Description

Summary

Cumin provides a flexible and scalable automation framework to execute multiple commands on multiple hosts in parallel.

It allows to easily perform complex selections of hosts through a user-friendly query language which can interface with different backend modules and combine their results for a fine grained selection. The transport layer can also be selected, and can provide multiple execution strategies.

It can be used both via its command line interface (CLI) and as a Python library.

More details on the usage of Cumin in the Wikimedia Foundation are available on Cumin’s Wikitech page.

Main components

Query language

Cumin provides a user-friendly generic query language that allows to combine the results of subqueries for multiple backends.

  • Each query part can be composed with the others using boolean operators (and, or, and not, xor).
  • Multiple query parts can be grouped together with parentheses ((, )).
  • Specific backend query (I{backend-specific query syntax}, where I is an identifier for the specific backend).
  • Alias replacement, according to aliases defined in the configuration file (A:group1).
  • The identifier A is reserved for the aliases replacement and cannot be used to identify a backend.
  • If a default_backend is set in the configuration, it will try to execute the query first directly with the default backend and only if the query is not parsable with that backend it will try to execute it with the main grammar.
  • A complex query example: (D{host1 or host2} and (P{R:Class = Role::MyClass} and not A:group1)) or D{host3}
Backus-Naur form (BNF) of the grammar:
        <grammar> ::= <item> | <item> <boolean> <grammar>
           <item> ::= <backend_query> | <alias> | "(" <grammar> ")"
  <backend_query> ::= <backend> "{" <query> "}"
          <alias> ::= A:<alias_name>
        <boolean> ::= "and not" | "and" | "xor" | "or"

Given that the pyparsing library defines the grammar in a BNF-like style, for the details of the tokens not specified above check directly the source code in cumin/grammar.py.

The Query class defined in cumin/query.py is the one taking care of replacing the aliases, building and executing the query parts with their respective backends and aggregating the results. Once a query is executed, it returns a ClusterShell NodeSet with the FQDN of the hosts that matches the selection.

Backends

All the backends share a minimal common interface that is defined in the BaseQuery class defined in cumin/backends/__init__.py and they are instantiated by the Query class defined in cumin/query.py when building and executing the query. Each backend module need to define a query_class module variable that is a pointer to the backend class for dynamic instantiation and a GRAMMAR_PREFIX constant string that is the identifier to be used in the main query syntax to identify the backend. The GRAMMAR_PREFIX A is reserved by the main grammar for aliases. Some backends are optional, in the sense that their dependencies are not installed automatically, they are available as an extras_require when installing from pip or as Recommended in the debian package.

PuppetDB

This backend uses the PuppetDB API to perform the query. The specific query language has this features:

  • Each query part can be composed with the others using boolean operators (and, or, not)
  • Multiple query parts can be grouped together with parentheses ((, )).
  • A query part can be of two different types:
    • Hostname matching: this is a simple string that be used to match directly the hostname of the hosts in the selected backend. It allows for glob expansion (*) and the use of the powerful ClusterShell NodeSet.
    • Category matching: an identifier composed by a category, a colon and a key, followed by a comparison operator and a value, as in F:key = value.

The available categories are:

  • F: for querying facts
  • R: for querying resources

The available operators are:

  • =: equality
  • >=: greater than or equal to
  • <=: less than or equal to
  • <: less than
  • >: greater than
  • ~: regexp match

Some query examples:

  • All hosts: *
  • Hosts globbing: host10*
  • ClusterShell NodeSet for hosts expansion: host10[10-42].domain
  • Category based key-value selection:
    • R:Resource::Name: query all the hosts that have a resource of type Resource::Name.
    • R:Resource::Name = 'resource-title': query all the hosts that have a resource of type Resource::Name whose title is resource-title. For example R:Class = MyModule::MyClass.
    • R:Resource::Name@field = 'some-value': query all the hosts that have a resource of type Resource::Name whose field field has the value some-value. The valid fields are: tag, certname, type, title, exported, file, line. The previous syntax is a shortcut for this one with the field title.
    • R:Resource::Name%param = 'some-value': query all the hosts that have a resource of type Resource::Name whose parameter param has the value some-value.
  • Mixed facts/resources queries are not supported, but the same result can be achieved by the main grammar using multiple subqueries.
  • A complex selection for facts: host10[10-42].*.domain or (not F:key1 = value1 and host10*) or (F:key2 > value2 and F:key3 ~ '^value[0-9]+')
Backus-Naur form (BNF) of the grammar:
      <grammar> ::= <item> | <item> <and_or> <grammar>
         <item> ::= [<neg>] <query-token> | [<neg>] "(" <grammar> ")"
  <query-token> ::= <token> | <hosts>
        <token> ::= <category>:<key> [<operator> <value>]

Given that the pyparsing library used to define the grammar uses a BNF-like style, for the details of the tokens not specified above see directly the code in cumin/backends/puppetdb.py.

OpenStack

This optional backend uses the OpenStack APIs to perform the query. The specific query language has this features:

  • Each query can specify multiple parameters to filter the hosts selection in the form key:value.
  • The special project key allow to filter by the OpenStack project name: project:project_name. If not specified all the visible and enabled projects will be queried.
  • Any other key:value pair will be passed as is to the OpenStack list-servers API. Multiple filters can be added separated by space. The value can be enclosed in single or double quotes: name:"host1.*\.domain" image:UUID
  • By default the filters status:ACTIVE and vm_state:ACTIVE are also added, but will be overridden if specified in the query.
  • To mix multiple selections the general grammar must be used with multiple subqueries: O{project:project1} or O{project:project2}
  • The special query * is a shortcut to select all hosts in all OpenStack projects.
  • See the example configuration in doc/examples/config.yaml for all the OpenStack-related parameters that can be set.
Backus-Naur form (BNF) of the grammar:
        <grammar> ::= "*" | <items>
          <items> ::= <item> | <item> <whitespace> <items>
           <item> ::= <key>:<value>

Given that the pyparsing library used to define the grammar uses a BNF-like style, for the details of the tokens not specified above see directly the code in cumin/backends/openstack.py.

Direct

The direct backend allow to use Cumin without any external dependency for the hosts selection. It allow to write arbitrarily complex queries with subgroups and boolean operators, but each item must be either the hostname itself, or the using host expansion using the powerful ClusterShell NodeSet syntax.

The typical usage for the direct backend is as a reliable alternative in cases in which the primary host selection mechanism is not working and also for testing the transports without any external backend dependency.

Some query examples:

  • Simple selection: host1.domain
  • ClusterShell syntax for hosts expansion: host10[10-42].domain,host2010.other-domain
  • A complex selection: host100[1-5].domain or (host10[30-40].domain and (host10[10-42].domain and not host33.domain))
Backus-Naur form (BNF) of the grammar:
        <grammar> ::= <item> | <item> <boolean> <grammar>
           <item> ::= <hosts> | "(" <grammar> ")"
        <boolean> ::= "and not" | "and" | "xor" | "or"

Given that the pyparsing library used to define the grammar usesa BNF-like style, for the details of the tokens not specified above check directly the source code in cumin/backends/direct.py.

Transports

The transport layer is the one used to convey the commands to be executed into the selected hosts. The transport abstraction allow to specify a mode to choose the execution plan, an event handler class and a success threshold. Those can be used by the chosen transport to customize the behavior of the execution plan.

All the transports share a common interface that is defined in the BaseWorker class defined in cumin/transports/__init__.py and they are instantiated through the Transport factory class defined in cumin/transport.py. Each backend module need to define a worker_class module variable that is a pointer to the transport class for dynamic instantiation.

ClusterShell

This transport uses the ClusterShell Python library to connect to the selected hosts and execute a list of commands. This transport accept the following customizations:

  • sync execution mode: given a list of commands, the first one will be executed on all the hosts, then, if the success ratio is reached, the second one will be executed on all hosts where the first one was successful, and so on
  • async execution mode: given a list of commands, on each hosts the commands will be executed sequentially, interrupting the execution on any single host at the first command that fails. The execution on the hosts is independent between each other.
  • custom execution mode: can be achieved creating a custom event handler class that extends the BaseEventHandler class defined in cumin/transports/clustershell.py, implementing its abstract methods and setting to this class object the handler to the transport.

Installation

From the Python Package Index (PyPI):

pip install cumin

Optional backends are available as extras_require and can be installed with:

pip install cumin[with-openstack]

From the source code in the master branch:

python setup.py install

Is it also possible to build a Debian package using the debian branch, for example with gbp buildpackage.

Configuration

The default configuration file for cumin is expected to be found at /etc/cumin/config.yaml. The path can be changed in the CLI via a command-line switch, --config. A commented example configuration is available in doc/examples/config.yaml.

Cumin will also automatically load any aliases defined in a aliases.yaml file, if present in the same directory of the main configuration file. An aliases example file is available in doc/examples/aliases.yaml.

CLI

Usage

cumin [OPTIONS] HOSTS COMMAND [COMMAND ...]

OPTIONS

For the full list of available optional arguments see cumin --help.

Mode

The -m/--mode argument is required when multiple COMMANDS are specified and defines the mode of execution:

  • sync: execute the first command on all hosts, then proceed with the next one only if -s/--success-percentage is reached.
  • async: execute on each host, independently from each other, the list of commands, aborting the execution on any given host at the first command that fails.

Positional arguments

HOSTS

A host selection query according to a custom grammar. The hosts selection query is executed against the configured backend to extract the list of hosts to use as target.

COMMAND

A command to be executed on all the target hosts in parallel, according to the configuration and options selected. Multiple commands will be executed sequentially.

Running tests

The tox utility, a wrapper around virtualenv, is used to run the test. To list the default environements run by tox:

tox -lv

To list all the available environments:

tox -av

To run one specific environment only:

tox -e flake8

You can pass extra arguments to the underlying command:

# Run only tests in a specific file:
tox -e unit -- -k test_puppetdb.py

# Run only one specific test:
tox -e unit -- -k test_invalid_grammars

Also integration tests are available, but not run by default by tox. They depends on a running Docker instance. To run them:

tox -e integration
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