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Tools to hook into Python's import syntax

Project description

custom_imports

Tools to hook into Python's import syntax.

These hooks can allow you to import config files, modules written in different languages, or even create entirely virtual modules.

Basic Usage

Included in custom_imports are some sample importers, json_importer, cfg_importer, ini_importer, and CSVImporter.

When registered, these importers allow you to import the corresponding file types as though they were Python modules.

For example,

server_config.ini

[environment]
server_name = prod
debug = no

[database]
host = https://example.com
port = 27017
username = <username>
password = <password>

connections.py

import server_config

if server_config.environment.debug:
    setup_logging()

db_client = DatabaseClient(**server_config.database)

Registration

Importers can be registered with importer.register().

from custom_imports import ini_importer

ini_importer.register()

import server_config

Alternatively, you can use the importer as a context manager:

with ini_importer:
    import server_config

and the importer deregisters itself once the with block has been terminated.

Deregistration

Import hooks modify sys.meta_path, which is global, so it's a bad idea to leave your importers hanging around if you intend for your code to be used as part of a larger project.

For example, if two modules use different flavors of CSV, then one of them is going to be unable to import their CSV files.

Thankfully, once a module has been imported for the first time, it is stored in the module cache, and so you no longer need the importer.

To keep your sys.meta_path clear, you can deregister an importer once you're finished with it. This can be done either with importer.deregister(), or by using the importer as a context manager.

Environment-wide Setup

On the other hand, it can be ugly needing to have a non-import (the importer registration) before an import (your custom module type).

If you are the only project needing to use this Python environment, then you can register an importer environment-wide. To do so, create a custom-imports.pth file in your environment's site-packages folder with the following contents:

import custom_imports; custom_imports.ini_importer.register()

For multiple importers, repeat the entire line, replacing the importer used.

If your project uses an importer in this way, be sure to include this step in your project's environment setup instructions.

Reference

Finder

Module Finders search for a module among the various paths available. If it finds a module, it returns a "locator" for that module, which can be any non-None Python object that contains all the information required to immediately locate the module. If it fails to find a module, it returns None.

Module Finders do not attempt to construct the module, they only find their locators.

Custom Finders should inherit from Finder and override the find_module_locator method.

Two module Finders are provided by default:

SimpleFinder

A basic Finder class.

SimpleFinder(
    locate_module=func,
)

Finds a module locator by calling func(fullname, path, target).

FileModuleExtensionFinder

Finder for file based modules by file extensions.

A file based module is a module that is generated from a single file.

FileModuleExtensionFinder(ext)

This Finder interprets a module's name as a filename, with extension ext. Parent modules are interpreted as directories.

This provides a relative path, which is searched for on the standard module search path. If a file with that relative path is found, then the absolute Path of that file is returned as its module locator.

Loader

Module Loaders take module locators, and construct the module at that location.

Custom Loaders should inherit from Loader and override the create_module and exec_module methods.

Two module Loaders are provided by default:

SimpleLoader

A basic Loader class.

SimpleLoader(
    module_type=cls,
    module_type_kwargs=kwargs,
    load_module=func,
)

Creates an empty module by calling the equivalent of cls(**kwargs), and executes it by calling func(module, module_locator).

FileModuleLoader

Loader for file based modules.

A file based module is a module that is generated from a single file.

FileModuleLoader(
    module_type=cls,
    module_type_kwargs=kwargs,
    read_module=func,
)

This Loader takes a Path to the file to be loaded as its module locator, creates an empty module by calling the equivalent of cls(**kwargs), and executes it by calling func(module, file).

The file handle passed to func is closed after func terminates.

Importer

A basic Importer class.

Importer(
    finder=finder,
    loader=loader,
)

When registered, this Importer overloads import syntax to additionally attempt to use finder to find modules, and loader to load them.

Register an Importer with importer.register(). Deregister an Importer with importer.deregister().

May also be used as a context manager:

with foo_importer:
    import foo

with the importer registering itself at the start of the block, and deregistering itself at the end.

Sample importers

json_importer

When registered, imports .json files as dicts.

cfg_importer

When registered, import .cfg files using ConfigParser, with attribute notation.

ini_importer

When registered, import .ini files using ConfigParser, with attribute notation.

CSVImporter

When instantiated and registered, import .csv files using the provided CSV reader.

CSVImporter(
    csv_reader=csv_reader,
    csv_reader_kwargs=kwargs,
)

This importer loads a module using the result of csv_reader(file, **kwargs).

csv_reader should be a CSV reader class (for example, csv.reader, or csv.DictReader).

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