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It converts django models to sqlalchemy orm/expression objects.

Project description


  • Python: 2.7.15 or later, 3.4 or later.
    • Tested with 2.7.15, 3.6
  • Django: 1.9 or later.
    • Tested with 1.11, 2.0, 2.1
  • SQLAlchemy: 0.9 or later.
    • Tested with 1.2


$ pip install d2a


Auto loading

Just add d2a to settings.INSTALLED_APPS.


    # top or here

    # example apps


Put it before apps you made as you can. Because it expects to register alchemy model before the other

Then models_sqla (default) in all apps will be imported as a module.

>>> from books import models_sqla
>>> models_sqla.  # tab completion
models_sqla.Author(            models_sqla.BookCategory(      models_sqla.CategoryRelation(  models_sqla.transfer(
models_sqla.Book(              models_sqla.Category(          models_sqla.models

>>> models_sqla.Book
<class ''>

>>> models_sqla.Book.  # tab completion       models_sqla.Book.content      models_sqla.Book.metadata     models_sqla.Book.tags
models_sqla.Book.author_id    models_sqla.Book.description  models_sqla.Book.mro(         models_sqla.Book.title
models_sqla.Book.category           models_sqla.Book.price
# SQL Expression schema
>>> models_sqla.Book.__table__
  'book', MetaData(bind=None),
  Column('id', UUID(), table=<book>, primary_key=True, nullable=False, default=ColumnDefault(<function uuid4 at 0x7f3cebe7e598>)),
  Column('price', JSON(astext_type=Text()), table=<book>, nullable=False),
  Column('title', VARCHAR(length=255), table=<book>, nullable=False),
  Column('description', TEXT(), table=<book>),
  Column('author_id', INTEGER(), ForeignKey(''), table=<book>),
  Column('content', BYTEA(), table=<book>, nullable=False),
  Column('tags', ARRAY(VARCHAR()), table=<book>, nullable=False),

Also, it can extract model declared implicitly depending on m2m field. (in this case, BookCategory)


You can set configrations to


# This variable can be omitted.
    'AUTOLOAD': { # optional
        # module name: It can be used different module name from `models_sqla`.
        'module': 'modelsa',  # optional, default: 'models_sqla'
        # waiting seconds during autoloading
        'seconds': 5,  # default: 1
        # transfer function's args after 'exports' arg.
        'option': {  # optional
            'db_type': 'postgresql',  # default: 'default'
            'back_type': 'backref',  # default: 'backref'
            'as_table': True,  # default: False
            'name_formatter': str.upper,  # default: get_camelcase
    # converting rules for customized fields
    'ALIASES': {  # optional
        # Evaluates ExtendedImageField as ImageField
        ExtendedImageField: models.ImageField,

Per models module

If you want to create a module manually, create a in the apps.

Write like the following to it:

from d2a import transfer
from . import models
transfer(models, globals()) exists, auto module creation will be omitted.

And if you create every manually, it is unnecessary to set d2a to settings.INSTALLED_APPS.


  • project_postgresql/books/
  • You can omit specifying db_type, then it automatically detects a database type from settings.DATABASES['default'].
    • Now postgresql, mysql and oracle are allowed, the other types will be converted to the following types as default type: sqlalchemy/

Per model

If you just want to convert one model, you should use declare function.

>>> from d2a import declare
>>> from sales.models import Sales
>>> sales = declare(Sales)
>>> sales
<class 'd2a.sales'>

>>> sales.__table__
  'sales', MetaData(bind=None),
  Column('id', BIGINT(), table=<sales>, primary_key=True, nullable=False),
  Column('book_id', UUID(), ForeignKey(''), table=<sales>, nullable=False),
  Column('sold', TIMESTAMP(), table=<sales>, nullable=False),
  Column('reservation', INTERVAL(), table=<sales>),
  Column('source', INET(), table=<sales>),

>>> sales.           sales.mro(         sales.sold
sales.book_id      sales.metadata     sales.reservation  sales.source

Custom fields

If you are using customized field (not built-in), you can register the field as the other field using alias or alias_dict method.

from django.db.models import ImageField

class ExtendedImageField(ImageField):
    """something customizing"""

from d2a import alias
alias(ExtendedImageField, ImageField)

# or
  ExtendedImageField: ImageField,

Querying shortcut


There is a function named make_session for ORM mode.

>>> from d2a import make_session
>>> from books.models_sqla import Author

>>> with make_session() as session:
...     # it commits and flushes automatically when the scope exits.
...     a = Author()
... = 'righ'
...     a.age = 30
...     session.add(a)
>>> with make_session() as session:
...     # when the session was rolled back or causes some exception in the context,
...     # it won't register records in the session.
...     a = Author()
... = 'teruhiko'
...     a.age = 85
...     session.add(a)
...     session.rollback()
>>> with make_session() as session:
...     session.query(, Author.age).all()
[('righ', 30)]

It receives the following arguments:

engine:engine object or database-type (string) (default: None). When it is omitted, it guesses database type and gets an engine automatically.
autoflush:It is the same as sessionmaker (default: True)
autocommit:It is the same as sessionmaker (default: False)
 It is the same as sessionmaker (default: True)
info:It is the same as sessionmaker (default: None)

All arguments can be omitted.


There are two functions.

 To retrieve SELECT results, and returns a list containing record.
 To execute INSERT, DELETE, UPDATE statements, and returns num of records having been affected.
>>> from sqlalchemy import (
...     select,
...     insert,
... )

>>> from d2a import query_expression, execute_expression

# if you try on `project_mysql` demo, you should write ``from books.modelsa import Author``
>>> from books.models_sqla import Author

>>> AuthorTable = Author.__table__

>>> records = [
...     {'name': 'a', 'age': 10},
...     {'name': 'b', 'age': 30},
...     {'name': 'c', 'age': 20},
... ]

>>> # insert
>>> stmt = insert(AuthorTable).values(records)
>>> execute_expression(stmt)

>>> # select
>>> stmt = select([
...     AuthorTable.c.age,
... ]).select_from(AuthorTable).order_by(AuthorTable.c.age)
>>> query_expression(stmt)
  OrderedDict([('id', 12), ('name', 'a'), ('age', 10)]),
  OrderedDict([('id', 14), ('name', 'c'), ('age', 20)]),
  OrderedDict([('id', 13), ('name', 'b'), ('age', 30)])

>>> # record as tuple
>>> query_expression(stmt, as_col_dict=False)
[(12, 'a', 10), (14, 'c', 20), (13, 'b', 30)]

>>> query_expression(stmt, as_col_dict=False, debug={'printer': print, 'show_explain': True, 'sql_format': True})
FROM author
ORDER BY author.age
Sort  (cost=16.39..16.74 rows=140 width=522) (actual time=0.027..0.028 rows=18 loops=1)
  Sort Key: age
  Sort Method: quicksort  Memory: 25kB
  ->  Seq Scan on author  (cost=0.00..11.40 rows=140 width=522) (actual time=0.007..0.009 rows=18 loops=1)
Planning time: 0.072 ms
Execution time: 0.047 ms
[(12, 'a', 10), (14, 'c', 20), (13, 'b', 30)]


I added argument of query_expression() to see debugging information.

Specify options as dict type like the following:

query_expression(stmt, debug={  # all options can be skipped.
    'show_sql': True, # if showing the sql query or not.
    'show_explain': False, # if showing explain for the sql query or not.
    'sql_format': False, # if formatting the sql query or not.
    'sql_reindent': True, # if setting indent the sql query or not.
    'sql_keyword_case': 'upper', # A rule converting reserved words.
    'explain_prefix': depends on the database type. unless you specify it, an appropriate prefix will be automatically used.
    'printer': logger.debug, # printing method, if you use python3, then try `print` function.
    'delimiter': '=' * 100, # characters dividing debug informations.
    'database': 'default' # django database

Default is {} (An empty dict means disabling debug.)


Supported auto-detecting db types are the following:

  • PostgreSQL
  • MySQL
  • Oracle


start up environment

$ git clone
$ cd d2a
$ docker-compose up


$ docker exec -it d2a_app_1 /bin/bash
# python -m venv venv # only first time
# source venv/bin/activate
(venv) # cd project_postgresql/ # (or mysql)
(venv) project_postgresql # ./ migrate


(venv) project_postgresql # ./ shell
>>> from books import models_sqla
>>> book = models_sqla.Book()
>>> author = models_sqla.Author()
>>> = author
>>> author.books
[< object at 0x7f3cec539358>]
# And do something you want do ;)


  • Changed:

    • Warning: Changed arg name as_dict to as_col_dict
  • Added:


    If result set being list type or not.

    default is True.


    A method making row to dict. You got to be able to change the method to dict().

    default is collections.OrderedDict.


    If showing debug information or not. specify options dict.

  • Added a shortcut function for executing in ORM mode.
  • Added two shortcut functions for executing in EXPRESSION mode.
  • (2019-02-17)
  • Added a function to load all models automatically.
  • (2018-07-10)
  • Improved a little.
  • (2018-07-06)
  • Fixed a bug, that it will be provided None even though it’s not specified default argument.
  • (2018-07-05)
  • Fixed bugs.
  • Added unit tests.
  • Fixed a bug that abstract models become the targets.
  • Deleted install_requires.
  • added alias method.
  • fixed bugs.
  • it got easy to declare custom field.
  • transfer method can define secondary table.
  • it supported m2m field.
  • it limited django version less than 1.9.

first release (2017-12-27)

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