Programming by contract
Deal -- python library for design by contract (DbC) programming.
assert statements in decorators style to validate function input, output, available operations and object state. Goal is make testing much easier and detect errors in your code that occasionally was missed in tests.
- Automatic property-based tests.
- Static analysis.
- Generators and async coroutines support.
- External validators support.
- Type-annotated and mypy-friendly.
- Specify allowed exceptions for function.
- Invariant for all actions with class instances.
- Decorators to control available resources: forbid output, network operations, raising exceptions.
- You can disable contracts on production.
- deal.pre -- validate function arguments (pre-condition)
- deal.post -- validate function return value (post-condition)
- deal.ensure -- post-condition that accepts not only result, but also function arguments.
- deal.inv -- validate object internal state (invariant).
Take more control:
- deal.module_load -- check contracts at module initialization.
- deal.offline -- forbid network requests
- deal.raises -- allow only list of exceptions
- deal.reason -- check function arguments that caused a given exception.
- deal.silent -- forbid output into stderr/stdout.
- deal.chain -- chain a few contracts in one.
- deal.pure -- forbid side-effects and combine
- deal.safe -- forbid exceptions.
python3 -m pip install --user deal
import re import attr import deal REX_LOGIN = re.compile(r'^[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9]+$') class PostAlreadyLiked(Exception): pass @deal.inv(lambda post: post.visits >= 0) class Post: visits: int = attr.ib(default=0) likes: set = attr.ib(factory=set) @deal.pre(lambda user: REX_LOGIN.match(user), message='invalid username format') @deal.raises(PostAlreadyLiked) @deal.chain(deal.offline, deal.silent) def like(self, user: str) -> None: if user in self.likes: raise PostAlreadyLiked self.likes.add(user) @deal.post(lambda result: 'visits' in result) @deal.post(lambda result: 'likes' in result) @deal.post(lambda result: result['likes'] > 0) @deal.pure def get_state(self): return dict(visits=self.visits, likes=len(self.likes))
Now, Deal controls conditions and states of the object at runtime:
@deal.invcontrols that visits count in post always non-negative.
@deal.prechecks user name format. We assume that it should be validated somewhere before by some nice forms with user-friendly error messages. So, if we have invalid login passed here, it's definitely developer's mistake.
@deal.raisessays that only possible exception that can be raised is
@deal.chain(deal.offline, deal.silent)controls that function has no network requests and has no output in stderr or stdout. So, if we are making unexpected network requests somewhere inside, deal let us know about it.
deal.postchecks result format for
get_state. So, all external code can be sure that fields
visitsalways represented in the result and likes always positive.
If code violates some condition, sub-exception of
deal.ContractError will be raised:
p = Post() p.visits = -1 # InvContractError:
Dive deeper on deal.readthedocs.io.
Contributions are welcome! A few ideas what you can contribute:
- Add new checks for the linter.
- Improve documentation.
- Add more tests.
- Improve performance.
- Found a bug? Fix it!
- Made an article about deal? Great! Let's add it into the
- Don't have time to code? No worries! Just tell your friends and subscribers about the project. More users -> more contributors -> more cool features.
Thank you :heart:
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