Move macOS dynamic libraries into package
macOS utilities to:
find dynamic libraries imported from python extensions
copy needed dynamic libraries to directory within package
update macOS install_names and rpath to cause code to load from copies of libraries
delocate-listdeps – show libraries a tree depends on
delocate-path – copy libraries a tree depends on into the tree and relink
delocate-wheel – rewrite wheel having copied and relinked library dependencies into the wheel tree.
delocate-fuse – combine two wheels with different architectures into one wheel with dual architecture binaries.
Auditwheel is a similar tool for Linux. Auditwheel started life as a partial fork of Delocate.
Let’s say you have built a wheel somewhere, but it’s linking to dynamic libraries elsewhere on the machine, so you can’t distribute it, because others may not have these same libraries. Here we analyze the dependencies for a Scipy wheel:
$ delocate-listdeps scipy-0.14.0b1-cp34-cp34m-macosx_10_6_intel.whl /usr/local/Cellar/gfortran/4.8.2/gfortran/lib/libgcc_s.1.dylib /usr/local/Cellar/gfortran/4.8.2/gfortran/lib/libgfortran.3.dylib /usr/local/Cellar/gfortran/4.8.2/gfortran/lib/libquadmath.0.dylib
By default, this does not include libraries in /usr/lib and /System. See those too with:
$ delocate-listdeps --all scipy-0.14.0-cp34-cp34m-macosx_10_6_intel.whl /System/Library/Frameworks/Accelerate.framework/Versions/A/Accelerate /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib /usr/lib/libstdc++.6.dylib /usr/local/Cellar/gfortran/4.8.2/gfortran/lib/libgcc_s.1.dylib /usr/local/Cellar/gfortran/4.8.2/gfortran/lib/libgfortran.3.dylib /usr/local/Cellar/gfortran/4.8.2/gfortran/lib/libquadmath.0.dylib
The output tells me that Scipy has picked up dynamic libraries from my Homebrew installation of gfortran (as well as the system libs).
You can get a listing of the files depending on each of the libraries, using the --depending flag:
$ delocate-listdeps --depending scipy-0.14.0-cp34-cp34m-macosx_10_6_intel.whl /usr/local/Cellar/gfortran/4.8.2/gfortran/lib/libgcc_s.1.dylib: scipy/interpolate/dfitpack.so scipy/special/specfun.so scipy/interpolate/_fitpack.so ...
We can fix like this:
$ delocate-wheel -w fixed_wheels -v scipy-0.14.0-cp34-cp34m-macosx_10_6_intel.whl Fixing: scipy-0.14.0-cp34-cp34m-macosx_10_6_intel.whl Copied to package .dylibs directory: /usr/local/Cellar/gfortran/4.8.2/gfortran/lib/libgcc_s.1.dylib /usr/local/Cellar/gfortran/4.8.2/gfortran/lib/libgfortran.3.dylib /usr/local/Cellar/gfortran/4.8.2/gfortran/lib/libquadmath.0.dylib
The -w flag tells delocate-wheel to output to a new wheel directory instead of overwriting the old wheel. -v (verbose) tells you what delocate-wheel is doing. In this case it has made a new directory in the wheel zipfile, named scipy/.dylibs. It has copied all the library dependencies that are outside the macOS system trees into this directory, and patched the python .so extensions in the wheel to use these copies instead of looking in /usr/local/Cellar/gfortran/4.8.2/gfortran/lib.
Check the links again to confirm:
$ delocate-listdeps --all fixed_wheels/scipy-0.14.0-cp34-cp34m-macosx_10_6_intel.whl /System/Library/Frameworks/Accelerate.framework/Versions/A/Accelerate /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib /usr/lib/libstdc++.6.0.9.dylib @loader_path/../../../../.dylibs/libgcc_s.1.dylib @loader_path/../../../../.dylibs/libgfortran.3.dylib @loader_path/../../../../.dylibs/libquadmath.0.dylib @loader_path/../../../.dylibs/libgcc_s.1.dylib @loader_path/../../../.dylibs/libgfortran.3.dylib @loader_path/../../../.dylibs/libquadmath.0.dylib @loader_path/../../.dylibs/libgcc_s.1.dylib @loader_path/../../.dylibs/libgfortran.3.dylib @loader_path/../../.dylibs/libquadmath.0.dylib @loader_path/../.dylibs/libgcc_s.1.dylib @loader_path/../.dylibs/libgfortran.3.dylib @loader_path/../.dylibs/libquadmath.0.dylib @loader_path/libgcc_s.1.dylib @loader_path/libquadmath.0.dylib
So - system dylibs the same, but the others moved into the wheel tree.
This makes the wheel more likely to work on another machine which does not have the same version of Gfortran installed - in this example.
Checking required architectures
Current Python.org Python and the macOS system Python (/usr/bin/python) are both dual architecture binaries. For example:
$ lipo -info /usr/bin/python Architectures in the fat file: /usr/bin/python are: x86_64 arm64e
Note: you can compile ARM binaries for basic ARM (arm64), or to use some extended ARM capabilities (arm64e) - see this SO post. Both types of binaries work on Mac M1 and M2 machines, so we will use arm64 to refer to either arm64 or arm64e.
The Big Sur macOS Python above has both x86_64 and arm64 (M1) versions fused into one file. Earlier versions of macOS had dual architectures that were 32-bit (i386) and 64-bit (x86_64).
For full compatibility with system and Python.org Python, wheels built for Python.org Python or system Python should have the corresponding architectures — e.g. x86_64 and arm64 versions of the Python extensions and their libraries. It is easy to link Python extensions against single architecture libraries by mistake, and therefore get single architecture extensions and / or libraries. In fact my Scipy wheel is one such example, because I inadvertently linked against the Homebrew libraries, which were x86_64 only. To check this you can use the --require-archs flag:
$ delocate-wheel --require-archs=intel scipy-0.14.0-cp34-cp34m-macosx_10_6_intel.whl Traceback (most recent call last): File "/Users/mb312/.virtualenvs/delocate/bin/delocate-wheel", line 77, in <module> main() File "/Users/mb312/.virtualenvs/delocate/bin/delocate-wheel", line 69, in main check_verbose=opts.verbose) File "/Users/mb312/.virtualenvs/delocate/lib/python2.7/site-packages/delocate/delocating.py", line 477, in delocate_wheel "Some missing architectures in wheel") delocate.delocating.DelocationError: Some missing architectures in wheel
Notice that this command was using an earlier version of Delocate that supported Python 2; we now support Python 3 only.
The intel argument to --require-arch above requires dual 32- and 64- bit architecture extensions and libraries. You can see which extensions are at fault by adding the -v (verbose) flag:
$ delocate-wheel -w fixed_wheels --require-archs=intel -v scipy-0.14.0-cp34-cp34m-macosx_10_6_intel.whl Fixing: scipy-0.14.0-cp34-cp34m-macosx_10_6_intel.whl Required arch i386 missing from /usr/local/Cellar/gfortran/4.8.2/gfortran/lib/libgfortran.3.dylib Required arch i386 missing from /usr/local/Cellar/gfortran/4.8.2/gfortran/lib/libquadmath.0.dylib Required arch i386 missing from scipy/fftpack/_fftpack.so Required arch i386 missing from scipy/fftpack/convolve.so Required arch i386 missing from scipy/integrate/_dop.so ...
I need to rebuild this wheel to link with dual-architecture libraries.
Making dual-architecture binaries
Modern Mac wheels can be either arm64 (M1/M2 ARM), x86_64 (64-bit Intel) or both (universal2).
Building an entire Python wheel as dual-architecture can be difficult, perhaps because you need to link different libraries in the two cases, or you need different compiler flags, or because you build for arm64 on one continuous integration platform (such as - at time of writing - Cirrus CI), and x86_64 on another.
One solution to this problem is to do an entire arm64 wheel build, and then an entire x86_64 wheel build, and fuse the two wheels into a universal wheel.
That is what the delocate-fuse command does.
Let’s say you have built an ARM and Intel wheel, called, respectively:
Then you could create a new fused (universal2) wheel in the tmp subdirectory with:
delocate-fuse scipy-1.9.3-cp311-cp311-macosx_12_0_arm64.whl scipy-1.9.3-cp311-cp311-macosx_10_9_x86_64.whl -w tmp
The output wheel in that case would be:
Note that we specified an output directory above with the -w flag. If we had not done that, then we overwrite the first wheel with the fused wheel. And note that the wheel written into the tmp subdirectory has the same name as the first-specified wheel.
In the new wheel, you will find, using lipo -archs - that all binaries with the same name in each wheel are now universal (x86_64 and arm64).
To be useful, you should rename the output wheel to reflect the fact that it is now a universal wheel - in this case to:
DelocationError: “library does not exist”
When running delocate-wheel or its sister command delocate-path, you may get errors like this:
delocate.delocating.DelocationError: library "<long temporary path>/wheel/libme.dylib" does not exist
This happens when one of your libraries gives a library dependency with a relative path. For example, let’s say that some file in my wheel has this for the output of otool -L myext.so:
myext.so: libme.dylib (compatibility version 10.0.0, current version 10.0.0) /usr/lib/libstdc++.6.dylib (compatibility version 7.0.0, current version 60.0.0) /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 1197.1.1)
The first line means that myext.so expects to find libme.dylib at exactly the path ./libme.dylib - the current working directory from which you ran the executable. The output should be something like:
myext.so: /path/to/libme.dylib (compatibility version 10.0.0, current version 10.0.0) /usr/lib/libstdc++.6.dylib (compatibility version 7.0.0, current version 60.0.0) /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 1197.1.1)
To set the path to the library, the linker is using the install name id of the linked library. In this bad case, then otool -L libme.dylib will give something like:
libme.dylib (compatibility version 10.0.0, current version 10.0.0) /usr/lib/libSystem.B.dylib (compatibility version 1.0.0, current version 1197.1.1)
where the first line is the install name id that the linker picked up when linking myext.so to libme.dylib. Your job is to fix the build process so that libme.dylib has install name id /path/to/libme.dylib. This is not a problem specific to Delocate; you will need to do this to make sure that myext.so can load libme.dylib without libme.dylib being in the current working directory. For CMAKE builds you may want to check out CMAKE_INSTALL_NAME_DIR.
Released under the BSD two-clause license - see the file LICENSE in the source distribution.
travis-ci kindly tests the code automatically under Python 3.6 through 3.9.
The latest released version is at https://pypi.python.org/pypi/delocate
Please put up issues on the Delocate issue tracker.
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