Skip to main content

graph-based processing of multi-level annotated corpora

Project description


.. image::
:alt: PyPI download counter
:align: right
.. image::
:alt: Latest version
:align: right
.. image::
:alt: BSD License
:align: right

.. image::
:alt: Build status
:align: right
.. image::
:alt: Test coverage
:align: right
.. image::
:alt: Code Issues
:align: right

This library enables you to process linguistic corpora with multiple levels
of annotations by:

1. converting the different annotation formats into separate graphs and
2. merging these graphs into a single multidigraph (based on the common
tokenization of the annotation layers)
3. exporting your (merged) graphs into several output formats
4. `visualizing linguistic graphs`_ directly in an `IPython notebook`_

.. _`visualizing linguistic graphs`:
.. _`IPython notebook`:

Import formats

So far, the following formats can be imported and merged:

* `TigerXML`_ (a format for representing tree-like syntax graphs with
secondary edges)
* `Penn Treebank <>`_ format (an s-expressions/lisp/brackets format for representing syntax trees)
* RS3 (a format used by `RSTTool`_ to
annotate documents with Rhetorical Structure Theory)
* `MMAX2`_ (a format / GUI tool for annotating spans and connections between
them (e.g. coreferences)
* `CoNLL 2009`_ and `CoNLL 2010`_ formats (used for annotating i.a. dependency parses
and coreference links)
* ConanoXML (a format for annotating connectives, used by `Conano`_)
* Decour (an XML format used by a corpus of
`DEceptive statements in Italian COURts <>`_)
* `EXMARaLDA <>`_, a format for annotating spans in spoken
or written language
* an ad-hoc plain text format for annotating expletives (you're probably not
interested in)

.. _`TigerXML`:
.. _`RSTTool`:
.. _`MMAX2`:
.. _`CoNLL 2009`:
.. _`CoNLL 2010`:
.. _`Conano`:

Export formats

discoursegraphs can export graphs into the following formats /
for the following tools:

* dot format, which is used by the open source graph visualization software `graphviz <>`_
* geoff format, used by the `neo4j <>`_ graph database
* `GEXF <>`_ and `GraphML <>`_
(common interchange formats for graphs used by various tools such as
`Gephi <>`_ and `Cytoscape <>`_)
* `PAULA XML 1.1 <>`_, an exchange format
for linguistic data (exporter is still buggy)
* `EXMARaLDA <>`_, a tool for annotating spans in spoken
or written language
* `CoNLL 2009`_ (so far, only tokens, sentence boundaries and coreferences are exported)


This should work on both Linux and Mac OSX using `Python 2.7`_ and
either `pip`_ or easy_install.

.. _`Python 2.7`:
.. _`pip`:

Install from PyPI


pip install discoursegraphs # prepend 'sudo' if needed

or, if you're oldschool:


easy_install discoursegraphs # prepend 'sudo' if needed

Install from source


sudo apt-get install python-dev libxml2-dev libxslt-dev pkg-config graphviz-dev libgraphviz-dev -y
sudo easy_install -U setuptools
git clone
cd discoursegraphs
sudo python install


The command line interface of DiscourseGraphs allows you to
merge syntax, rhetorical structure, connectives and expletives
annotation files into one graph and to store this graph in one of several
output formats (e.g. the `geoff`_ format used by the `neo4j`_ graph database
or the `dot`_ format used by the graphviz plotting tool).

.. _`neo4j`:
.. _`dot`:
.. _`geoff`:


discoursegraphs -t syntax/maz-13915.xml -r rst/maz-13915.rs3 -c connectors/maz-13915.xml -a anaphora/tosik/das/maz-13915.txt -o dot
dot -Tpdf > discoursegraph.pdf # generates a PDF from the dot file

If you're interested in working with just one of those layers, you'll
have to call the code directly::

import discoursegraphs as dg
tiger_docgraph = dg.read_tiger('syntax/doc.xml')
rst_docgraph = dg.read_rs3('rst/doc.rs3')
expletives_docgraph = dg.read_anaphoricity('expletives/doc.txt')

All the document graphs generated in this example are derived from the
`networkx.MultiDiGraph`_ class, so you should be able to use all of its

.. _`networkx.MultiDiGraph`:


Source code documentation is available
`here <>`_, but you can always get an
up-to-date local copy using `Sphinx`_.

You can generate an HTML or PDF version by running these commands in
the ``docs`` directory::

make latexpdf

to produce a PDF (``docs/_build/latex/discoursegraphs.pdf``) and ::

make html

to produce a set of HTML files (``docs/_build/html/index.html``).

.. _`Sphinx`:


- `lxml <>`_
- `networkx <>`_

If you'd like to visualize your graphs, you will also need:

- `graphviz <>`_
- `pygraphviz <>`_

License and Citation

This software is released under a 3-Clause BSD license. If you use
discoursegraphs in your academic work, please cite the following paper:

Neumann, A. 2015. discoursegraphs: A graph-based merging tool and converter
for multilayer annotated corpora. In *Proceedings of the 20th Nordic Conference
of Computational Linguistics (NODALIDA 2015)*, pp. 309-312.


title={discoursegraphs: A graph-based merging tool and converter for multilayer annotated corpora},
author={Neumann, Arne},
booktitle={Proceedings of the 20th Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics (NODALIDA 2015)},

Arne Neumann

People who downloaded this also like

- `SaltNPepper`_: a converter framework for various linguistic data formats
- `educe`_: a library for handling discourse-annotated corpora (SDRT, RST and PDTB)
- `treetools`_: a library for converting treebanks and grammar extraction (supports
i.a. TigerXML and Negra/Tüba-Export formats)
- `TCFnetworks`_: library for creating graphs from annotated text corpora (based on TCF).

.. _`SaltNPepper`:
.. _`educe`:
.. _`treetools`:
.. _`TCFnetworks`:

.. This is your project NEWS file which will contain the release notes.
.. Example:
.. The content of this file, along with README.rst, will appear in your
.. project's PyPI page.


0.3.1 (2016-05-07)

*Release data: 7-May-2016*

* attempt to fix the distribution of the data directory with the package
* document graphs can be converted into PTB-style strings (readwrite/
* node/edge collections are now ordered (OrderedDict)

0.3.0 (2016-04-30)

*Release data: 30-April-2016*

* almost two years and countless commits later, finally a new official release
* added lots of importers and exporters and simplified the API
* added 80+ tests (py.test), continuous integration (Travis) and docker support

0.1.2 (2014-05-13)

*Release data: 13-May-2014*

* added basic `Geoff`_ and `Neo4j`_ exporter (not yet available via the command
* added sphinx-based documentation

.. _`Geoff`:
.. _`Neo4j`:

0.1.1 (2014-04-25)

*Release date: 25-Apr-2014*

* small improvements
* added usage examples to readme
* discoursegraphs script now uses the commandline interface of the merging module

0.1.0 (2014-04-24)

*Release date: 24-Apr-2014*

* first public release
* imports: RS3, TigerXML and an ad-hoc format for expletive annotation
* merge these formats/files into a single multidigraph
* generates simple dot/graphviz-based visualization

Project details

Download files

Download the file for your platform. If you're not sure which to choose, learn more about installing packages.

Source Distribution

discoursegraphs-0.3.1.tar.gz (1.5 MB view hashes)

Uploaded source

Built Distribution

discoursegraphs-0.3.1-py2-none-any.whl (2.7 MB view hashes)

Uploaded py2

Supported by

AWS AWS Cloud computing Datadog Datadog Monitoring Fastly Fastly CDN Google Google Object Storage and Download Analytics Microsoft Microsoft PSF Sponsor Pingdom Pingdom Monitoring Sentry Sentry Error logging StatusPage StatusPage Status page