Skip to main content

Little helper application to improve django choices (for fields)

Project description

PyPI Version Build Status on Travis CI Documentation Status on ReadTheDoc

django-extended-choices

A little application to improve Django choices

django-extended-choices aims to provide a better and more readable way of using choices in Django.

Installation

You can install directly via pip (since version 0.3):

$ pip install django-extended-choices

Or from the Github repository (master branch by default):

$ git clone git://github.com/twidi/django-extended-choices.git
$ cd django-extended-choices
$ sudo python setup.py install

Usage

The aim is to replace this:

STATE_ONLINE  = 1
STATE_DRAFT   = 2
STATE_OFFLINE = 3

STATE_CHOICES = (
    (STATE_ONLINE,  'Online'),
    (STATE_DRAFT,   'Draft'),
    (STATE_OFFLINE, 'Offline'),
)

STATE_DICT = dict(STATE_CHOICES)

class Content(models.Model):
    title      = models.CharField(max_length=255)
    content    = models.TextField()
    state      = models.PositiveSmallIntegerField(choices=STATE_CHOICES, default=STATE_DRAFT)

    def __unicode__(self):
        return u'Content "%s" (state=%s)' % (self.title, STATE_DICT[self.state])

print(Content.objects.filter(state=STATE_ONLINE))

by this:

from extended_choices import Choices

STATES = Choices(
    ('ONLINE',  1, 'Online'),
    ('DRAFT',   2, 'Draft'),
    ('OFFLINE', 3, 'Offline'),
)

class Content(models.Model):
    title      = models.CharField(max_length=255)
    content    = models.TextField()
    state      = models.PositiveSmallIntegerField(choices=STATES, default=STATES.DRAFT)

    def __unicode__(self):
        return u'Content "%s" (state=%s)' % (self.title, STATES.for_value(self.state).display)

print(Content.objects.filter(state=STATES.ONLINE))

As you can see there is only one declaration for all states with, for each state, in order:

  • the pseudo-constant name which can be used (STATES.ONLINE replaces the previous STATE_ONLINE)
  • the value to use in the database - which could equally be a string
  • the name to be displayed - and you can wrap the text in ugettext_lazy() if you need i18n

And then, you can use:

  • STATES, or STATES.choices, to use with choices= in fields declarations
  • STATES.for_constant(constant), to get the choice entry from the constant name
  • STATES.for_value(constant), to get the choice entry from the key used in database
  • STATES.for_display(constant), to get the choice entry from the displayable value (can be useful in some case)

Each choice entry obtained by for_constant, for_value and for_display return a tuple as given to the Choices constructor, but with additional attributes:

>>> entry = STATES.for_constant('ONLINE')
>>> entry == ('ONLINE', 1, 'Online')
True
>>> entry.constant
'ONLINE'
>>> entry.value
1
>>> entry.display
'Online'

These attributes are chainable (with a weird example to see chainability):

>>> entry.constant.value
1
>>> entry.constant.value.value.display.constant.display
'Online'

To allow this, we had to remove support for None values. Use empty strings instead.

Note that constants can be accessed via a dict key (STATES['ONLINE'] for example) if you want to fight your IDE that may warn you about undefined attributes.

You can check whether a value is in a Choices object directly:

>>> 1 in STATES
True
>>> 42 in STATES
False

You can even iterate on a Choices objects to get choices as seen by Django:

>>> for choice in STATES:
...     print(choice)
(1, 'Online')
(2, 'Draf')
(3, 'Offline')

To get all choice entries as given to the Choices object, you can use the entries attribute:

>>> for choice_entry in STATES.entries:
...     print(choice_entry)
('ONLINE',  1, 'Online'),
('DRAFT',   2, 'Draft'),
('OFFLINE', 3, 'Offline'),

Or the following dicts, using constants, values or display names, as keys, and the matching choice entry as values:

  • STATES.constants
  • STATES.values
  • STATES.displays
>>> STATES.constants['ONLINE'] is STATES.for_constant('ONLINE')
True
>>> STATES.values[2] is STATES.for_value(2)
True
>>> STATES.displays['Offline'] is STATES.for_display('Offline')
True

If you want these dicts to be ordered, you can pass the dict class to use to the Choices constructor:

from collections import OrderedDict
STATES = Choices(
    ('ONLINE',  1, 'Online'),
    ('DRAFT',   2, 'Draft'),
    ('OFFLINE', 3, 'Offline'),
    dict_class = OrderedDict
)

Since version 1.1, the new OrderedChoices``class is provided, that is exactly that: a ``Choices using OrderedDict by default for dict_class. You can directly import it from extended_choices.

You can check if a constant, value, or display name exists:

>>> STATES.has_constant('ONLINE')
True
>>> STATES.has_value(1)
True
>>> STATES.has_display('Online')
True

You can create subsets of choices within the same Choices instance:

>>> STATES.add_subset('NOT_ONLINE', ('DRAFT', 'OFFLINE',))
>>> STATES.NOT_ONLINE
(2, 'Draft')
(3, 'Offline')

Now, STATES.NOT_ONLINE is a real Choices instance, with a subset of the main STATES constants.

You can use it to generate choices for when you only want a subset of choices available:

offline_state = models.PositiveSmallIntegerField(
    choices=STATES.NOT_ONLINE,
    default=STATES.DRAFT
)

As the subset is a real Choices instance, you have the same attributes and methods:

>>> STATES.NOT_ONLINE.for_constant('OFFLINE').value
3
>>> STATES.NOT_ONLINE.for_value(1).constant
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
KeyError: 3
>>> list(STATES.NOT_ONLINE.constants.keys())
['DRAFT', 'OFFLINE]
>>> STATES.NOT_ONLINE.has_display('Online')
False

You can create as many subsets as you want, reusing the same constants if needed:

STATES.add_subset('NOT_OFFLINE', ('ONLINE', 'DRAFT'))

If you want to check membership in a subset you could do:

def is_online(self):
    # it's an example, we could have just tested with STATES.ONLINE
    return self.state not in STATES.NOT_ONLINE_DICT

You can add choice entries in many steps using add_choices, possibly creating subsets at the same time.

To construct the same Choices as before, we could have done:

STATES = Choices()
STATES.add_choices(
    ('ONLINE', 1, 'Online)
)
STATES.add_choices(
    ('DRAFT',   2, 'Draft'),
    ('OFFLINE', 3, 'Offline'),
    name='NOT_ONLINE'
)

You can also pass the argument to the Choices constructor to create a subset with all the choices entries added at the same time (it will call add_choices with the name and the entries)

The list of existing subset names is in the subsets attributes of the parent Choices object.

If you want a subset of the choices but not save it in the original Choices object, you can use extract_subset instead of add_subset

>>> subset = STATES.extract_subset('DRAFT', 'OFFLINE')
>>> subset
(2, 'Draft')
(3, 'Offline')

As for a subset created by add_subset, you have a real Choices object, but not accessible from the original Choices object.

Note that in extract_subset, you pass the strings directly, not in a list/tuple as for the second argument of add_subset.

Additional attributes

Each tuple must contain three elements. But you can pass a dict as a fourth one and each entry of this dict will be saved as an attribute of the choice entry

>>> PLANETS = Choices(
...     ('EARTH', 'earth', 'Earth', {'color': 'blue'}),
...     ('MARS', 'mars', 'Mars', {'color': 'red'}),
... )
>>> PLANETS.EARTH.color
'blue'

Auto display/value

We provide two classes to eases the writing of your choices, attended you don’t need translation on the display value.

AutoChoices

It’s the simpler and faster version: you just past constants and:

  • the value saved in database will be constant lower cased
  • the display value will be the constant with _ replaced by spaces, and the first letter capitalized
>>> from extended_choices import AutoChoices
>>> PLANETS = AutoChoices('EARTH', 'MARS')
>>> PLANETS.EARTH.value
'earth'
>>> PLANETS.MARS.display
'Mars'

If you want to pass additional attributes, pass a tuple with the dict as a last element:

>>> PLANETS = AutoChoices(
...     ('EARTH', {'color': 'blue'}),
...     ('MARS', {'color': 'red'}),
... )
>>> PLANETS.EARTH.value
'earth'
>>> PLANETS.EARTH.color
'blue'

You can change the transform function used to convert the constant to the value to be saved and the display value, by passing value_transform and display_transform functions to the constructor.

>>> PLANETS = AutoChoices(
...     'EARTH', 'MARS',
...     value_transform=lambda const: 'planet_' + const.lower().
...     display_transform=lambda const: 'Planet: ' + const.lower().
... )
>>> PLANETS.EARTH.value
'planet_earth'
>>> PLANETS.MARS.display
'Planet: mars'

If you find yourself repeting these transform functions you can have a base class that defines these function, as class attributes:

>>> class MyAutoChoices(AutoChoices):
...     value_transform=staticmethod(lambda const: const.upper())
...     display_transform=staticmethod(lambda const: const.lower())

>>> PLANETS = MyAutoChoices('EARTH', 'MARS')
>>> PLANETS.EARTH.value
'EARTH'
>>> PLANETS.MARS.dispay
'mars'

Of course you can still override the functions by passing them to the constructor.

If you want, for an entry, force a specific value, you can do it by simply passing it as a second argument:

>>> PLANETS = AutoChoices(
...     'EARTH',
...     ('MARS', 'red-planet'),
... )
>>> PLANETS.MARS.value
'red-planet'

And then if you want to set the display, pass a third one:

>>> PLANETS = AutoChoices(
...     'EARTH',
...     ('MARS', 'red-planet', 'Red planet'),
... )
>>> PLANETS.MARS.value
'red-planet'
>>> PLANETS.MARS.display
'Red planet'

To force a display value but let the db value to be automatically computed, use None for the second argument:

>>> PLANETS = AutoChoices(
...     'EARTH',
...     ('MARS', None, 'Red planet'),
... )
>>> PLANETS.MARS.value
'mars'
>>> PLANETS.MARS.display
'Red planet'

AutoDisplayChoices

In this version, you have to define the value to save in database. The display value will be composed like in AutoChoices

>>> from extended_choices import AutoDisplayChoices
>>> PLANETS = AutoDisplayChoices(
...     ('EARTH', 1),
...     ('MARS', 2),
... )
>>> PLANETS.EARTH.value
1
>>> PLANETS.MARS.display
'Mars'

If you want to pass additional attributes, pass a tuple with the dict as a last element:

>>> PLANETS = AutoDisplayChoices(
...     ('EARTH', 'earth', {'color': 'blue'}),
...     ('MARS', 'mars', {'color': 'red'}),
... )
>>> PLANETS.EARTH.value
1
>>> PLANETS.EARTH.display
'Earth'
>>> PLANETS.EARTH.color
'blue'

As in AutoChoices, you can change the transform function for the value to display by passing display_transform to the constructor.

If you want, for an entry, force a specific display, you can do it by simply passing it as a third argument:

>>> PLANETS = AutoChoices(
...     ('EARTH', 1),
...     ('MARS', 2, 'Red planet'),
... )
>>> PLANETS.MARS.display
'Red planet'

Notes

  • You also have a very basic field (NamedExtendedChoiceFormField`) in extended_choices.fields which accept constant names instead of values
  • Feel free to read the source to learn more about this little Django app.
  • You can declare your choices where you want. My usage is in the models.py file, just before the class declaration.

Compatibility

The version 1.0 provided a totally new API, and compatibility with the previous one (0.4.1) was removed in 1.1. The last version with the compatibility was 1.0.7.

If you need this compatibility, you can use a specific version by pinning it in your requirements.

License

Available under the BSD License. See the LICENSE file included

Python/Django versions support

Django version Python versions
1.8 2.7, 3.4, 3.5
1.9, 1.10 2.7, 3.4, 3.5
1.11 2.7, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6
2.0 3.4, 3.5, 3.6

Tests

To run tests from the code source, create a virtualenv or activate one, install Django, then:

python -m extended_choices.tests

We also provides some quick doctests in the code documentation. To execute them:

python -m extended_choices

Note: the doctests will work only in python version not display u prefix for strings.

Source code

The source code is available on Github.

Developing

If you want to participate in the development of this library, you’ll need Django installed in your virtualenv. If you don’t have it, simply run:

pip install -r requirements-dev.txt

Don’t forget to run the tests ;)

Feel free to propose a pull request on Github!

A few minutes after your pull request, tests will be executed on TravisCi for all the versions of python and Django we support.

Documentation

You can find the documentation on ReadTheDoc

To update the documentation, you’ll need some tools:

pip install -r requirements-makedoc.txt

Then go to the docs directory, and run:

make html

Author

Written by Stephane “Twidi” Angel <s.angel@twidi.com> (http://twidi.com), originally for http://www.liberation.fr

Bitdeli badge

Project details


Download files

Download the file for your platform. If you're not sure which to choose, learn more about installing packages.

Filename, size & hash SHA256 hash help File type Python version Upload date
django_extended_choices-1.3-py2.py3-none-any.whl (33.2 kB) Copy SHA256 hash SHA256 Wheel py2.py3 Feb 17, 2018
django-extended-choices-1.3.tar.gz (28.9 kB) Copy SHA256 hash SHA256 Source None Feb 17, 2018

Supported by

Elastic Elastic Search Pingdom Pingdom Monitoring Google Google BigQuery Sentry Sentry Error logging AWS AWS Cloud computing DataDog DataDog Monitoring Fastly Fastly CDN SignalFx SignalFx Supporter DigiCert DigiCert EV certificate StatusPage StatusPage Status page