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Django friendly finite state machine support, forked from django-fsm

Project description

Django friendly finite state machine support
============================================

This is a friendly fork which aims to ensure that the tests are passing with
the new python and django versions, the original django-fsm was written by
Mikhail Podgurskiy (kmmbvnr@gmail.com), https://github.com/viewflow/django-fsm

|Build Status| |Pypi Status|

django-fsm adds simple declarative states management for django models.

If you need parallel task execution, view and background task code reuse
over different flows - check my new project django-viewflow:

https://github.com/viewflow/viewflow


Instead of adding some state field to a django model, and managing its
values by hand, you could use FSMState field and mark model methods with
the ``transition`` decorator. Your method could contain the side-effects
of the state change.

Nice introduction is available here:
https://gist.github.com/Nagyman/9502133

You may also take a look at django-fsm-admin project containing a mixin
and template tags to integrate django-fsm state transitions into the
django admin.

https://github.com/gadventures/django-fsm-admin

Transition logging support could be achived with help of django-fsm-log
package

https://github.com/gizmag/django-fsm-log

FSM really helps to structure the code, especially when a new developer
comes to the project. FSM is most effective when you use it for some
sequential steps.


Installation
------------

.. code:: bash

$ pip install django-fsm

Or, for the latest git version

.. code:: bash

$ pip install -e git://github.com/kmmbvnr/django-fsm.git#egg=django-fsm

The library has full Python 3 support

Usage
-----

Add FSMState field to your model

.. code:: python

from django_fsm import FSMField, transition

class BlogPost(models.Model):
state = FSMField(default='new')

Use the ``transition`` decorator to annotate model methods

.. code:: python

@transition(field=state, source='new', target='published')
def publish(self):
"""
This function may contain side-effects,
like updating caches, notifying users, etc.
The return value will be discarded.
"""

``source`` parameter accepts a list of states, or an individual state.
You can use ``*`` for source, to allow switching to ``target`` from any
state. The ``field`` parameter accepts both a string attribute name or an
actual field instance.

If calling publish() succeeds without raising an exception, the state
field will be changed, but not written to the database.

.. code:: python

from django_fsm import can_proceed

def publish_view(request, post_id):
post = get_object__or_404(BlogPost, pk=post_id)
if not can_proceed(post.publish):
raise PermissionDenied

post.publish()
post.save()
return redirect('/')

If some conditions are required to be met before changing the state, use
the ``conditions`` argument to ``transition``. ``conditions`` must be a
list of functions taking one argument, the model instance. The function
must return either ``True`` or ``False`` or a value that evaluates to
``True`` or ``False``. If all functions return ``True``, all conditions
are considered to be met and the transition is allowed to happen. If one
of the functions returns ``False``, the transition will not happen.
These functions should not have any side effects.

You can use ordinary functions

.. code:: python

def can_publish(instance):
# No publishing after 17 hours
if datetime.datetime.now().hour > 17:
return False
return True

Or model methods

.. code:: python

def can_destroy(self):
return self.is_under_investigation()

Use the conditions like this:

.. code:: python

@transition(field=state, source='new', target='published', conditions=[can_publish])
def publish(self):
"""
Side effects galore
"""

@transition(field=state, source='*', target='destroyed', conditions=[can_destroy])
def destroy(self):
"""
Side effects galore
"""

You could instantiate a field with protected=True option, that prevents
direct state field modification.

.. code:: python

class BlogPost(models.Model):
state = FSMField(default='new', protected=True)

model = BlogPost()
model.state = 'invalid' # Raises AttributeError

Note that calling
`refresh_from_db <https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/1.8/ref/models/instances/#django.db.models.Model.refresh_from_db>`_
on a model instance with a protected FSMField will cause an exception.

`target`
~~~~~~~~

`target` state parameter could point to a specific state or `django_fsm.State` implementation

.. code:: python

from django_fsm import FSMField, transition, RETURN_VALUE, GET_STATE
@transition(field=state,
source='*',
target=RETURN_VALUE('for_moderators', 'published'))
def publish(self, is_public=False):
return 'for_moderators' if is_public else 'published'

@transition(
field=state,
source='for_moderators',
target=GET_STATE(
lambda self, allowed: 'published' if allowed else 'rejected',
states=['published', 'rejected']))
def moderate(self, allowed):
self.allowed=allowed


``custom`` properties
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Custom properties can be added by providing a dictionary to the
``custom`` keyword on the ``transition`` decorator.

.. code:: python

@transition(field=state,
source='*',
target='onhold',
custom=dict(verbose='Hold for legal reasons'))
def legal_hold(self):
"""
Side effects galore
"""

``on_error`` state
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

In case of transition method would raise exception, you can provide
specific target state

.. code:: python

@transition(field=state, source='new', target='published', on_error='failed')
def publish(self):
"""
Some exception could happen here
"""

``state_choices``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Instead of passing two elements list ``choices`` you could use three
elements ``state_choices``, the last element states for string reference
to model proxy class.

Base class instance would be dynamically changed to corresponding Proxy
class instance, depending on the state. Even for queryset results, you
will get Proxy class instances, even if QuerySet executed on base class.

Check the `test
case <https://github.com/kmmbvnr/django-fsm/blob/master/tests/testapp/tests/test_state_transitions.py>`__
for example usage. Or read about `implementation
internals <http://schinckel.net/2013/06/13/django-proxy-model-state-machine/>`__

Permissions
~~~~~~~~~~~

It is common to have permissions attached to each model transition.
``django-fsm`` handles this with ``permission`` keyword on the
``transition`` decorator. ``permission`` accepts a permission string, or
callable that expects ``instance`` and ``user`` arguments and returns
True if user can perform the transition.

.. code:: python

@transition(field=state, source='*', target='publish',
permission=lambda instance, user: not user.has_perm('myapp.can_make_mistakes'))
def publish(self):
pass

@transition(field=state, source='*', target='publish',
permission='myapp.can_remove_post')
def remove(self):
pass

You can check permission with ``has_transition_permission`` method

.. code:: python

from django_fsm import has_transition_perm
def publish_view(request, post_id):
post = get_object_or_404(BlogPost, pk=post_id)
if not has_transition_perm(post.publish, request.user):
raise PermissionDenied

post.publish()
post.save()
return redirect('/')

Model methods
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

``get_all_FIELD_transitions`` Enumerates all declared transitions

``get_available_FIELD_transitions`` Returns all transitions data
available in current state

``get_available_user_FIELD_transitions`` Enumerates all transitions data
available in current state for provided user

Foreign Key constraints support
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

If you store the states in the db table you could use FSMKeyField to
ensure Foreign Key database integrity.

In your model :

.. code:: python

class DbState(models.Model):
id = models.CharField(primary_key=True, max_length=50)
label = models.CharField(max_length=255)

def __unicode__(self):
return self.label


class BlogPost(models.Model):
state = FSMKeyField(DbState, default='new')

@transition(field=state, source='new', target='published')
def publish(self):
pass

In your fixtures/initial\_data.json :

.. code:: json

[
{
"pk": "new",
"model": "myapp.dbstate",
"fields": {
"label": "_NEW_"
}
},
{
"pk": "published",
"model": "myapp.dbstate",
"fields": {
"label": "_PUBLISHED_"
}
}
]

Note : source and target parameters in @transition decorator use pk
values of DBState model as names, even if field "real" name is used,
without \_id postfix, as field parameter.

Integer Field support
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

You can also use ``FSMIntegerField``. This is handy when you want to use
enum style constants.

.. code:: python

class BlogPostStateEnum(object):
NEW = 10
PUBLISHED = 20
HIDDEN = 30

class BlogPostWithIntegerField(models.Model):
state = FSMIntegerField(default=BlogPostStateEnum.NEW)

@transition(field=state, source=BlogPostStateEnum.NEW, target=BlogPostStateEnum.PUBLISHED)
def publish(self):
pass

Signals
~~~~~~~

``django_fsm.signals.pre_transition`` and
``django_fsm.signals.post_transition`` are called before and after
allowed transition. No signals on invalid transition are called.

Arguments sent with these signals:

**sender** The model class.

**instance** The actual instance being proceed

**name** Transition name

**source** Source model state

**target** Target model state

Optimistic locking
------------------

``django-fsm`` provides optimistic locking mixin, to avoid concurrent
model state changes. If model state was changed in database
``django_fsm.ConcurrentTransition`` exception would be raised on
model.save()

.. code:: python

from django_fsm import FSMField, ConcurrentTransitionMixin

class BlogPost(ConcurrentTransitionMixin, models.Model):
state = FSMField(default='new')

For guaranteed protection against race conditions caused by concurrently
executed transitions, make sure:

- Your transitions do not have any side effects except for changes in the database,
- You always run the save() method on the object within ``django.db.transaction.atomic()`` block.

Following these recommendations, you can rely on
ConcurrentTransitionMixin to cause a rollback of all the changes that
have been executed in an inconsistent (out of sync) state, thus
practically negating their effect.

Drawing transitions
-------------------

Renders a graphical overview of your models states transitions

You need ``pip install graphviz>=0.4`` library and add ``django_fsm`` to
your ``INSTALLED_APPS``:

.. code:: python

INSTALLED_APPS = (
...
'django_fsm',
...
)

.. code:: bash

# Create a dot file
$ ./manage.py graph_transitions > transitions.dot

# Create a PNG image file only for specific model
$ ./manage.py graph_transitions -o blog_transitions.png myapp.Blog

.. |Build Status| image:: https://travis-ci.org/MDziwny/django-fsm.svg?branch=develop
:target: https://travis-ci.org/MDziwny/django-fsm
.. |Pypi Status| image:: https://badge.fury.io/py/django-fsa.svg
:target: https://badge.fury.io/py/django-fsa

Changelog
=========

django-fsm 2.7.2 2019-05-01
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

- Add compatibility test with python 3.8
- Add compatibility test with Django 2.2
- Refactor the models in tests, a migration

django-fsm 2.7.1 2019-03-04
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

- Delivery on Pypi

django-fsm 2.7.0 2018-12-14
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

- Fix the travis tests
- Add compatibility test with python 3.7, remove 2.6 and 3.3
- Add compatibility test with Django 2.0 and 2.1, remove 1.6, 1.8, 1.9 and 1.10

django-fsm 2.6.0 2017-06-08
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

- Fix django 1.11 compatibility
- Fix TypeError in `graph_transitions` command when using django's lazy translations


django-fsm 2.5.0 2017-03-04
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

- graph_transition command fix for django 1.10
- graph_transition command supports GET_STATE targets
- signal data extended with method args/kwargs and field
- sets allowed to be passed to the transition decorator


django-fsm 2.4.0 2016-05-14
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

- graph_transition commnad now works with multiple FSM's per model
- Add ability to set target state from transition return value or callable


django-fsm 2.3.0 2015-10-15
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

- Add source state shortcut '+' to specify transitions from all states except the target
- Add object-level permission checks
- Fix translated labels for graph of FSMIntegerField
- Fix multiple signals for several transition decorators


django-fsm 2.2.1 2015-04-27
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

- Improved exception message for unmet transition conditions.
- Don't send post transition signal in case of no state changes on
exception
- Allow empty string as correct state value
- Improved graphviz fsm visualisation
- Clean django 1.8 warnings

django-fsm 2.2.0 2014-09-03
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

- Support for `class
substitution <http://schinckel.net/2013/06/13/django-proxy-model-state-machine/>`__
to proxy classes depending on the state
- Added ConcurrentTransitionMixin with optimistic locking support
- Default db\_index=True for FSMIntegerField removed
- Graph transition code migrated to new graphviz library with python 3
support
- Ability to change state on transition exception

django-fsm 2.1.0 2014-05-15
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

- Support for attaching permission checks on model transitions

django-fsm 2.0.0 2014-03-15
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

- Backward incompatible release
- All public code import moved directly to django\_fsm package
- Correct support for several @transitions decorator with different
source states and conditions on same method
- save parameter from transition decorator removed
- get\_available\_FIELD\_transitions return Transition data object
instead of tuple
- Models got get\_available\_FIELD\_transitions, even if field
specified as string reference
- New get\_all\_FIELD\_transitions method contributed to class

django-fsm 1.6.0 2014-03-15
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

- FSMIntegerField and FSMKeyField support

django-fsm 1.5.1 2014-01-04
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

- Ad-hoc support for state fields from proxy and inherited models

django-fsm 1.5.0 2013-09-17
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

- Python 3 compatibility

django-fsm 1.4.0 2011-12-21
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

- Add graph\_transition command for drawing state transition picture

django-fsm 1.3.0 2011-07-28
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

- Add direct field modification protection

django-fsm 1.2.0 2011-03-23
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

- Add pre\_transition and post\_transition signals

django-fsm 1.1.0 2011-02-22
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

- Add support for transition conditions
- Allow multiple FSMField in one model
- Contribute get\_available\_FIELD\_transitions for model class

django-fsm 1.0.0 2010-10-12
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

- Initial public release

copyright (c) 2010 Mikhail Podgurskiy

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all
copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE
SOFTWARE.

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