Django PostgreSQL netfields implementation
This project is an attempt at making proper PostgreSQL net related fields for Django. In Django pre 1.4 the built in IPAddressField does not support IPv6 and uses an inefficient HOST() cast in all lookups. As of 1.4 you can use GenericIPAddressField for IPv6, but the casting problem remains.
In addition to the basic IPAddressField replacement a CIDR and a MACADDR field have been added. This library also provides a manager that allows for advanced IP based lookup directly in the ORM.
In Python, the values of the IP address fields are represented as types from the ipaddress module. In Python 2.x, a backport is used. The MAC address field is represented as an EUI type from the netaddr module.
Current version of code is targeting Django >= 1.8 support, as this relies heavily on ORM internals and supporting multiple versions is especially tricky.
Make sure netfields is in your PYTHONPATH and in INSTALLED_APPS.
InetAddressField will store values in PostgreSQL as type INET. In Python, the value will be represented as an ipaddress.ip_interface object representing an IP address and netmask/prefix length pair unless the store_prefix_length argument is set to False`, in which case the value will be represented as an ipaddress.ip_address object.
from netfields import InetAddressField, NetManager class Example(models.Model): inet = InetAddressField() # ... objects = NetManager()
CidrAddressField will store values in PostgreSQL as type CIDR. In Python, the value will be represented as an ipaddress.ip_network object.
from netfields import CidrAddressField, NetManager class Example(models.Model): inet = CidrAddressField() # ... objects = NetManager()
MACAddressField will store values in PostgreSQL as type MACADDR. In Python, the value will be represented as a netaddr.EUI object. Note that the default text representation of EUI objects is not the same as that of the netaddr module. It is represented in a format that is more commonly used in network utilities and by network administrators (00:11:22:aa:bb:cc).
from netfields import MACAddressField, NetManager class Example(models.Model): inet = MACAddressField() # ...
For InetAddressField and CidrAddressField, NetManager is required for the extra lookups to be available. Lookups for INET and CIDR database types will be handled differently than when running vanilla Django. All lookups are case-insensitive and text based lookups are avoided whenever possible. In addition to Django’s default lookup types the following have been added:
- is contained within the given network
- is contained within or equal to the given network
- contains the given address
- contains or is equal to the given address/network
- contains or contained by the given address
- matches the given address family
- matches the host part of an address regardless of prefix length
These correspond with the operators and functions from http://www.postgresql.org/docs/9.4/interactive/functions-net.html
CidrAddressField includes two extra lookups:
- Maximum value (inclusive) for CIDR prefix, does not distinguish between IPv4 and IPv6
- Minimum value (inclusive) for CIDR prefix, does not distinguish between IPv4 and IPv6
Postgres network address functions are exposed via the netfields.functions module. They can be used to extract additional information from these fields or to construct complex queries.
from django.db.models import F from netfields import CidrAddressField, NetManager from netfields.functions import Family, Masklen class Example(models.Model): inet = CidrAddressField() # ... ipv4_with_num_ips = ( Example.objects.annotate( family=Family(F('inet')), num_ips=2 ** (32 - Masklen(F('inet'))) # requires Django >2.0 to resolve ) .filter(family=4) )
CidrAddressField and InetAddressField Functions
|Postgres Function||Django Function||Return Type||Description|
|abbrev(T)||Abbrev||TextField||abbreviated display format as text|
|broadcast(T)||Broadcast||InetAddressField||broadcast address for network|
|family(T)||Family||IntegerField||extract family of address; 4 for IPv4, 6 for IPv6|
|host(T)||Host||TextField||extract IP address as text|
|hostmask(T)||Hostmask||InetAddressField||construct host mask for network|
|masklen(T)||Masklen||IntegerField||extract netmask length|
|netmask(T)||Netmask||InetAddressField||construct netmask for network|
|network(T)||Network||CidrAddressField||extract network part of address|
|set_masklen(T, int)||SetMasklen||T||set netmask length for inet value|
|text(T)||AsText||TextField||extract IP address and netmask length as text|
|inet_same_family(T, T)||IsSameFamily||BooleanField||are the addresses from the same family?|
|inet_merge(T, T)||Merge||CidrAddressField||the smallest network which includes both of the given networks|
|Postgres Function||Django Function||Return Type||Description|
|trunc(T)||Trunc||T||set last 3 bytes to zero|
As of Django 2.2, indexes can be created for InetAddressField and CidrAddressField extra lookups directly on the model.
from django.contrib.postgres.indexes import GistIndex from netfields import CidrAddressField, NetManager class Example(models.Model): inet = CidrAddressField() # ... class Meta: indexes = ( GistIndex( fields=('inet',), opclasses=('inet_ops',), name='app_example_inet_idx' ), )
For earlier versions of Django, a custom migration can be used to install an index.
from django.db import migrations class Migration(migrations.Migration): # ... operations = [ # ... migrations.RunSQL( "CREATE INDEX app_example_inet_idx ON app_example USING GIST (inet inet_ops);" ), # ... ]
- In Django < 1.9.6 types returned in ArrayFields are strings and not ipaddress types. See https://code.djangoproject.com/ticket/25143
https://bitbucket.org/onelson/django-ipyfield tries to solve some of the same issues as this library. However, instead of supporting just postgres via the proper fields types the ipyfield currently uses a VARCHAR(39) as a fake unsigned 64 bit number in its implementation.
Main repo was originally kept https://github.com/adamcik/django-postgresql-netfields Late April 2013 the project was moved to https://github.com/jimfunk/django-postgresql-netfields to pass the torch on to someone who actually uses this code actively :-)
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