More permissive CSRF check for Django when moving between HTTP and HTTPS
Are you using Django and trying to POST from a normal HTTP page to an HTTPS, only to be hit by the puzzling “Referer checking failed - http://example.com/ does not match https://example.com/”?
First, you should know that there are good reasons why this is happening, and in understanding them you can decide whether trading off security for convenience is worth it.
Second, the best way to solve this issue is to use HTTPS on all your pages and with packages like django-sslify you have no excuse not to.
If, after reading all the above, you’re still set on making the trade, here is how to use PermissiveCSRF in your Django site.
Install from PyPi:
pip install django-permissivecsrf
Modify your Django settings.py file and add permissivecsrf to the list of installed applications:
INSTALLED_APPS = ( # ... 'permissivecsrf', )
Prepend PermissiveCSRF to your MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES:
MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES = ( 'permissivecsrf.middleware.PermissiveCSRFMiddleware', # ... )
Note: PermissiveCSRF works with django-sslify too. Although the order doesn’t really matter, you probably want PermissiveCSRF after the django-sslify inclusion:
MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES = ( 'sslify.middleware.SSLifyMiddleware', 'permissivecsrf.middleware.PermissiveCSRFMiddleware', # ... )
How does it work?
The Django CSRF middleware performs an extra-check if the request is over HTTPS to ensure that the request came from the same site, i.e. that the referrer (HTTP-Referer header) matches the current site.
In other words, in ensures that the call to https://example.com/account/login came from another page of https://example.com/. As such, if you put your login form on your non-secure homepage, http://example.com/, but use a secure target for your form’s action attribute, <form action="https://example.com/account/login" method="POST">, Django’s check will fail because:
'http://example.com/' != ('https://%s/` % request.get_host())
However, Django will not perform the CSRF check at all if the request object has an attribute _dont_enforce_csrf_checks set to True. That’s what PermissiveCSRF relies on: if the request came from the same site over HTTP it sets _dont_enforce_csrf_checks to True, thus telling the Django CSRF middleware to skip the CSRF check for that request.
This only happens if:
- DEBUG == True. Your production server should always be HTTPS;
- The HTTP-Referer header is present;
- The request is for an HTTPS URL (i.e. request.is_secure() == True);
- and the referrer uses HTTP.
In all other cases it defers to Django for normal processing.
$ git clone https://github.com/philipmat/django-permissivecsrf $ cd django-permissivecsrf $ virtualenv --distribute venv $ . venv/bin/activate $ python setup.py develop ... $ python manage.py test permissivecsrf ... Creating test database for alias 'default'... ..... ---------------------------------------------------------------------- Ran 5 tests in 0.002s OK Destroying test database for alias 'default'...
How to make it even better?
aka plans for the future
- PermissiveCSRF should still perform the CSRF check rather than instruct Django to skip it altogether.
- Restrict the check for only a set of URLs, e.g. login pages.
Why is this CSRF HTTP/HTTPS madness happening?
The tl;dr answer is: to prevent Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attacks when using HTTPS, because HTTPS headers are encrypted.
The gist of why this happens is explained in point #4 of the How it works section of the Django documentation on Cross Site Request Forgery (emphasis mine):
4. In addition, for HTTPS requests, strict referer checking is done by CsrfViewMiddleware. This is necessary to address a Man-In-The-Middle attack that is possible under HTTPS when using a session independent nonce, due to the fact that HTTP ‘Set-Cookie’ headers are (unfortunately) accepted by clients that are talking to a site under HTTPS. (Referer checking is not done for HTTP requests because the presence of the Referer header is not reliable enough under HTTP.)
In other words, because the HTTPS headers are encrypted, the HTTP-Referer header is resilient against MITM attacks, so it can be safely used to check and make sure the CSRF cookie or fields is originated by the same site that served the page.
The same check could be made on HTTP calls as well, but since HTTP headers are not encrypted, they could be easily faked and thus the check would be a useless placebo.
This explanation is also present, in comment form, in this f92a21daa7 commit by spookylukey aka Luke Plant, and further detailed by him in a reply to a complaint about the strictness of CSRF Referer check on the django-developers maillist.
The take away from all this should be: in production use HTTPS (see django-sslify). Period.
Seriously, don’t use PermissiveCSRF in production. It’s a bad idea. And I should know, I have plenty of them.
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