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Manage Django settings with Pydantic.

Project description


Use pydantic settings management to simplify configuration of Django settings.

Very much a work in progress, but reads the standard DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE environment variable (defaulting to pydantic_settings.settings.PydanticSettings) to load a sub-class of pydantic_settings.Settings. All settings (that have been defined in pydantic_settings.Settings) can be overridden with environment variables. A special DatabaseSettings class is used to allow multiple databases to be configured simply with DSNs.

As of django-pydantic-settings 0.6.0, Django 4.0 is now supported, but, as a result, support for Python 3.6 and 3.7 has been dropped. Python <3.8 can still be used with versions 0.5.0 and lower, and Django 3.2.x and lower; Python 3.6.0 requires django-pydantic-settings <0.4.0. Currently, django-pydantic-settings is tested on Python 3.8, 3.9, and 3.10, and Django 2.2, 3.0, 3.1, 3.2, and 4.0.

Installation & Setup

Install django-pydantic-settings:

pip install django-pydantic-settings

Modify your Django project's file to use django-pydantic-settings, it should look something like this:

#!/usr/bin/env python
"""Django's command-line utility for administrative tasks."""
import sys

from pydantic_settings import SetUp

def main():
    """Run administrative tasks."""

        from import execute_from_command_line
    except ImportError as exc:
        raise ImportError(
            "Couldn't import Django. Are you sure it's installed and "
            "available on your PYTHONPATH environment variable? Did you "
            "forget to activate a virtual environment?"
        ) from exc

if __name__ == "__main__":

Your and/or files will need to be modified similarly, and look something like this:

from django.core.wsgi import get_wsgi_application

from pydantic_settings import SetUp

application = get_wsgi_application()

The SetUp class will automatically look for the standard DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE environment variable, read it, confirm that it points to an existing Python module, and load that module. Your DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE variable should point to a pydantic_settings.settings.PydanticSettings sub-class (though technically any Python class that defines a dict() method which returns a Python dictionary of key/value pairs matching the required Django settings will work). Calling the configure() method will then use the specified module to configure your project's Django settings.

If your project uses a package to specify multiple different settings classes, simply set DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE to be the full path to the desired settings class. For example, given the following directory structure:

├─ settings/
│  ├─
│  ├─
│  ├─
│  ├─
├─ my_app/

To use a settings class called MyLocal in you would set your DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE to my_project.settings.local.MyLocal.

Required settings

There are no settings that must be configured in order to use Django with django-pydantic-settings. All of the possible settings defined by Django (Settings Reference) are configured in the pydantic_settings.settings.PydanticSettings class, using their normal default values provided by Django, or a reasonable calculated value. Settings worth thinking about are ROOT_URLCONF and WSGI_APPLICATION, which, unless otherwise specified, are calculated based on your DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE assuming that you're using the default Django project layout a provided by startproject. So, for example, if your DJANGO_SETINGS_MODULE is set to my_awesome_project.settings.PydanticSettingsSubclass, then ROOT_URLCONF and WSGI_APPLICATION will be set to my_awesome_project.urls and my_awesome_project.wsgi respectively. This default behavior can be overridden by simply specifying ROOT_URLCONF:str = 'the_actual_urlconf' and WSGI_APPLICATION:str = 'the_actual_wsgi_file.application' in your PydanticSettings sub-class. Alternatively, rather than individually settings the ROOT_URLCONF and WSGI_APPLICATION settings, you can set BASE_DIR, and that will be used instead of DJANGO_SETTINGS_MODULE.

The other setting worth thinking about is SECRET_KEY. By default, SECRET_KEY is automatically generated using Django's own get_random_secret_key() function. This will work just fine, though as it will be re-calculated every time your PydanticSettings sub-class is instantiated, you should set this to somethign static if you're using Django's authentication and don't want to lose your session every time the server is restarted.

Database configuration

The default database configuration can be configured by an environment variable named DATABASE_URL, containing a DSN (Data Source Name) string.

Google Cloud SQL database connections from within Google Cloud Run are supported; the DatabaseDsn type will detect and automatically escape DSN strings of the form postgres://username:password@/cloudsql/project:region:instance/database so that they can be properly handled.

Alternatively you can set all your databases at once, by using the DATABASES setting (either in a PydanticSettings sub-class or via the DJANGO_DATABASES environment variable:

def MySettings(PydanticSettings):
    DATABASES = {"default": "sqlite:///db.sqlite3"}  # type: ignore

It is also possible to configure additional database connections with environment variables in the same way as the default DATABASE_URL configuration by using a Field that has a configure_database argument that points to the database alias in the DATABASES dictionary.

from pydantic_settings import PydanticSettings
from pydantic_settings.database import DatabaseDsn

def MySettings(PydanticSettings):
    secondary_database_dsn: Optional[DatabaseDsn] = Field(
        env="SECONDARY_DATABASE_URL", configure_database="secondary"

For example, the settings_test/ file is has a settings subclass configured like this and outputs the changes to the DATABASES setting when run directly:

❯ DATABASE_URL=postgres://username:password@/cloudsql/project:region:instance/database SECONDARY_DATABASE_URL=sqlite:///foo python settings_test/
{'default': {'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.postgresql',
             'HOST': '/cloudsql/project:region:instance',
             'NAME': 'database',
             'PASSWORD': 'password',
             'USER': 'username'},
 'secondary': {'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.sqlite3', 'NAME': 'foo'}}

Sentry configuration

django-pydantic-settings provides built-in functionality for configuring your Django project to use Sentry. The simplest way to use this is to inherit from pydantic_settings.sentry.SentrySettings rather than pydantic_settings.settings.PydanticSettings. This adds the setting SENTRY_DSN, which uses the pydantic_settings.sentry.SentryDsn type. This will automatically be set according to the DJANGO_SENTRY_DSN environment variable, and expects a Sentry DSN (obviously). It validates that the provided DSN is a valid URL, and then automatically initializes the Sentry SDK using the built-in DjangoIntegration. Using this functionality required sentry-sdk to be installed, which will be included automatically if you install django-pydantic-settings[sentry].

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