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Alternative authentication, authorization and accounting application.

Project description

# Talos


Talos is an alternative authentication, authorization and accounting application. It provides a few improvements over original django.contrib.auth and django-guardian, but is not drop-in replacement though. Migrating to talos or starting a new application should be considered with care.

## Overview

Talos is still work-in-progress and is not generally recommended for production.

Talos provides data required for multipoint master-master application level replication (see AbstractReplicatableModel), but does not include any actual algorithms.

Talos tries to be culture-agnostic, thus Principal field has brief and full names, not first and last ones. It is recommended to create separate UserProfile model customized for actual project needs. For instance some projects may need to store not only given and family names, but also patronymics, matronymics or mononyms. Unlike django.contrib.auth Talos does not enforce any cultural favors.

Some of improvements include:
* Per model and per object permissions.
* Integration with django.contrib.admin.
* Arbitrary privileges.
* Registration by email address.
* Various credential type support. Username+password, network address, OTP, client certificates to name a few. Various back-ends to validate these credentials. Separation into principals, identities and credentials.
* Evidence requirements for role membership.
* Management commands to manipulate principals, identities,and credentials.
* List and force log off active sessions.
* Role hierarchy with permission inheritance.

Authentication scenarios considered in Talos design:
* User logs in providing username and password
* Basic credentials are validated against internal database
* Basic credentials are validated against external LDAP database
* Basic credentials are validated against external Microsoft Active Directory database
* User logs in providing username and password, but only from specific IP subnet
* IPv4 and IPv6 are supported
* User logs in providing username and password and one-time password
* One-time password may be proprietary hardware token, Google Authenticator or Microsoft Authenticator
* User logs in providing username and password and one-time password, but only from specific IP subnet
* One-time password may be proprietary hardware token, Google Authenticator or Microsoft Authenticator
* IPv4 and IPv6 are supported
* Application logs in providing username and password
* Basic credentials are validated against internal database
* Basic credentials are validated against external LDAP database
* Basic credentials are validated against external Microsoft Active Directory database
* HTTP Authorization header is supported
* Application logs in from specific IP subnet
* No other credentials provided
* IPv4 and IPv6 are supported
* Application logs in providing access token
* HTTP Authorization header is supported
* Application logs in providing access token, but only from specific IP subnet
* HTTP Authorization header is supported
* IPv4 and IPv6 are supported

Privilege elevation (sudo, UAC, etc. alike) scenarios considered in Talos design:
* User elevates privileges providing username and confirming password previously used for authentication
* User elevates privileges providing username and confirming password previously used for authentication, but only from specific IP subnet
* IPv4 and IPv6 are supported
* User elevates privileges providing username and one-time password
* One-time password may be proprietary hardware token, Google Authenticator or Microsoft Authenticator
* User elevates privileges providing username, one-time password and confirming password previously used for authentication
* One-time password may be proprietary hardware token, Google Authenticator or Microsoft Authenticator
* User elevates privileges providing username, one-time password and confirming password previously used for authentication, but only from specific IP subnet
* IPv4 and IPv6 are supported
* One-time password may be proprietary hardware token, Google Authenticator or Microsoft Authenticator

## Quick start

### settings.py
1. Add "talos" to your INSTALLED_APPS setting.

INSTALLED_APPS = [
...
'talos',
]

2. Set user model to talos.Principal

AUTH_USER_MODEL = 'talos.Principal'

3. Replace AUTHENTICATION_BACKENDS with talos ones. These are used for django.contrib.admin or other applications dependent directly on django.contrib.auth

AUTHENTICATION_BACKENDS = (
'talos.compatibility.auth.AuthBackend',
)

4. Fix UserAttributeSimilarityValidator options to validate against talos.Principal fields

AUTH_PASSWORD_VALIDATORS = [
{
'NAME': 'django.contrib.auth.password_validation.UserAttributeSimilarityValidator',
'OPTIONS':
{
'user_attributes': ('brief_name', 'full_name', 'email', 'phone'),
}
},
...
]

5. Disable django.contrib.auth migrations

MIGRATION_MODULES = {
'auth': None
}

6. Replace session middleware

MIDDLEWARE = [
'django.middleware.security.SecurityMiddleware',
'talos.middleware.SessionMiddleware',
'django.middleware.common.CommonMiddleware',
...
]

### urls.py

1. Add talos URLs to project urlpatterns

urlpatterns = [
path('admin/', admin.site.urls),
path('auth/', include(auth_url_patterns)),
...
]

### models.py

1. Specify model permissions in Meta class. Use single name, tuple of names, '__all__' as shortcut for ('select', 'create', 'update', 'delete', ), . Recommeded names are 'select', 'create', 'update', 'delete'. It is highly recommended to always include 'select' if any other permission is specified too. Default is '__all__'

class Meta:
model_permissions = '__all__'

2. Specify object permissions in Meta class. Use single name, tuple of names, '__all__' as shortcut for ('select', 'create', 'update', 'delete', ), . Recommeded names are 'select', 'create', 'update', 'delete'. It is highly recommended to always include 'select' if any other permission is specified too. Default is None

class Meta:
object_permissions = '__all__'

3. Specify related securables in Meta class. Use tuple of ForeignKey field names. To read an object one should have 'select' model or object permission on related object. Default is None

class Meta:
related_securables = ('fk_field_name', )

4. Use for_principal method of model managers to select objects. First argument is talos.Principal instance, for example request.principal. Second argument is permission, 'select' if not specified.

### bash

1. Create new principal

./manage.py create_principal --output-status --new-brief-name "Admin" --new-full-name "Administrator" --new-email "administrator@example.com" --new-active

2. Create new username for existing principal

./manage.py create_basic_identity --output-status --principal-email "administrator@example.com" --new-username "administrator"

3. Create new password for existing principal

./manage.py create_basic_credential --output-status --principal-email "administrator@example.com" --new-password "p@$$w0rd"

4. Add existing principal to existing role

./manage.py create_role_membership --output-status --principal-email "administrator@example.com" --role-code "administrators"

## Architecture

1. Evidence - any type of proof provided during authentication. Evidence can be of a few different kinds. It can be:
* Knowledge factor - something a principal knows, for instance password.
* Ownership factor - something a principal has, for instance OTP token or phone.
* Inherence factor - something a principal is, for instance fingerprint or retina.
* Location factor - somewhere a principal is, for instance IP address.
* Trust factor - someone who knows a principal, for instance SSL certificate authority.
2. Privilege - right to perform not model related actions. For example, login to admin panel.
3. Model permission - right to mode of access on any instance of specific model. For example select, create, update or delete. Has priority above object permission.
4. Object permission - right to mode of access on specific instance of specific model. For example select, create, update or delete. Has priority below model permission.
5. Role directory - collection of roles with the same required evidence.
* Role directory may be internal, i.e. entire information is saved in local database, or external, i.e. information is saved externally and is accessed on demand. for example, LDAP directory may be used as external role directory.
* Role directory may have options assigned. List of options defined depends on role directory type.
* Role directory may have required evidences assigned. Principal will be considered member of role from directory, only if all required evidenced were provided during authentication.
6. Role - Job function which defines an authority level.
* Role may have model permission granted.
* Role may have privileges granted.
* Role may have a parent model, in which case role inherits model permissions and privileges granted to parent model. Role may revoke some of inherited model permissions and privileges. Revoking model permission or privilege which has not been granted is not an error.
7. Pricipal - entity that can be authenticated. For instance person or service.
* For compatibility reasons Principal implements some credential and identity related functions. This is limited, should not be used directly, is provided only for applications dependent on django.contrib.auth and supports only compatibility required subset of functionality.
* Anonymous is a materialized principal. Thus permissions can be granted to anonymous.
8. Identity directory - collection of identities of principals. For example, usernames.
* In real world a principal may have multiple identities. For instance 'user', 'user@domain', 'domain\user'. All identities are condired of equal priority, there is no "primary" identity.
* Identity directory may have link to credential directory, to limit identity usage scope.
9. Identity - something that uniquely identified principal.
10. Credential directory - collection of principal credentials.
11. Credential - set of evidences a principal provides during authentication.
12. Session - virtual connection between principal and server. Session provides security context for operations, either anonymous or authenticated. Session is restarted by authentication operation, either login or logout, which affects all subsequent operations.


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