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Dolmen CMS authentication package

Project Description is the package responsible for the users and groups management in a Dolmen application. Built on the on the top of dolmen.authentication and zope.pluggableauth, it provides a set of plugins and base classes that can help building a complex users & groups system.

Initial Grok imports

>>> import grok
>>> from grokcore.component.testing import grok_component

Credentials plugins

>>> from zope.pluggableauth.interfaces import ICredentialsPlugin

Credentials plugins are responsible for the extraction of credentials, in order to identify a user. provides a single plugin, out of the box - Cookies Credentials.

Cookies Credentials

The cookie credentials plugin extracts the credentials from cookies. This plugin is based on Philipp von Weitershausen’s work (wc.cookiecredentials). It has been reimplemented to avoid the use of the packages and allow more flexibility in the long run.

This plugin provides the following capabilities:

  • challenge the user to enter username and password through a login form;
  • save those credentials to a cookie from which it can read them back at any later time.

To check if the credentials can correctly be exacted, we can forge the cookie ourselves in a test request:

>>> import base64
>>> from zope.publisher.browser import TestRequest

>>> cookie = base64.encodestring('mgr:mgrpw')
>>> request = TestRequest()
>>> request._cookies = {'dolmen.authcookie': cookie}

Calling the plugin credentials extractor will give us exactly what we need to proceed to the authentication:

>>> from zope.interface.verify import verifyObject
>>> from import CookiesCredentials

>>> plugin = CookiesCredentials()
>>> verifyObject(ICredentialsPlugin, plugin)

>>> print plugin.extractCredentials(request)
{'login': u'mgr', 'password': u'mgrpw'}

Authenticator Plugins

>>> from zope.pluggableauth.interfaces import IAuthenticatorPlugin

Authenticator plugins uses extracted credentials in order to retrieve and identify principals. provides two plugins - Global Registry Authentication & Principal Folder Authentication

Global Registry Authentication

In order to register principals, the zope.principalregistry package provides a global registry that is not persistent and re-constructed at each startup. The Global Registry Authenticator is meant to look up the principal inside that global registry.

We verify the integrity of our implementation against the requirements:

>>> from import plugins
>>> IAuthenticatorPlugin.implementedBy(plugins.GlobalRegistryAuth)

>>> plugin = plugins.GlobalRegistryAuth()
>>> verifyObject(IAuthenticatorPlugin, plugin)

In order to test this plugin, we registered a user, called “mgr” in the global registry. We’ll test the look up using “mgr” credentials:

>>> user = plugin.authenticateCredentials(
...            {'login': u"mgr", "password": u"mgrpw"})
>>> print user
<GlobalRegistryPrincipal "zope.mgr">

Wrong credentials will make the authentication return None:

>>> user = plugin.authenticateCredentials(
...            {'login': u"mgr", "password": u"wrongpass"})
>>> user is None

>>> user = plugin.authenticateCredentials(
...            {'login': u"anon", "password": u"wrongpass"})
>>> user is None

It is not possible to get the principal info alone:

>>> print plugin.principalInfo('zope.mgr')

>>> print plugin.principalInfo('zorglub')

Principal Folder Authentication introduces another authenticator plugin meant to store and retrieve persistent principals. This plugin is a container that can store IPrincipal objects and retrieve them following the IAuthenticatorPlugin’s prescriptions.

We verify the integrity of our implementation against the requirements:

>>> from import plugins
>>> IAuthenticatorPlugin.implementedBy(plugins.PrincipalFolderPlugin)

>>> plugin = plugins.PrincipalFolderPlugin()
>>> verifyObject(IAuthenticatorPlugin, plugin)

In order to test this plugin, we have to create an IPrincipal object and store it inside the plugin. Then, we can test the look up.

In order to make the authentication pluggable, the principal authenticator plugin relies on 3 interfaces:

  • IAccountStatus : if an adaptation exist to this interface from the IPrincipal object, it is used to figure out if the principal can login or not. It allows disabling a user account and computing that disability.
  • IPasswordChecker: this adapter is used to check the credentials. If it doesnt exist (or if the IPrincipal object doesn’t provide this interface), the authentication is aborted and None is returned.
  • IPrincipalInfo: unlike the previous plugin, the Principal Folder authenticator doesn’t directly return a PrincipalInfo object, but uses an adapter to retrieve the appropriate principal info object. This is required in order to plug specific behavior into our authentication system.

Let’s first implement a basic IPrincipalObject. Once stored, we’ll be able to start the look ups and the adapters implementations:

>>> from import User

See the implementation below:

from dolmen.authentication import IPrincipal
from zope.interface import implements

class User(object):

    def __init__(self, id, title=u"", desc=u""): = id
        self.title = title or id
        self.description = desc
        self.groups = []

We can verify our implementation against the interface:

>>> from dolmen.authentication import IPrincipal
>>> stilgar = User(u"stilgar")
>>> verifyObject(IPrincipal, stilgar)

We can set up a simple view for our User class:

>>> from grokcore.layout import Page

>>> class UserView(Page):
...     grok.context(User)
...     def render(self):
...         return "<User %s>" %

>>> grok_component('index', UserView)

The implementation is consistent. We can now persist the principal in the plugin container:

>>> plugin['stilgar'] = stilgar
>>> print [user for user in plugin.keys()]

We can now try to look up the principal, using the authentication API:

>>> found = plugin.authenticateCredentials(
...            {'login': 'stilgar', 'password': 'boo'})
>>> found is None

The principal is not found : we do not have an adapter to IPasswordChecker available, therefore the authentication process has been aborted.

Providing the adapter will allow us to successfully retrieve the principal:

>>> from dolmen.authentication import IPasswordChecker

>>> class GrantingAccessOnBoo(grok.Adapter):
...     grok.context(IPrincipal)
...     grok.provides(IPasswordChecker)
...     def checkPassword(self, pwd):
...         if pwd == 'boo':
...             return True

>>> grok_component('booing', GrantingAccessOnBoo)

>>> found = plugin.authenticateCredentials(
...            {'login': 'stilgar', 'password': 'boo'})
>>> found is not None

Of course, providing a wrong password will return None:

>>> found = plugin.authenticateCredentials(
...            {'login': 'stilgar', 'password': 'not boo'})
>>> found is None

We can also lookup the principal with its id:

>>> print plugin.principalInfo('stilgar')
<dolmen.authentication.principal.LocatablePrincipalInfo ...>

>>> print plugin.principalInfo("unknown")

As seen previously, it is possible to switch on and off the ability to log in, for a given user, thanks to the IAccountStatus interface:

>>> from dolmen.authentication import IAccountStatus

>>> class AllowLogin(grok.Adapter):
...     grok.context(IPrincipal)
...     grok.provides(IAccountStatus)
...     @property
...     def status(self):
...         return "No status information available"
...     def check(self):
...         if != "stilgar":
...             return True
...         return False

>>> grok_component('allow', AllowLogin)

In this example, we explictly disallow the user with the identifier “stilgar” to be retrieved by the login:

>>> found = plugin.authenticateCredentials(
...            {'login': 'stilgar', 'password': 'boo'})
>>> found is None

Setting up a site

In order to test the advanced features of the package, we’ll set up a familiar environment. Doing so, we can test the behavior of our package in the context of a real Dolmen site:

>>> from import Dolmen
>>> root = getRootFolder()

>>> site = Dolmen()
>>> grok.notify(grok.ObjectCreatedEvent(site))
>>> root['site'] =  site

>>> from zope.authentication.interfaces import IAuthentication
>>> from zope.pluggableauth import PluggableAuthentication
>>> from import initialize_pau

>>> PAU = PluggableAuthentication()
>>> len(PAU.authenticatorPlugins)
>>> len(PAU.credentialsPlugins)

>>> initialize_pau(PAU)
>>> print PAU.authenticatorPlugins
>>> print PAU.credentialsPlugins
('cookies', 'No Challenge if Authenticated')

>>> site['auth'] = PAU
>>> lsm = site.getSiteManager()
>>> lsm.registerUtility(PAU, IAuthentication)

>>> from grokcore.layout import Layout
>>> from zope.interface import Interface

>>> class Layout(Layout):
...     grok.context(Interface)
...     def render(self):
...         return u''
...     def __call__(self, view):
...         return u"<!DOCTYPE html>\n" + unicode(view.render())

>>> grok_component('layout', Layout)

>>> from dolmen.forms import crud
>>> class Edit(crud.Edit):
...     grok.context(Dolmen)
...     grok.require('test.Edit')

>>> grok_component('editsite', Edit)

>>> class DolmenIndex(Page):
...     grok.context(Dolmen)
...     def render(self):
...         return "Homepage"

>>> grok_component('indexsite', DolmenIndex)

Logging in


Imagine you go to a page that anonymous users don’t have access to:

>>> from import Browser
>>> browser = Browser()
>>> browser.handleErrors = False

Traceback (most recent call last):
Unauthorized: ...

The login page

To get the right credentials, we can simply log in, using the login form provided by

>>> loginpage = browser.contents
>>> 'id="login"' in loginpage
>>> 'id="password"' in loginpage

>>> browser.getControl('Username').value = 'mgr'
>>> browser.getControl('Password').value = 'mgrpw'
>>> browser.getControl('Log in').click()

>>> browser.url

Managing the authentication plugins provides a way to enable and disable the different authentication plugins.

In order to keep the elements tidied up, in the site, assumes that the authenticator plugins are persisted inside the PAU container.

Let’s have a concrete exemple with a PrincipalFolder plugin:

>>> members = plugins.PrincipalFolderPlugin()
>>> grok.notify(grok.ObjectCreatedEvent(members))
>>> PAU['members'] = members

At this point, the PrincipalFolder is created and persisted. As we notice, the folder is created inside the PAU utility container.

At this point, we can access the management view:

>>> print browser.contents
<!DOCTYPE html>
<form action="http://localhost/site/auth/@@authenticators" method="post"
  <h1>Edit the authentication sources</h1>

The “members” principal folder is not yet activated.

Let’s create a User object inside it:

>>> chani = User(u"chani", title=u"Sihaya")
>>> PAU['members']['chani'] = chani

Now, with a new browser, let’s try to login:

>>> new_browser = Browser()
>>> new_browser.getControl('Username').value = 'chani'
>>> new_browser.getControl('Password').value = 'boo'
>>> new_browser.getControl('Log in').click()

>>> "Login failed" in new_browser.contents

Using the management view mechanisms, we can activate our principal folder:

>>> from import management
>>> adapter = management.IActiveFolders(PAU)
>>> adapter.activeFolders
>>> adapter.activeFolders = (u'members',)

The principal folder is now activated. Let’s retry to log in:

>>> new_browser = Browser()
>>> new_browser.handleErrors = False

>>> new_browser.getControl('Username').value = 'chani'
>>> new_browser.getControl('Password').value = 'boo'
>>> new_browser.getControl('Log in').click()

>>> "Login failed" in new_browser.contents

>>> print new_browser.url

Creating roles

>>> class Editor(grok.Role):
...     grok.title(u"Editor")
...     grok.description(u"A basic editor.")
...     grok.permissions('test.Edit')
>>> grok_component('editor', Editor)

Managing the users

Users can be granted roles. This can be done through a view, with the user as the context:

>>> browser.handleErrors = False
>>> browser.getControl(name='form.field.roles').value = ['testEditor']

>>> browser.handleErrors = False
>>> browser.getControl('Update').click()

This view is possible thanks to an adapter, useable on any IPrincipals. Let’s check if our previous action did its work:

>>> from zope.component.hooks import setSite
>>> setSite(site) # we got to the context of our site

>>> from import roles
>>> role_controller = roles.IPrincipalRoles(chani)
>>> role_controller.roles

The selected roles are there. We can modify them very easily:

>>> role_controller.roles = [u'testEditor']
>>> role_controller.roles

The role management applies the changes on the site object itself. Let’s verify if the role has been correctly applied:

>>> from zope.securitypolicy.interfaces import IPrincipalRoleManager
>>> prm = IPrincipalRoleManager(site)
>>> print prm.getRolesForPrincipal(
[(u'testEditor', PermissionSetting: Allow)]

Logging out

We can also manually destroy the cookie by invoking the logout page:

>>> 'dolmen.authcookie' in browser.cookies.keys()

>>> 'dolmen.authcookie' in browser.cookies.keys()

>>> browser.url


1.1.1 (2013-11-11)

  • Fixed a cookie encoding error.

1.1 (2013-11-06)

  • Removed all dependencies in order to free the package from useless ties. This is acheived by removing the integration of the menu entries and base schemas.

1.0b4 (2013-10-31)

  • PrincipalFolderPlugin requires a title.
  • Corrected the decoding of the cookie value.

1.0b3 (2010-11-18)

  • Corrected the way vocabularies are declared in the managing views(role granting and user folders selection. A pluggability is present but the base vocabularies are not returned if no component is found.

1.0b2 (2010-11-16)

  • Change in IChangePassword. Password can be a plain str or a unicode value now (via IProtected). IChangePassword then provides the schema for the form. See corresponding change in dolmen.authentication.
  • The GlobalRegistry plugin has been fixed. It will no longer trigger the AuthenticatedPrincipalCreated event. This solves an important bug : the event’s handlers used to consider all principals from the GlobalRegistry to be authenticated, even the unauthenticated ones.

1.0b1 (2010-07-28)

  • Internationalized the code and added French translation.
  • Corrected the role granting UI and exposed it through a contextual tab.
  • Improved the tests coverage.

1.0a3 (2010-06-25)

  • The GlobalRegistry plugin no longer raises an error when a principalInfo is not Found. Instead, it returns None, as specified by IAuthentication. Tests have been added to fix that behavior and the PrincipalFolder’s one.

1.0a2 (2010-06-25)

  • The PrincipalFolder no longer raises an error when a principalInfo is not Found. Instead, it returns None, as specified by IAuthentication.

1.0a1 (2010-06-04)

  • Removed unused and illogical rights: “CanLogin” & “CanLogout”.
  • now uses to create menus and register entries.
  • We now use the zeam.form Form library instead of z3c.form

0.1.1 (2010-05-31)

  • Updated translations.

0.1 (2010-05-30)

  • Initial release.
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