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Trigger delayed Cloud Tasks from FastAPI

Project description

FastAPI Cloud Tasks

Strongly typed background tasks with FastAPI and Google CloudTasks.

Installation

pip install fastapi-cloud-tasks

Key features

  • Strongly typed tasks.
    • Fail at invocation site to make it easier to develop and debug.
    • Breaking schema changes between versions will fail at task runner with Pydantic.
  • Familiar and simple public API
    • .delay method that takes same arguments as the task.
    • .scheduler method to create recurring job.
  • Tasks are regular FastAPI endpoints on plain old HTTP.
    • Depends just works!
    • All middlewares, telemetry, auth, debugging etc solutions for FastAPI work as is.
    • Host task runners independent of GCP. If CloudTasks can reach the URL, it can invoke the task.
  • Save money.
  • Autoscale.
    • With a FaaS setup, your task workers can autoscale based on load.
    • Most FaaS services have free tiers making it much cheaper than running a celery worker.

How it works

Delayed job

from fastapi_cloud_tasks import DelayedRouteBuilder

delayed_router = APIRouter(route_class=DelayedRouteBuilder(...))

class Recipe(BaseModel):
    ingredients: List[str]

@delayed_router.post("/{restaurant}/make_dinner")
async def make_dinner(restaurant: str, recipe: Recipe):
    # Do a ton of work here.


app.include_router(delayed_router)

Now we can trigger the task with

make_dinner.delay(restaurant="Taj", recipe=Recipe(ingredients=["Pav","Bhaji"]))

If we want to trigger the task 30 minutes later

make_dinner.options(countdown=1800).delay(...)

Scheduled Task

from fastapi_cloud_tasks import ScheduledRouteBuilder

scheduled_router = APIRouter(route_class=ScheduledRouteBuilder(...))

class Recipe(BaseModel):
    ingredients: List[str]

@scheduled_router.post("/home_cook")
async def home_cook(recipe: Recipe):
    # Make my own food

app.include_router(scheduled_router)

# If you want to make your own breakfast every morning at 7AM IST.
home_cook.scheduler(name="test-home-cook-at-7AM-IST", schedule="0 7 * * *", time_zone="Asia/Kolkata").schedule(recipe=Recipe(ingredients=["Milk","Cereal"]))

Concept

Cloud Tasks allows us to schedule a HTTP request in the future.

FastAPI makes us define complete schema and params for an HTTP endpoint.

Cloud Scheduler allows us to schedule recurring HTTP requests in the future.

FastAPI Cloud Tasks works by putting the three together:

  • GCP's Cloud Tasks + FastAPI = Partial replacement for celery's async delayed tasks.
  • GCP's Cloud Scheduler + FastAPI = Replacement for celery beat.
  • FastAPI Cloud Tasks + Cloud Run = Autoscaled delayed tasks.

Running

Local

Pre-requisites:

  • pip install fastapi-cloud-tasks
  • Install cloud-tasks-emulator
    • Alternatively install ngrok and forward the server's port

Start running the emulator in a terminal

cloud-tasks-emulator

Start running the task runner on port 8000 so that it is accessible from cloud tasks.

uvicorn examples.simple.main:app --reload --port 8000

In another terminal, trigger the task with curl

curl http://localhost:8000/trigger

Check the logs on the server, you should see

WARNING:  Hello task ran with payload: Triggered task

Important bits of code:

# complete file: examples/simple/main.py

# For local, we connect to the emulator client
client = None
if IS_LOCAL:
 client = emulator_client()

# Construct our DelayedRoute class with all relevant settings
# This can be done once across the entire project
DelayedRoute = DelayedRouteBuilder(
    client=client,
    base_url="http://localhost:8000"
    queue_path=queue_path(
        project="gcp-project-id",
        location="asia-south1",
        queue="test-queue",
    ),
)

# Override the route_class so that we can add .delay method to the endpoints and know their complete URL
delayed_router = APIRouter(route_class=DelayedRoute, prefix="/delayed")

class Payload(BaseModel):
    message: str

@delayed_router.post("/hello")
async def hello(p: Payload = Payload(message="Default")):
    logger.warning(f"Hello task ran with payload: {p.message}")


# Define our app and add trigger to it.
app = FastAPI()

@app.get("/trigger")
async def trigger():
    # Trigger the task
    hello.delay(p=Payload(message="Triggered task"))
    return {"message": "Hello task triggered"}

app.include_router(delayed_router)

Note: You can read complete working source code of the above example in examples/simple/main.py

In the real world you'd have a separate process for task runner and actual task.

Deployed environment / Cloud Run

Running on Cloud Run with authentication needs us to supply an OIDC token. To do that we can use a hook.

Pre-requisites:

  • Create a task queue. Copy the project id, location and queue name.
  • Deploy the worker as a service on Cloud Run and copy it's URL.
  • Create a service account in cloud IAM and add Cloud Run Invoker role to it.
# URL of the Cloud Run service
base_url = "https://hello-randomchars-el.a.run.app"

DelayedRoute = DelayedRouteBuilder(
    base_url=base_url,
    # Task queue, same as above.
    queue_path=queue_path(...),
    pre_create_hook=oidc_task_hook(
        token=tasks_v2.OidcToken(
            # Service account that you created
            service_account_email="fastapi-cloud-tasks@gcp-project-id.iam.gserviceaccount.com",
            audience=base_url,
        ),
    ),
)

Check the fleshed out example at examples/full/tasks.py

If you're not running on CloudRun and want to an OAuth Token instead, you can use the oauth_task_hook instead.

Check fastapi_cloud_tasks/hooks.py to get the hang od hooks and how you can use them.

Configuration

DelayedRouteBuilder

Usage:

DelayedRoute = DelayedRouteBuilder(...)
delayed_router = APIRouter(route_class=DelayedRoute)

@delayed_router.get("/simple_task")
def simple_task():
    return {}
  • base_url - The URL of your worker FastAPI service.

  • queue_path - Full path of the Cloud Tasks queue. (Hint: use the util function queue_path)

  • task_create_timeout - How long should we wait before giving up on creating cloud task.

  • pre_create_hook - If you need to edit the CreateTaskRequest before sending it to Cloud Tasks (eg: Auth for Cloud Run), you can do that with this hook. See hooks section below for more.

  • client - If you need to override the Cloud Tasks client, pass the client here. (eg: changing credentials, transport etc)

Task level default options

Usage:

@delayed_router.get("/simple_task")
@task_default_options(...)
def simple_task():
    return {}

All options from above can be passed as kwargs to the decorator.

Additional options:

  • countdown - Seconds in the future to schedule the task.
  • task_id - named task id for deduplication. (One task id will only be queued once.)

Example:

# Trigger after 5 minutes
@delayed_router.get("/simple_task")
@task_default_options(countdown=300)
def simple_task():
    return {}

Delayer Options

Usage:

simple_task.options(...).delay()

All options from above can be overriden per call (including DelayedRouteBuilder options like base_url) with kwargs to the options function before calling delay.

Example:

# Trigger after 2 minutes
simple_task.options(countdown=120).delay()

ScheduledRouteBuilder

Usage:

ScheduledRoute = ScheduledRouteBuilder(...)
scheduled_router = APIRouter(route_class=ScheduledRoute)

@scheduled_router.get("/simple_scheduled_task")
def simple_scheduled_task():
    return {}


simple_scheduled_task.scheduler(name="simple_scheduled_task", schedule="* * * * *").schedule()

Hooks

We might need to override things in the task being sent to Cloud Tasks. The pre_create_hook allows us to do that.

Some hooks are included in the library.

  • oidc_delayed_hook / oidc_scheduled_hook - Used to pass OIDC token (for Cloud Run etc).
  • deadline_delayed_hook / deadline_scheduled_hook - Used to change the timeout for the worker of a task. (PS: this deadline is decided by the sender to the queue and not the worker)
  • chained_hook - If you need to chain multiple hooks together, you can do that with chained_hook(hook1, hook2)

Helper dependencies

max_retries

@delayed_router.post("/fail_twice", dependencies=[Depends(max_retries(2))])
async def fail_twice():
    raise Exception("nooo")

CloudTasksHeaders

@delayed_router.get("/my_task")
async def my_task(ct_headers: CloudTasksHeaders = Depends()):
    print(ct_headers.queue_name)

Check the file fastapi_cloud_tasks/dependencies.py for details.

Contributing

  • Run pre-commit install on your local to get pre-commit hook.
  • Make changes and raise a PR!
  • If the change is massive, open an issue to discuss it before writing code.

Note: This project is neither affiliated with, nor sponsored by Google.

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