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An attrs based configuration file abstraction

Project description

PyPI version Supported Versions Code Style: Black Documentation Status Codacy Grade Codecov Azure Pipelines

An attr’s like interface to building class representations of config files.

from typing import List
import file_config

@file_config.config(title="My Config", description="A simple/sample config")
class MyConfig(object):

   @file_config.config(title="Config Group", description="A independent nested config")
   class Group(object):
      name = file_config.var(str)
      type = file_config.var(str, default="config")

   name = file_config.var(str, min=1, max=24)
   version = file_config.var(file_config.Regex(r"^v\d+$"))
   groups = file_config.var(List[Group], min=1)

my_config = MyConfig(
   name="Sample Config",
      MyConfig.Group(name="Sample Group")

config_json = my_config.dumps_json()
# {"name":"Sample Config","version":"v12","groups":[{"name":"Sample Group","type":"config"}]}
assert my_config == ModConfig.loads_json(config_json)

Install from PyPi.

pip install file-config
# or
pipenv install file-config

Define Configs

Making config is straight-forward if you are familiar with attrs syntax. Decorate a class with the file_config.config decorator and the class is considered to be a config.

class MyConfig(object):

You can check if a variable is a config type or instance by using the file_config.utils.is_config_type or file_config.utils.is_config methods.

assert file_config.utils.is_config_type(MyConfig)
assert file_config.utils.is_config(my_config)

There are two optional attributes are available on the file_config.config method (both used for validation):

  • title - Defines the title of the object in the resulting jsonschema

  • description - Defines the description of the object in the resulting jsonschema

@file_config.config(title="My Config", description="A simple/sample config")
class MyConfig(object):

Defining Config Vars

The real meat of the config class comes from adding attributes to the config through the file_config.var method. Again, if you’re familiar with attrs syntax, this should be pretty straight-forward.

@file_config.config(title="My Config", description="A simple/sample config")
class MyConfig(object):

   name = file_config.var()


If no args are given the the var method then the config object only expects that the variable is required when validating. You can disable the config exepecting the var to exist by setting required = False

name = file_config.var(required=False)


You can specify the type of a var by using either builtin types or most common typing types. This is accepted as either the first argument to the method or as the keyword type.

name = file_config.var(type=str)
keywords = file_config.var(type=typing.List[str])

Commonly you need to validate strings against regular expressions. Since this package is trying to stick as close as possible to Python’s typing there is no builtin type to store regular expressions. To do handle this a special method was created to store regular expressions in a typing type.

version = file_config.var(type=file_config.Regex(r"^v\d+$"))

Nested configs are also possible to throw into the type keyword of the var. These are serialized into nested objects in the jsonschema.

class GroupContainer(object):

   class Group(object):
      name = file_config.var(str)

   name = file_config.var(str)
   parent_group = file_config.var(Group)
   children_groups = file_config.var(typing.List[Group])

Note that types require to be json serializable. So types that don’t dump out to json (like typing.Dict[int, str]) will fail in the file_config.build_schema step.

class PackageConfig:
   depends = file_config.var(type=typing.Dict[int, str])
>>> file_config.build_schema(PackageConfig)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "", line 21, in <module>
  File "/home/stephen-bunn/Git/file-config/file_config/", line 278, in build_schema
    return _build_config(config_cls, property_path=[])
  File "/home/stephen-bunn/Git/file-config/file_config/", line 261, in _build_config
    var, property_path=property_path
  File "/home/stephen-bunn/Git/file-config/file_config/", line 218, in _build_var
    _build_type(var.type, var, property_path=property_path + [])
  File "/home/stephen-bunn/Git/file-config/file_config/", line 182, in _build_type
    return builder(value, property_path=property_path)
  File "/home/stephen-bunn/Git/file-config/file_config/", line 160, in _build_object_type
    f"cannot serialize object with key of type {key_type!r}, "
ValueError: cannot serialize object with key of type <class 'int'>, located in var 'depends'


The name kwarg is used for specifying the name of the variable that should be used during serialization/deserialization. This is useful for when you might need to use Python keywords as variables in your serialized configs but don’t want to specify the keyword as a attribute of your config.

class PackageConfig:
   type_ = file_config.var(name="type")


The title kwarg of a var is used in the built jsonschema as the varaible’s title.


Similar to the title kwarg, the description kwarg of a var is simply used as the variable’s description in the built jsonschema.

Serialization / Deserialization

To keep api’s consistent, serialization and deserialization methods are dynamically added to your config class. For example, JSON serialization/deserialization is done through the following dynamically added methods:

  • dumps_json() - Returns json serialization of the config instance

  • dump_json(file_object) - Writes json serialization of the config instance to the given file object

  • loads_json(json_content) - Builds a new config instance from the given json content

  • load_json(file_object) - Builds a new config instance from the result of reading the given json file object

This changes for the different types of serialization desired. For example, when dumping toml content the method name changes from dumps_json() to dumps_toml().

By default dictionary, JSON, and Pickle serialization is included.


The dumping of dictionaries is a bit different than other serialization methods since a dictionary representation of a config instance is not a end result of serialization.

For this reason, representing the config instance as dictionary is done through the file_config.to_dict(config_instance) method. Loading a new config instance from a dictionary is done through the file_config.from_dict(config_class, config_dictionary) method.

>>> config_dict = file_config.to_dict(my_config)
OrderedDict([('name', 'Sample Config'), ('version', 'v12'), ('groups', [OrderedDict([('name', 'Sample Group'), ('type', 'config')])])])
>>> new_config = file_config.from_dict(MyConfig, config_dict)
MyConfig(name='Sample Config', version='v12', groups=[MyConfig.Group(name='Sample Group', type='config')])


>>> json_content = my_config.dumps_json()
{"name":"Sample Config","version":"v12","groups":[{"name":"Sample Group","type":"config"}]}
>>> new_config = MyConfig.loads_json(json_content)
MyConfig(name='Sample Config', version='v12', groups=[MyConfig.Group(name='Sample Group', type='config')])


Unfortunately, INI cannot correctly serialize configs containing lists of mappings… found in the groups var. You should really be using TOML in this case, but for now INI can deal with any config that doesn’t contain a list of mappings.

For example…

class INIConfig(object):

   class INIConfigGroup(object):
      value = file_config.var()

   name = file_config.var(str)
   value = file_config.var(int)
   groups = file_config.var(Dict[str, INIConfigGroup])

my_config = INIConfig(
   name="My Config",
   groups={"group-1": INIConfig.INIConfigGroup(value=99)}
>>> ini_content = my_config.dumps_ini()
name = "My Config"
value = -1
value = 99
>>> new_config = INIConfig.loads_ini(ini_content)
INIConfig(name='My Config', value=-1, groups={'group-1': INIConfig.INIConfigGroup(value=99)})


>>> pickle_content = my_config.dumps_pickle()
b'\x80\x04\x95\x7f\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00\x8c\x0bcollections\x94\x8c\x0bOrderedDict\x94\x93\x94)R\x94(\x8c\x04name\x94\x8c\rSample Config\x94\x8c\x07version\x94\x8c\x03v12\x94\x8c\x06groups\x94]\x94h\x02)R\x94(h\x04\x8c\x0cSample Group\x94\x8c\x04type\x94\x8c\x06config\x94uau.'
>>> new_config = MyConfig.loads_pickle(pickle_content)
MyConfig(name='Sample Config', version='v12', groups=[MyConfig.Group(name='Sample Group', type='config')])


Serializing yaml requires pyyaml, pipenv install file-config[pyyaml]

>>> yaml_content = my_config.dumps_yaml()
name: Sample Config
version: v12
   - name: Sample Group
type: config
>>> new_config = MyConfig.loads_yaml(yaml_content)
MyConfig(name='Sample Config', version='v12', groups=[MyConfig.Group(name='Sample Group', type='config')])


Serializing toml requires tomlkit, pipenv install file-config[tomlkit]

>>> toml_content = my_config.dumps_toml()
name = "Sample Config"
version = "v12"
name = "Sample Group"
type = "config"
>>> new_config = MyConfig.loads_toml(toml_content)
MyConfig(name='Sample Config', version='v12', groups=[MyConfig.Group(name='Sample Group', type='config')])

Message Pack

Serializing message pack requires msgpack, pipenv install file-config[msgpack]

>>> msgpack_content = my_config.dumps_msgpack()
b'\x83\xa4name\xadSample Config\xa7version\xa3v12\xa6groups\x91\x82\xa4name\xacSample Group\xa4type\xa6config'
>>> new_config = MyConfig.loads_msgpack(msgpack_content)
MyConfig(name='Sample Config', version='v12', groups=[MyConfig.Group(name='Sample Group', type='config')])


Serializing xml requires lxml, pipenv install file-config[lxml]

>>> xml_content = my_config.dumps_xml(pretty=True, xml_declaration=True)
<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>
   <name type="str">Sample Config</name>
   <version type="str">v12</version>
         <name type="str">Sample Group</name>
         <type type="str">config</type>
>>> new_config = MyConfig.loads_xml(xml_content)
MyConfig(name='Sample Config', version='v12', groups=[MyConfig.Group(name='Sample Group', type='config')])

If during serialization you don’t have the extra depedencies installed for the requested serialization type, a ModuleNotFoundError is raised that looks similar to the following:

>>> my_config.dumps_toml()
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
  File "/home/stephen-bunn/.virtualenvs/tempenv-4ada15392238b/lib/python3.6/site-packages/file_config/", line 52, in _handle_dumps
    return handler.dumps(to_dict(self))
  File "/home/stephen-bunn/.virtualenvs/tempenv-4ada15392238b/lib/python3.6/site-packages/file_config/handlers/", line 49, in dumps
    dumps_hook_name = f"on_{self.imported}_dumps"
  File "/home/stephen-bunn/.virtualenvs/tempenv-4ada15392238b/lib/python3.6/site-packages/file_config/handlers/", line 13, in imported
    self._imported = self._discover_import()
  File "/home/stephen-bunn/.virtualenvs/tempenv-4ada15392238b/lib/python3.6/site-packages/file_config/handlers/", line 46, in _discover_import
    raise ModuleNotFoundError(f"no modules in {self.packages!r} found")
ModuleNotFoundError: no modules in ('tomlkit',) found
no modules in ('tomlkit',) found

In this case you should install tomlkit as an extra dependency using something similar to the following:

pip install file-config[tomlkit]
# or
pipenv install file-config[tomlkit]


Validation is done through jsonschema and can be used to check a config instance using the validate method.

>>> file_config.version = "v12"
>>> file_config.validate(my_config)
>>> my_config.version = "12"
>>> file_config.validate(mod_config)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "", line 61, in <module>
  File "/home/stephen-bunn/Git/file-config/file_config/", line 313, in validate
    to_dict(instance, dict_type=dict), build_schema(instance.__class__)
  File "/home/stephen-bunn/.local/share/virtualenvs/file-config-zZO-gwXq/lib/python3.6/site-packages/jsonschema/", line 823, in validate
    cls(schema, *args, **kwargs).validate(instance)
  File "/home/stephen-bunn/.local/share/virtualenvs/file-config-zZO-gwXq/lib/python3.6/site-packages/jsonschema/", line 299, in validate
    raise error
jsonschema.exceptions.ValidationError: '12' does not match '^v\\d+$'
Failed validating 'pattern' in schema['properties']['version']:
    {'$id': '#/properties/version', 'pattern': '^v\\d+$', 'type': 'string'}
On instance['version']:

The attribute types added config vars do not imply type checking when creating an instance of the class. Attribute types are used for generating the jsonschema for the config and validating the model. This allows you to throw any data you need to throw around in the config class, but validate the config only when you need to.

You can get the jsonschema that is created to validate a config class through the build_schema method.

>>> file_config.build_schema(ModConfig)
{'$id': 'MyConfig.json',
'$schema': '',
'description': 'A simple/sample config',
'properties': {'groups': {'$id': '#/properties/groups',
                           'items': {'$id': '#/properties/groups/items',
                                    'description': 'A independent nested '
                                    'properties': {'name': {'$id': '#/properties/groups/items/properties/name',
                                                            'type': 'string'},
                                                   'type': {'$id': '#/properties/groups/items/properties/type',
                                                            'default': 'config',
                                                            'type': 'string'}},
                                    'required': ['name', 'type'],
                                    'title': 'Config Group',
                                    'type': 'object'},
                           'minItems': 1,
                           'type': 'array'},
               'name': {'$id': '#/properties/name',
                        'maxLength': 24,
                        'minLength': 1,
                        'type': 'string'},
               'version': {'$id': '#/properties/version',
                           'pattern': '^v\\d+$',
                           'type': 'string'}},
'required': ['name', 'version', 'groups'],
'title': 'My Config',
'type': 'object'}

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