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Tool to synchronise images from a master region to other regions

Project description

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GlanceSync - Glance Synchronization Component

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This is the code repository for the GlanceSync component, the FIWARE Ops tool
used to synchronise the glance images in the different Glance servers connected
in the FIWARE Lab.

This project is part of `FIWARE`_.

Although this component has been developed for FIWARE, the software is highly
configurable, do not have special requirements beyond OpenStack libraries and
may be used with any other project or as a generic tool to synchronise images.
Moreover, all the OpenStack interface is in a module and it is possible to
adapt the code to support other platforms.

There is also the possibility to launch the application like a service which
allows you synchronise the different regions using a specific FIWARE Lab
administrator account. It could be used with a specific token generated by the
FIWARE Lab Keystone service.

Any feedback on this documentation is highly welcome, including bugs, typos
or things you think should be included but are not. You can use
`github issues`_
to provide feedback.


Overall description

GlanceSync is a command line tool and a server with API to solve the problem
of the images synchronisation between regions. It synchronises glance servers
in different regions taking the base of a master region. It was designed for
FIWARE project, but it has been expanded to be useful for other users or

GlanceSync synchronises all the images with certain metadata owned by a tenant
from a master region to each other region in a federation (or a subset of them).
This feature works out of the box without configuration. It requires only the
same set of environment variables, which are needed to contact the
keystone server, than the glance tool. It is also possible to set these
parameters in a file instead of using environment variables. Furthermore, any
option in the configuration file can be provided via command line, too.

GlanceSync synchronisation algorithm (i.e. the method to determine if a master
image must be synchronised to the other regions) is configurable. By default
all public images are synchronised, but it is enough with adding a line in the
configuration file to synchronise only the public images with certain metadata
(e.g. federated_image=True).

GlanceSync supports also the synchronisation to regions which do not use the
same keystone server than the master region and therefore require their own set
of credentials. The regions are grouped by *targets*: two regions may be in the
same *target* if they use the same credential (therefore, their glance servers
are registered in the same keystone server). The only mandatory *target* is the
``master`` target, where the master region is. Most of the GlanceSync
configuration, including the criteria to select which images are synchronised,
is defined at target level. It is okay to create several targets using the same
credential, for example if some regions only share a minimal set of images and
others have a broader list.

GlanceSync by default does not replace existing images. If an
image checksum is different between the region to synchronise and the master
region, a warning is emitted. The user has the option of forcing the
overwriting of a specific image (optionally renaming the old one) including the
checksums in a configuration file, using a whilelist or a blacklist.

When the remote image has the same content than the master image, but the
metadata differs, GlanceSync updates the metadata, but only a limited set, to
avoid overwriting properties considered as local in that glance server. Also
the system property ``is_public`` is updated.

GlanceSync has special support for *AMI* (Amazon Machine Image). Amazon images
include a reference to a kernel image (*AKI*) and to a ramdisk image (*ARI*),
but they are named by UUID. Therefore GlanceSync has to update this fields to
reflect the UUIDs in that particular region.

GlanceSync supports marking an image as obsolete, adding the suffix *_obsolete*.
An obsolete image is not synchronisable, but it is managed in a special way:
when an image is renamed, the change is propagated to the other regions. Also
the visibility of the image is propagated (i.e. if the master image is
marked as private, is made private in all the other regions).

The idea of marking the obsoleted images, is allow the administrator of the
regions to make a decision about them. These images are not part of set of
mandatory images in a federation anymore, but perhaps are in use by their local

About UUIDs and image names

This tool does not synchronise using UUID but names (i.e. an image has the same
name in all regions, but not the same UUID). Using a UUID to synchronise is
generally a bad idea, because some problems may arise with the restriction that
a UUID must be unique. Be aware that it is not possible to replace
the content of a image, without creating a new one and the old UUID may not be
reused. If something similar to an UUID is required, it is better to use a
metadata field to simulate it.

The downside of using names, is that a region may have more than a image
with the same name. This is specially challenging, when there is more than one
image in a destination target, with the name of the image to synchronise. In
this situation, GlanceSync takes the first image that is found with the same checkum
(or absolutely the first image that is found if there is not a checksum match)
and prints a warning for each duplicated image detected. Master images
with duplicated names are not synchronised and a warning is printed.

Image names with duplicated names are easy to avoid, with one serious
exception: when ordinary users can publish their images as public (shared), the
risk of collision increases and escapes of the control of the user. To avoid
this, GlanceSync ignore the images of other tenants by default.
Anyway, this is a general problem, not only a synchronisation
problem, due to more that one image with the same name is very confusing to users
that want to use them. Therefore it is better to restrict the publication of
shared images.

How it works

First GlanceSync gets a list of the images in the master region. Then runs the
algorithm with each specified region (or all the regions registered in the
same keystone server than the master region, if not specified). If an error
occurs within a region synchronisation, GlanceSync does not run more operations
in that region and jumps to the next one.

For each region, GlanceSync starts getting a list of its images. Then
calculates with images should be synchronised to this region (this is detailed
in the next section).

It some images has metadata pending, it updates them. After updating the metadata,
the missing images are upload. The uploading is by size order, this way when
there is a problem in the glance server it will be detected earlier with the
smallest image (e.g. when there is not enough space). Another reason to start
with the smallest first, is because AMI images; the kernel and ramdisk are also
images and because they are smaller, are uploaded before the AMI image that
needs them.

The last step is to update the kernel/ramdisk fields in AMI
images when the kernel/ramdisk images has been uploaded during this synchronisation

When a image with the same name is already present in the destination region,
Glancesycn checks it they are the same comparing the checksums. When they are
different, the following algorithm is applied:

1) Is the checksum of the slave node in the ``dontupdate`` list? Print a warning only
2) Is the checksum of the slave node in the ``rename`` list? Rename old image (adding
the *.old* suffix), change it to private, and upload the master region's image
3) Is the checksum of the slave node in the ``replace`` list? Replace the old image
with the master region's image
4) Does the parameter ``replace`` include the keyword *any*? Rename old image and
upload the master region's image
5) Does the parameter ``rename`` include the keyword *any*? Replace the old image
with the master region's image
6) Otherwise: print a warning. The user should take an action and fill
``dontupdate``, ``replace`` or ``rename`` parameters. In the meanwhile, the
image is considered *stalled* and it is not synchronised at all.

Note: When we talk about the checksum of the slave node, we mean that we need to specify
the checksum not from the master node, in our case Spain2, but the checksum in the destination
of the synchronization.

How the images to be synchronised are selected

There are three parameters in the configuration that affects which images are
selected: *forcesync*, *metadata_condition* and *metadata_set*. All of them can be
different for each target; when most targets use the same selection criteria,
an option is to put this options in the *DEFAULT* section.

This is the algorithm to determine if an image is synchronisable:

1) images with the *_obsolete* suffix, are never synchronised
2) images of other tenants are never synchronised
3) images with duplicated names are never synchronised, to avoid ambiguity.
4) if the UUID of the image is included in ``forcesync``, then it is synchronised
unconditionally, even if the image is not public.
5) if ``metadata_condition`` is defined, it contains python code that is evaluated
to determine if the image is synchronised. The code can use two variables:
image, with the information about the image and ``metadata_set``, with the content
of that parameter. The more interesting field of image is ``user_properties``,
that is a dictionary with the metadata of the image. Other properties are *id*,
*name*, *owner*, *size*, *region*, *is_public*. The image may be synchronised
even if it is not public, to avoid this, check ``image.is_public`` in the condition.
If metadata_set is not defined and ``image.is_public``, then the image will be synchronised
with all ``user_properties``.
6) if ``metadata_condition`` is not defined, the image is public, and
``metadata_set`` is defined, the image is synchronised if some of the
properties of ``metadata_set`` is on ``image.user_properties``.
7) if ``metadata_condition`` is not defined, the image is public, and
``metadata_set`` is not defined, the image is synchronised
8) otherwise, the image is not synchronised.

For example, to synchronise the images in FIWARE Lab, the best choice is
setting ``metadata_set=nid, sdc_aware, type, nid_version``, because all the images to be
synchronised has at least one of those properties.

A trip to synchronise also the images specified in a white list is combine the
parameter *forcesyncs* with ``metadata_condition=False``

The parameter ``metadata_set`` has another function. It is used to determine how
the metadata is updated in the remote image. If it is not defined, all the metadata
is copied from the master image, otherwise, only the properties in ``metadata_set``
are copied. Be aware that system property *is_public* must not be included in
``metadata_set``, because it is not a user property but a system one. Anyway,
*is_public* is unconditionally synchronised.

How the obsoleted images are managed

An obsolete image is an image with the *_obsolete* suffix. When an image is
marked as obsoleted is not synchronised anymore and therefore it is not upload to
regions where it is not present. However, if an image exists in the remote region
with the same name but without the suffix, it is renamed and the visibility is
updated with the value on the master region. Also the properties specified
in *obsolete_syncprops*, if any, are synchronised. The synchronisation of the
properties and the visibility is also managed when there is a image in the
region to synchronise that is already renamed but without the other changes

There are some checks to do before propagating the changes of an
obsoleted image:

* Are the two images the same? The checksums are compared and only if they are
the same the change is done.
* Is the image in the region to synchronise a public image of another tenant?
in this case do not touch the image.
* Is there an image with the same name but without the suffix also in the
master region and is synchronisable? In this case the image will be
synchronised normally without taking in consideration the obsolete image.

Usually obsoleted images are made private, because are not supported anymore.
It is possible to restore an image as public for local use after renaming or changing
the tenant (to avoid that it is made private again automatically), but before this is
important to look out more about the security status of the image.

The treatment of obsolete images can be disabled for a *target* with
*support_obsolete_images=False*. This flag affects the image renaming and
the metadata updating, but anyway images with '_obsolete' suffix are never


Build and Install


GlanceSync is designed to run with a mounting point with the images, because it
reads the images that are stored directly in the filesystem. Usually this
directory is /var/lib/glance/images.

The following software must be installed (e.g. using apt-get on Debian and Ubuntu,
or with yum in CentOS):

- Python 2.7
- pip
- virtualenv


The recommend installation method is using a virtualenv. Actually, the installation
process is only about the python dependencies, because the python code do not need

1) Create a virtualenv 'glancesyncENV' invoking *virtualenv glancesyncENV*
2) Activate the virtualenv with *source glancesyncENV/bin/activate*
3) Install the requirements running *pip install -r requirements.txt

Now the system is ready to use. For future sessions, only the step2 is required.


Server Configuration

There is the possibility to execute the glancesync like a service. You should
launch the server by executing the ```` process. You can see in the
Running section how to launch the server. In this section we explain the configuration
file that have to be defined to work with the GlanceSync Service. Last but not least
keep in bear that you will need also configure the client component if you want to launch
the core module of synchronization component.

GlanceSync server configuration file

The server have to be launched with a configuration file. By default, the service
will take the values either from environment variables or from files located in
``/etc/fiware.d``. The name of the files MUST be ``fiware-glancesync.cfg`` and
``fiware-glancesync-logging.cfg``. The options that we take are the following:

1) In the first case, the application try to see if there is defined
This environment variables will have the location of the configuration files, you can
specify them using the following commands

.. code::

$ export GLANCESYNC_SETTINGS_FILE=/Users/foo/fiware-glancesync/app/settings/fiware-glancesync.cfg
$ export GLANCESYNC_LOGGING_SETTINGS_FILE=/Users/foo/fiware-glancesync/app/settings/fiware-glancesync-logging.cfg
$ export GLANCESYNCAPP_DATABASE_PATH=/Users/foo/glancesyncENV/lib/python2.7/site-packages/
$ export GLANCESYNCAPP_CONFIG=/Users/foo/glancesyncENV/lib/python2.7/site-packages/

environment variables are not presented, the application will try to obtain the
files from the directory ``/etc/fiware.d``

If no one of the previos option is accomplished the server will launch an error message
like the following:

.. code::

ERROR: There is not defined GLANCESYNCAPP_CONFIG environment variable
pointing to path file
Please correct at least one of them to execute the program.

ERROR: There is not defined GLANCESYNCAPP_DATABASE_PATH environment variable
pointing to database path file
Please correct at least one of them to execute the program.

ERROR: There is neither defined GLANCESYNC_LOGGING_SETTINGS_FILE environment variable pointing
to fiware-glancesync-logging.cfg nor /etc/fiware.d/etc/fiware-glancesync-logging.cfg
file. Please correct at least one of them to execute the program.

ERROR: There is neither defined GLANCESYNC_SETTINGS_FILE environment variable
pointing to fiware-glancesync.cfg nor /etc/fiware.d/etc/fiware-glancesync.cfg
file. Please correct at least one of them to execute the program.

Configure your own configuration files

The GlanceSync server has two configuration files:

* fiware-glancesync.cfg, this is the important one to configure the service and need some modifications
* fiware-glancesync-logging.cfg, this file is used to configure the logging system, it is not needed to
change the content that we have defined by default in the publication of the component.

Related to the first file, how we have mentioned, there is some parameters that have to be configured in
order to execute correctly the service. For obvious reason they are not included in the repository:

- **KEYSTONE_URL**, service endpoint of the Keystone service in FIWARE Lab (it usually comes defined in
the installation of the component.

- **ADM_USER**, admin user in Keystone.

- **ADM_PASS**, password of the admin user

- **ADM_TENANT_ID**, tenant id of the admin user.

- **ADM_TENANT_NAME**, tenant name of the admin user (you have to provide either ADM_TENANT_ID or ADM_TENANT_NAME).

- **USER_DOMAIN_NAME**, user domain name, by default for an administrator account you can use the value ``Default``.


Client Configuration

Working without a configuration file

The tool can work without a configuration file or with an empty one. In this
case, the following OpenStack environment variables must be filled with the
administrator's credential: ``OS_USERNAME``, ``OS_PASSWORD``, ``OS_AUTH_URL``,
``OS_TENANT_NAME``, ``OS_REGION_NAME``. The value of ``OS_REGION_NAME`` will be
the master region (in FIWARE Lab this region is Spain2).

It is also possible to pass any configuration option using command line. For
example, the following invocation runs a synchronisation taking from command
line the parameters *master_region* in the *main* section and *metadata_set* in
the *DEFAULT* section:

.. code::

./ --config main.master_region=Spain2 metadata_set=nid,type,sdc_aware,sdc_version

It is important to note that *--config* parameter expect any number of parameters
separated by spaces. This is a problem if the list of regions are specified
*after* the *--config* parameter, because then the regions are parsed as part
of the *--config* parameter. The solution is passing the regions *before* the
parameter or using the standard separator *--*:

.. code::

# Wrong: region1 and region2 are interpreted as part of --config param
./ --config main.master_region=Spain2 region1 region2
# Ok
./ --config main.master_region=Spain2 -- region1 region2
# Ok
./ region1 region2 --config main.master_region

The configuration file

The configuration used by the GlanceSync component is stored in the
``/etc/fiware.d/glancesync.conf`` file. However, this path may be changed with the
environment variable *GLANCESYNC_CONFIG*.

The configuration file has a ``main`` section with some global configuration
parameters and one section for each target (regions are grouped by targets,
two regions are in the same targets if they use the same credential). The
``master`` section is the target where the master region is, that is, the region
where are located the images to synchronise to the other regions.

Most of the configuration is defined at target level. If the same values are
used in most or all the targets, an option is to set them in the DEFAULT section.

The only mandatory settings in the target sections, is the credential. It may be
provided in two ways (in the case of ``master`` also it is possible to use
the environment variables as explained in the previous section, even it is
possible to combine both methods, for example to set only the password via
environment variable):

* using the credential option. There are four values separated by commas: the
first is the user, the second is the password encoded with base64, the third
is the keystone URL and the fourth, the tenant name.
* using the options *user*, *password*, *tenant*, *keystone_url*.

If credentials are stored in the configuration file, it is convenient to
make the file only readable by the user who invokes GlanceSync.

Example of a configuration file

The following is an example of a configuration file, with all the possible
options auto explained in the comments. A configuration file like this can be
generated invoking *fiwareglancesync/script/*

.. glancesync_conf_begin
.. code::


# Region where are the images in the "master" target that are synchronised to
# the other regions of "master" regions and/or to regions in other targets.
master_region = Spain

# A sorted list of regions. Regions that are not present are silently
# ignored. Synchronization is done also to the other regions, but first this
# list is revised and then the Regions are prefixed with "target:"
# This parameter is only used when running synchronisation without parameters
# or the region list includes a 'target' (e.g. 'master:' that is expanded to
# the regions in master but the specified in ignore_regions). When the full region
# list is provided explicitly via command line, the order of
# the parameters is used instead.
preferable_order = Trento, Lannion, Waterford, Berlin, Prague

# The maximum number of simultaneous children to use to do the synchronisation.
# Each region is synchronised using a children process, therefore, this
# parameter sets how many regions can be synchronised simultaneously.
# The default value, max_children = 1, implies that synchronisation is fully
# sequential. Be aware that you need also to invoke the sync tool with the
# --parallel parameter.
max_children = 1

# The folder where the master images are (the filename is the UUID of the
# image in the master region). The default value is the folder where the
# Glance server stores the images.
images_dir = /var/lib/glance/images


# Values in this section are default values for the other sections.

# the files with this checksum will be replaced with the master image
# parameter may be any or a CSV list (or a CSV list with 'any' at the end),
# the checksum is the value in the destination glance service.
# replace = 9046fd22131a96502cb0d85b4a406a5a

# the files with this checksum will be replaced with the master image,
# but the old image will be preserved renamed (using same name, but with
# .old extension) and made private. The checksum is the value in the
# destination glance service.
# parameter may be any or a CSV list (or a CSV list with 'any' at the end)
# rename = any

# If replace or rename is any, don't update nor rename images with some of
# these checksums. The checksum is the value in the destination glance service.
# dontupdate =

# List of UUIDs that must be synchronised unconditionally.
# This is useful for example to pre-sync images marked as private

forcesyncs = 6e240dd4-e304-4599-b7d8-e38e13cef058

# condition to evaluate if the image is synchronised.
# image is defined, as well as metadata_set (see next parameter).
# Default condition is:
# image.is_public and (not metadata_set or metadata_set.intersection(image.user_properties))

metadata_condition = image.is_public and\
('nid' in image.user_properties or 'type' in image.user_properties)

# the list of userproperties to synchronise. If this variable is undefined, all
# user variables are synchronised.
metadata_set = nid , type, sdc_aware, nid_version

# When the software asks for the list of images in a region, it gets both the
# images owned by the tenant and the public images owned by other tenants.
# If this parameter is true (the default and recommended value), only the
# tenant's images are considered. This implies that it can exist after the
# synchronisation a new image with the same name that a public one from other
# user. It could be very confusing (actually, a warning is printed when it is
# detected), but usually it is not recommend to work with images from other
# tenants. To find out more about this, see 'About UUIDs and image names' in
# the documentation.
# This parameter only affects to the list of images obtained from the regional
# servers. From master region only the tenant's images are considered.
only_tenant_images = True

# When this option is true (the default), the renaming and metadata updating of
# obsolete images is activate. See the documentation for details.
support_obsolete_images = True

# These are the properties that are synchronised (in addition to is_public
# and the name) in obsolete images, when support_obsolete_images is True.
obsolete_syncprops = sdc_aware

# Timeout to get the image list from a glance server, in seconds. Default
# value is 30 seconds.
list_images_timeout = 30

# API required to contact with the keystone server. If this parameter is True,
# then version 3 of the API is used. Otherwise, the version 2 is used
use_keystone_v3 = False


# This is the only mandatory target: it includes all the regions registered
# in the same keystone server than the master region.
# credential set: user, base64(password), keystone_url, tenant_name
# as alternative, options user, password, keystone_url and tenant can be used
# only with master target, it is possible also to set the credential using
# environment variables with parameters user, password, etc.)
credential = user,W91c2x5X2RpZF95b3VfdGhpbmtfdGhpc193YXNfdGhlX3JlYWxfcGFzc3dvcmQ/,http://server:4730/v2.0,tenantid1

# This parameter is useful when invoking the tool without specifying which
# images to synchronise or when the list includes a "target" without a region
# (e.g. master:). In this case it is expanded with the list of regions in that
# target except the included in ignore_regions
ignore_regions = Spain1


# Another
credential = user2,W91c2x5X2RpZF95b3VfdGhpbmtfdGhpc193YXNfdGhlX3JlYWxfcGFzc3dvcmQ/,http://server2:4730/v2.0,tenantid2
metadata_condition = image.is_public and image.user_properties.get('type', None) == 'baseimages'

.. glancesync_conf_end

This configuration file defines two *targets*: ``master`` and ``experimental``. The first one
synchronises all the public images with properties *nid* and/or *type* defined. The last one only
synchronises images with ``type=baseimages``

Security consideration

GlanceSync does not require *root* privileges. But at this version it requires
read-only access to image directory ``/var/lib/glance/images`` (or making
available a copy of all these files, or at least the subset that may be
synchronised, in other path and then set the option *images_dir*)

It is strongly recommended:

* creating an account to run GlanceSync only
* creating a configuration file only readable by the GlanceSync account. This
is because the credentials should not be exposed to other users.


Client Running

Basic use

Once installed all the dependencies, there is a way to run GlanceSync manually
from the command line invoking the ```` tool inside the GlanceSync

When ``./`` is invoked without parameters, it synchronises the images from
the master region to all the other regions with a glance endpoint registered in
the keystone server (except the ones, if any, specified as a comma separated list
in the ``ignore_regions`` parameter, inside the ``master`` section). The command
can also receive as parameters the regions to synchronise. It is possible also
to specify a target name and the suffix *:*; this way it is expanded to all the
regions in that target (e.g. if there are two regions, *regionA* and *regionB* in
target *target1*, then *target1:* is expanded with *target1:regionA target1:regionB*)

Advanced use

By default, GlanceSync synchronises regions one by one. When the command line
option *--parallel* is passed, GlanceSync synchronised several regions in
parallel. The number or regions synchronised at the same time is determined by the
parameter max_children in the main section. Default value is 1 (no parallel).
When synchronisation runs on parallel, a directory with the pattern
*sync_<year><month>_<hour><minute>* is created. Inside this, it is a file for each
region with the log of the synchronisation process.

The option *--dry-run* shows the changes needed to synchronise the images,
but without doing the operations actually.

The option *--show-regions* shows all the regions available in all the targets
defined in the configuration file.

The option *--make-backups* creates a backup of the medatada of the images
in the regional Glance servers, instead of running the synchronisation.

It is possible to override any parameter of the configuration file, using the
option *--config*. Be aware that the way of setting several parameters is
separating them with spaces (e.g. *--config option1=value1 option2=value2*)

Finally, the option *--show-status* is to obtain a report about the
synchronisation status of the regions. A more detailed information of this is
provided in the *Checking status* section.

As pointed, GlanceSync can synchronised also from the master region to regions
that do not use the same keystone server. A *target* is a namespace to refer to
the regions sharing a credential. The ``master`` target is the one
where the master region is. Each target has a section with its name in the
configuration file, to specify the credential and optionally other configuration
(most of the parameters are local to each target).

The way to synchronise to regions that are in other *target*, is to specified
the region with the preffix ``<target_name>:``. For example, to synchronise to region
Trento and Berlin2, both in the same keystone server than the master region,
but also to RegionOne and RegionTwo, registered in target *other* the
following command must be invoked:

.. code::

./ Trento Berlin2 other:RegionOne other:RegionTwo

Note that the *master:* prefix may be omitted.

Making a backup of metadata

The option *--make-backups* create a backup of the metadata in the specified
regions and in the master region. This is useful for example for
debugging or testing, because GlanceSync supports the use of a mock that reads
files likes these as input instead of contacting to the real servers. The mock
is also used for testing real scenarios.

The backup is created in a directory named *backup_glance_* with the date and
time as suffix. There is a file for each region (the name is backup_<region>.csv)
and inside the file a line for each image. The following fields are included:

* the region name
* the image name
* the UUID of the image in the region
* the status of the image (the OK status is 'active')
* the size in bytes
* the checksum
* the tenant id of the owner (a.k.a. project id)
* a boolean indicating if the image is Public
* a dictionary with the user properties

Only the information about public images/ the images owned by the tenant, can
be obtained. This is a limitation of the glance API: even the administrator
does not get a list of private images of other users.

Using a mock with a backup

.. _mock:

It is possible to use the result of a backup (optionally after changing the
contents) for testing different scenarios.

Supposing the backup directory *backup_glance_2015-11-17T12:54:26.117838* is
renamed to *scenario1*. After invoking this line, instead of operating with
the real servers, a mock with metadata saved in *persistent_data* folder is

.. code::

eval $(glancesync/ --path persistent_data scenenario1)
export PYTHONPATH=glancesync

The created scenario is persistent, that is, is possible to invoke * --show-status*
before and after running the synchronisation for checking that the state has

The mock uses as tenant_id (this is important to compare the owner of the files)
the paremeter *tenant_id* if defined in the configuration, otherwise *id* is
added to the tenant_name as suffix.

To make test results deterministic, when a new image is created in the mock, the
UUID is not random. The UUID's pattern is *<seq>$<image_name>* where seq is a number
starting with 1 that guarantees the UUID uniqueness.

Checking status

In order to check the status of the synchronisation, use the following command:

.. code::

./ --show-status

This print the status of all the regions in the *master* target, that is, the
region in the same keystone server than the master region. If ``ignore_regions``
is defined in the *master* configuration section, the specified regions are

Of course is also possible to check the status of any group of regions, for
example, the call:

.. code::

./ --show-status Trento Mexico Gent target2:Region1 target2:Region2

It will show the status of the regions Trento, Mexico, Gent both in the *master*
target, and the regions Region1 in Region2 defined in the *target2* target.

The output of command is a line for each image to be synchronised for each
region. That is, in the last example, if 15 images are synchronised to the
regions of *master* and 10 images to the regions of *target2*, then a total
of 15*3 + 10*2 images are printed.

Each line is a CSV. The first field is the synchronisation status, the
seconds is the region's name, and the third is the image name. This is an

.. code::


The synchronisation status can be classified in three categories: final status,
error status and pending synchronisation status.

Final status

GlanceSync consider that there is no pending operations: the image is
synchronised or marked as 'dontupdate'.

* ok: the image is fully synchronised
* ok_stalled_checksum: the image has a different checksum than master,
but this checksum is included in parameter 'dontupdate'. Therefore the image
will not be updated (content nor metadata)

Error status

There is an error condition that requires user intervention before trying

* error_checksum: there is an image, but with a different checksum and
there is not a matching dontupdate, rename or replace directive. Action
required: fill the checksum (or use any) with *dontupdate* or *rename* or
* error_ami: the image requires a kernel or ramdisk that is not in the
list of images to sync. Action required: ensure that the selection criteria
include the kernel/ramdisk images.

Pending synchronisation status

The image needs synchronisation. Be aware that perhaps the image is on a
pending status although GlanceSync execution has completed, because the glance
server responded with an error. However, this is yet considered a pending status
and not an error status, because it is not a problem that users must resolve by

* pending_metadata: there is an image with the right content (checksum), but
metadata must be updated (this may include ramdisk_id and kernel_id)
* pending_upload: the image is not synchronised; it must be upload
* pending_replace: there is an image, but with different checksum. The
image will be replaced
* pending_rename: there is an image, but with different checksum. The
image will be replaced, but before this the old image will be renamed
* pending_ami: the image requires a kernel or ramdisk image that is in state
*pending_upload*, *pending_replace* or *pending_rename*.

How use glancesync without access to images files

At the moment, GlanceSync is designed to run in the glance server of the master
region, because it reads the images that are stored directly in the filesystem.

This may be an inconvenience, but a real issue is when the Glance backed does not
use plain files (e.g. the Cepth backend) and therefore GlanceSync cannot read
the files even when it is running at the glance server.

The following script can be used to pre-download the images required to
synchronise the indicated regions to the folder specified by environment
variable *GLANCE_IMAGES* (by default, ``/var/lib/glance/images``) and then
run the synchronisation:

.. code::


print_required_images_names() {
./ --show-status $* | awk -v ORS=" " -F, \
'/^pending_(upload|rename)/ {words[$3]++}
END { for (i in words) print substr(i,1, length(i)-1) }'

get_id_from_name() {
glance image-show $1 | awk -F\| \
' $2 ~ /^[ ]*id/ { sub(/[ ]+/,"",$3) ; print $3}'


# First, download the required images to $GLANCE_IMAGES
for name in $(print_required_images_names $*) ;
id=$(get_id_from_name $name)
echo $name $id
if [ ! -f $GLANCE_IMAGES/$id ] ; then
glance image-download --file $GLANCE_IMAGES/$id --progress $id

# run synchronisation
./ $* --config images_dir=$GLANCE_IMAGES


Server Running

There is several options to execute the GlanceSync server from the command line. You
can obtain information of the different options running form the command line the following

.. code::

$ python

usage: [-h] {gunicornserver,shell,db,runserver} ...

positional arguments:
gunicornserver Run the GlanceSync server application within Gunicorn.
shell Runs a Python shell inside Flask application context.
db Perform database migrations
runserver Runs the Flask development server i.e.

optional arguments:
-h, --help show this help message and exit

We go into details about the db, runserver and gunicornserver options.

Database configuration

If it is the first time that you use the component or if you need to make an upgrade of the database
schemas, you will need to execute the commands related to the database management. You can obtain a
help of the different operations just executing:

.. code::

$ python db -h
usage: Perform database migrations

Perform database migrations

positional arguments:
upgrade Upgrade to a later version
heads Show current available heads in the script directory
merge Merge two revisions together. Creates a new migration
migrate Alias for 'revision --autogenerate'
stamp 'stamp' the revision table with the given revision;
don't run any migrations
show Show the revision denoted by the given symbol.
current Display the current revision for each database.
edit Edit current revision.
init Generates a new migration
downgrade Revert to a previous version
branches Show current branch points
history List changeset scripts in chronological order.
revision Create a new revision file.

optional arguments:
-h, --help show this help message and exit

This allows you to keep a revision of the database that we are using. The first time that you use
the component you will need to create the database repository and initialize the revision of it. It
can be done with the following commands (in order):

.. code::

$ python db init
$ python db migrate
$ python db upgrade

Run basic server

Once that we have initialized the database, we can launch the application, there is two possibilities.
In this section, we see the easy way to launch the application running basically a python process.
You can obtain help of the operation just executing:

.. code::

$ python runserver -h
usage: runserver [-h] [-t HOST] [-p PORT] [--threaded]
[--processes PROCESSES] [--passthrough-errors] [-d]

Runs the Flask development server i.e.

optional arguments:
-h, --help show this help message and exit
-t HOST, --host HOST
-p PORT, --port PORT
--processes PROCESSES
-d, --no-debug
-r, --no-reload

How you can see almost all arguments are optionals, the HOST and PORT are defined in the ``fiware-glancesync.cfg``
file. You can execute the server just executing:

.. code::

$ python runserver

Run Gunicorn server

There is the possiblity to launch the service behind a Gunicorn HTTP Server. `Gunicorn`_ 'Green Unicorn' is a
Python WSGI HTTP Server for UNIX. You need to install this HTTP Server previously to execute the GlanceSync
service. Take a look to the Gunicorn site to see how to install it. Keep in bear that you should use a version
greater than 0.9.0.

After the installation of the HTTP server, you can execute the component. If you execute the following command
you can obtain detailed information about the options that you have:

.. code::

$ python gunicornserver -h
usage: gunicornserver [-h] [-H HOST] [-p PORT] [-w WORKERS]

Run the GlanceSync server application within Gunicorn.

optional arguments:
-h, --help show this help message and exit
-H HOST, --host HOST IP address or hostname of the Glancesync server.
-p PORT, --port PORT Port in which the GlanceSync server is running
-w WORKERS, --workers WORKERS
Number of concurrent workers to be launched, usually
2*core numbers+1.

By default, HOST, PORT and WORKERS are defined in the configuration file, it is not necessary to specify them
again here. So to run the service, just write the following line:

.. code::

$ python gunicornserver -h

Logging files

The current version of the GlanceSync service produce logging files that will be located in the sam directory
of the application where you launch the application. It is defined with log rotate with allow to control the
extension of the file. You can see details of the configuration of the log file in the ``fiware-glancesync-logging.cfg``
file. By default it will be named with **glancesync-api.log**. The sucessive rotate files will be numered adding
a string from '.1' to '.3' to the previous file name (e.g. glancesync-api.log.1).


API Overview
The GlanceSync offers a REST API, which can be used for synchronizing images
in different regions. Please have a look at the API Reference Documentation section

API Reference Documentation

- `FIWARE GlanceSync v1 (Apiary) <>`_



Ent-to-end tests

To run the end-to-end tests, go to ``test/acceptance`` folder and run:

.. code::

behave features/ --tags ~@skip

Please, be aware that this tests requires preparing a environment, including
at least three glance servers and two keystone servers. Have a look to the
``test/acceptance/README.rst`` in order to get more information about how to
prepare the environment to run the functional_test target.

Ent-to-end tests with Docker execution
Glancesync acceptance tests can be executed by Docker. To do that, firstly it is required to create the required docker images (fiware-glancesync and
To do that:

.. code::

docker build -t fiware-glancesync -f docker/Dockerfile docker
docker build -t fiware-glancesync-acceptance -f docker/AcceptanceTests/Dockerfile docker/AcceptanceTests

Once the images have been created, we can run the acceptance tests it by using docker-compose (to include the environment variables). To export then is required:

.. code::

export OS_AUTH_URL = {the auth uri of the testbed agains the tests are going to be execute}
export OS_USERNAME = {the user name}
export OS_TENANT_NAME = {the tenant name}
export OS_PASSWORD = {the password}
export OS_REGION_NAME = {the region}
export OS_PROJECT_DOMAIN_NAME = {the project domain name}
export OS_USER_DOMAIN_NAME = {the user domain name}
export KEYSTONE_IP = {The keystone ip where testbed is deployed}
export Region1 = {The region name 1 for tests}
export Region2 = {The region name 2 for tests}
export Region3 = {The region name 3 for tests}
docker-compose -f docker/docker-compose.yml up

When docker has finished, you can obtain the tests results by
.. code::

docker cp docker_fiwareglancesync-acceptance:/opt/fiware/glancesync/tests/acceptance/testreport .

Unit tests
To run the unit tests, you need to create a virtualenv using the requirements
both contained in requirements.txt and test-requrirements.txt. You only need to
execute the nosetests program in the root dorectory of the fiware-glancesync
code. Keep in mind that it requires python2.7 or superior to execute the unit

.. code::

virtualenv -p <root to python v2.7> venv
source ./venv/bin/activate
pip install -r requirements.txt
pip install -r test-requirements.txt
nosetests --exe

Eight tests are marked as skipped because they are more properly integration
test. They are in the file ´´´´. The tested
module contains all the code that interacts with Glance and the tests do some
checks against a real glance server. To activate this eight tests, edit the file and
change testingFacadeReal to True. It needs the usual OpenStack environment

Unit tests with Docker execution
Glancesync unit tests can be executed by docker. To do that, firstly it is required to create the docker image,
with the following command:

.. code::

docker build -t fiware-glancesync-build -f docker/UnitTests/Dockerfile docker

Once the fiware-glancesync-build image is created, we can run it by:

.. code::

docker run --name fiware-glancesync-build fiware-glancesync-build

Finally, it is possible to obtain tests results and coverage information by:

.. code::

docker cp fiware-glancesync-build:/opt/fiware/glancesync/test_results .
docker cp fiware-glancesync-build:/opt/fiware/glancesync/coverage .

Contributing new tests

It is possible to contribute new tests defining a scenario in *tests/resources*
For a scenario 'new_scenario', the following folders must be created:

* new_scenario: there are files for each region with the backup of the metadata
BEFORE invoking the synchronisation. These files can be generated
with * --make-backup*
* new_scenario.result: there are files for each region with the backup of the
metadata AFTER invoking the synchronisation
* new_scenario.status_pre: there are files with the status of each region BEFORE invoking
the synchronisation. These files can be generated with the
output of * --show-status*
* new_scenario.status_post: there are files with the status of each region AFTER invoking
the synchronisation. These files can be generated with the
output of * --show-status*

Inside the forlder *new_scenario*, optionally a *config* file may be included.
If this file is not found, then the default configuration defined in the variable
*config1* of the test file ´´tests/unit/´´ is used.

Then, a test class must be defined extending *TestGlanceSync_Sync*, for example:

.. code::

class TestGlanceSync_AMI(TestGlanceSync_Sync):
"""Test a environment with AMI images (kernel_id/ramdisk_id)"""
def config(self):
path = os.path.abspath(os.curdir)
self.path_test = path + '/tests/unit/resources/ami'
self.regions = ['master:Burgos']

This class is provided in ´´tests/unit/´´.

More information about the mock: mock_



Ask your thorough programming questions using `stackoverflow`_ and your general questions on `FIWARE Q&A`_.
In both cases please use the tag *fiware-health*



\(c) 2015 Telefónica I+D, Apache License 2.0



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.. _github issues:
.. _stackoverflow:
.. _`FIWARE Q&A`:
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