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Unit testing flask applications made easy!

Project description

flask-unittest

A hassle free solution to testing flask application using unittest

Provides functionality for testing using the Flask object, the FlaskClient object, a combination of the two, or even a live flask server!

This library is intended to provide utilities that help the user follow the official flask application testing guidelines. It is recommended you familiarize yourself with that page.

Unless you're interested in testing a live flask server using a headless browser. In which case, familiarity with your preferred headless browser is enough.

Features

  • Test flask applications using a Flask object
    • Access to app_context, test_request_context etc
    • Access to flask globals like g, request, and session
    • Access to test_client through the Flask object
    • Same Flask object will be usable in the test method and its corresponding setUp and tearDown methods
    • App is created per test method in the testcase
  • Test flask applications using a FlaskClient object
    • Access to flask globals like g, request, and session
    • Test your flask app in an API centric way using the functionality provided by FlaskClient
    • Same FlaskClient object will be usable in the test method and its corresponding setUp and tearDown methods
    • The FlaskClient is created per test method of the testcase by using the given Flask object (App)
    • App can either be a constant class property throughout the testcase, or be created per test method
  • Test flask applications running live on localhost - using your preferred headless browser (e.g selenium, pyppeteer etc)
    • Contrary to the previous ones, this functionality is handled by a test suite, rather than a test case
    • The flask server is started in a daemon thread when the LiveTestSuite runs - it runs for the duration of the program
  • Simple access to the context so you can access flask globals (g, request, and session) with minimal headaches and no gotchas!
  • Support for using generators as create_app - essentially emulating pytest's fixtures (more of that in example/tests/)
  • No extra dependencies! (well, except for flask...) - easily integratable with the built in unittest module

Quick Start

Install flask-unittest from pypi using pip

pip install flask-unittest

Import in your module and start testing!

import flask_unittest

Now, before moving on to the examples below - I highly recommend checking out the official Testing Flask Applications example. It's extremely simple and should take only 5 minutes to digest.

Alternatively, you can directly dive into the examples at tests/ and example/tests/. Though this might be a bit intimidating if you're just starting out at testing flask apps.

NOTE: For all the following testcases using FlaskClient, it is recommended to set .testing on your Flask app to True (i.e app.testing = True)

Test using FlaskClient

If you want to use a FlaskClient object to test - this is the testcase for you!

This testcase creates a FlaskClient object for each test method. But the app property is kept constant.

import flask_unittest
import flask.globals

class TestFoo(flask_unittest.ClientTestCase):
    # Assign the `Flask` app object
    app = ...

    def setUp(self, client):
        # Perform set up before each test, using client
        pass

    def tearDown(self, client):
        # Perform tear down after each test, using client
        pass

    '''
    Note: the setUp and tearDown method don't need to be explicitly declared
    if they don't do anything (like in here) - this is just an example
    Only declare the setUp and tearDown methods with a body, same as regular unittest testcases
    '''

    def test_foo_with_client(self, client):
        # Use the client here
        # Example request to a route returning "hello world" (on a hypothetical app)
        rv = client.get('/hello')
        self.assertInResponse(rv, 'hello world!')

    def test_bar_with_client(self, client):
        # Use the client here
        # Example login request (on a hypothetical app)
        rv = client.post('/login', {'username': 'pinkerton', 'password': 'secret_key'})
        # Make sure rv is a redirect request to index page
        self.assertLocationHeader('http://localhost/')
        # Make sure session is set
        self.assertIn('user_id', flask.globals.session)

Remember to assign a correctly configured Flask app object to app!

Each test method, as well as the setUp and tearDown methods, should take client as a parameter. You can name this parameter whatever you want of course but the 2nd parameter (including self as first) is a FlaskClient object.

Note that the client is different for each test method. But it's the same for a singular test method and its corresponding setUp and tearDown methods.

What does this mean? Well, when it's time to run test_foo_with_client, a FlaskClient object is created using app.test_client(). Then this is passed to setUp, which does its job of setup. After that, the same client is passed to test_foo_with_client, which does the testing. Finally, the same client again, is passed to tearDown - which cleans the stuff up.

Now when it's time to run test_bar_with_client, a new FlaskClient object is created and so on.

This essentially means that any global changes (such as session and cookies) you perform in setUp using client, will be persistent in the actual test method. And the changes in the test method will be persistent in the tearDown. These changes get destroyed in the next test method, where a new FlaskClient object is created.

NOTE: If you want to disable the use of cookies on client, you need to put test_client_use_cookies = False in your testcase body.

You can also pass in extra kwargs to the test_client() call by setting test_client_kwargs in your testcase body.

Full Example: flask_client_test.py

Test using Flask

If you want to use a Flask object to test - this is the testcase for you!

This testcase creates a Flask object for each test method, using the create_app method implemented by the user

import flask_unittest
from flaskr.db import get_db

class TestFoo(flask_unittest.AppTestCase):

    def create_app(self):
        # Return/Yield a `Flask` object here
        pass

    def setUp(self, app):
        # Perform set up before each test, using app
        pass

    def tearDown(self, app):
        # Perform tear down after each test, using app
        pass

    '''
    Note: the setUp and tearDown method don't need to be explicitly declared
    if they don't do anything (like in here) - this is just an example
    Only declare the setUp and tearDown methods with a body, same as regular unittest testcases
    '''

    def test_foo_with_app(self, app):
        # Use the app here
        # Example of using test_request_context (on a hypothetical app)
        with app.test_request_context('/1/update'):
            self.assertEqual(request.endpoint, 'blog.update')

    def test_bar_with_app(self, app):
        # Use the app here
        # Example of using client from app (on a hypothetical app)
        with app.test_client() as client:
            rv = client.get('/hello')
            self.assertInResponse(rv, 'hello world!')

    def test_baz_with_app(self, app):
        # Use the app here
        # Example of using app_context (on a hypothetical app)
        with app.app_context():
            get_db().execute("INSERT INTO user (username, password) VALUES ('test', 'testpass');")

The create_app function should return a correctly configured Flask object representing the webapp to test

You can also do any set up, extra config for the app (db init etc) here

It's also possible (and encouraged) to yield a Flask object here instead of returning one (essentially making this a generator function) This way, you can put cleanup right here after the yield and they will be executed once the test method has run

See Emulating official flask testing example using flask-unittest

Each test method, as well as the setUp and tearDown methods, should take app as a parameter. You can name this parameter whatever you want of course but the 2nd parameter (including self as first) is a Flask object returned/yielded from the user provided create_app.

Note that the app is different for each test method. But it's the same for a singular test method and its corresponding setUp and tearDown methods.

What does this mean? Well, when it's time to run test_foo_with_app, a Flask object is created using create_app. Then this is passed to setUp, which does its job of setup. After that, the same app is passed to test_foo_with_app, which does the testing. Finally, the same app again, is passed to tearDown - which cleans the stuff up.

Now when it's time to run test_bar_with_app - create_app is called again and a new Flask object is created and so on.

If create_app is a generator function. All the stuff after yield app will be executed after the test method (and its tearDown, if any) has run

Full Example: flask_app_test.py

Test using both Flask and FlaskClient

If you want to use both Flask and FlaskClient to test - this is the testcase for you!

This testcase creates a Flask object, using the create_app method implemented by the user, and a FlaskClient object from said Flask object, for each test method

import flask_unittest
from flaskr import get_db

class TestFoo(flask_unittest.AppClientTestCase):

    def create_app(self):
        # Return/Yield a `Flask` object here
        pass

    def setUp(self, app, client):
        # Perform set up before each test, using app and client
        pass

    def tearDown(self, app, client):
        # Perform tear down after each test, using app and client
        pass

    '''
    Note: the setUp and tearDown method don't need to be explicitly declared
    if they don't do anything (like in here) - this is just an example
    Only declare the setUp and tearDown methods with a body, same as regular unittest testcases
    '''

    def test_foo_with_both(self, app, client):
        # Use the app and client here
        # Example of registering a user and checking if the entry exists in db (on a hypothetical app)
        response = client.post('/auth/register', data={'username': 'a', 'password': 'a'})
        self.assertLocationHeader(response, 'http://localhost/auth/login')

        # test that the user was inserted into the database
        with app.app_context():
            self.assertIsNotNone(get_db().execute("select * from user where username = 'a'").fetchone())

    def test_bar_with_both(self, app, client):
        # Use the app and client here
        # Example of creating a post and checking if the entry exists in db (on a hypothetical app)
        client.post('/create', data={'title': 'created', 'body': ''})

        with app.app_context():
            db = get_db()
            count = db.execute('SELECT COUNT(id) FROM post').fetchone()[0]
            self.assertEqual(count, 2)

The create_app function should return a correctly configured Flask object representing the webapp to test

You can also do any set up, extra config for the app (db init etc) here

It's also possible (and encouraged) to yield a Flask object here instead of returning one (essentially making this a generator function) This way, you can put cleanup right here after the yield and they will be executed once the test method has run

See Emulating official flask testing example using flask-unittest

Each test method, as well as the setUp and tearDown methods, should take app and client as a parameter. You can name these parameters whatever you want of course but the 2nd parameter (including self as first) is a Flask object returned/yielded from the user provided create_app, and the third parameter is a FlaskClient object returned from calling .test_client on said Flask object.

Note that the app and client are different for each test method. But they are the same for a singular test method and its corresponding setUp and tearDown methods.

What does this mean? Well, when it's time to run test_foo_with_both, a Flask object is created using create_app(), and a FlaskClient object is created from it. Then they are passed to setUp, which does its job of setup. After that, the same app and client are passed to test_foo_with_both, which does the testing. Finally, the same app and client again, are passed to tearDown - which cleans the stuff up.

Now when it's time to run test_bar_with_app - create_app is called again to create a new Flask object, and also .test_client to create a new FlaskClient object and so on.

If create_app is a generator function. All the stuff after yield app will be executed after the test method (and its tearDown if any) has run

Full Example: flask_appclient_test.py

Test using a headless browser (eg selenium, pyppeteer etc)

If you want to test a live flask server using a headless browser - LiveTestSuite is for you!

Unlike the previous ones, this functionality relies on the use of a suite, not a testcase. The testcases should inherit from LiveTestCase but the real juice is in LiveTestSuite.

An example testcase for this would look like-

import flask_unittest
from selenium.webdriver import Chrome, ChromeOptions
from selenium.webdriver.common.by import By
from selenium.webdriver.support.ui import WebDriverWait
from selenium.webdriver.support import expected_conditions as EC

class TestFoo(flask_unittest.LiveTestCase):
    driver: Union[Chrome, None] = None
    std_wait: Union[WebDriverWait, None] = None

    ### setUpClass and tearDownClass for the entire class
    # Not quite mandatory, but this is the best place to set up and tear down selenium

    @classmethod
    def setUpClass(cls):
        # Initiate the selenium webdriver
        options = ChromeOptions()
        options.add_argument('--headless')
        cls.driver = Chrome(options=options)
        cls.std_wait = WebDriverWait(cls.driver, 5)

    @classmethod
    def tearDownClass(cls):
        # Quit the webdriver
        cls.driver.quit()

    ### Actual test methods

    def test_foo_with_driver(self):
        # Use self.driver here
        # You also have access to self.server_url and self.app
        # Example of using selenium to go to index page and try to find some elements (on a hypothetical app)
        self.driver.get(self.server_url)
        self.std_wait.until(EC.presence_of_element_located((By.LINK_TEXT, 'Register')))
        self.std_wait.until(EC.presence_of_element_located((By.LINK_TEXT, 'Log In')))

This is pretty straight forward, it's just a regular test case that you would use if you spawned the flask server from the terminal before running tests

Now, you need to use the LiveTestSuite to run this. The previous testcases could be run using unitttest.TestSuite, or simply unittest.main but this has to be run using the custom suite

# Assign the flask app here
app = ...

# Add TestFoo to suite
suite = flask_unittest.LiveTestSuite(app)
suite.addTest(unittest.makeSuite(TestFoo))

# Run the suite
runner = unittest.TextTestRunner(verbosity=2)
runner.run(suite)

The LiveTestSuite requires a built and configured Flask app object. It'll spawn this flask app using app.run as a daemon thread.

By default, the app runs on host 127.0.0.1 and port 5000. If you'd like to change this assign your custom host (as a str) and a port (as an int) to app.config under the key HOST and PORT respectively. (app.config['HOST'] = '0.0.0.0'; app.config['PORT'] = 7000)

The server is started when the suite is first run and it runs for the duration of the program

You will have access to the app passed to the suite inside LiveTestCase, using self.app. You will also have access to the url the server is running on inside the testcase, using self.server_url

Full Example (of LiveTestCase): flask_live_test.py Full Example (of LiveTestSuite): __init__.py

About request context and flask globals

Both ClientTestCase and AppClientTestCase allow you to use flask gloabls, such as request, g, and session, directly in your test method (and your setUp and tearDown methods)

This is because the client is instantiated using a with block, and the test method, the setUp and tearDown methods happen inside the with block

Very rough psuedocode representation of this would look like-

with app.test_client() as client:
    self.setUp(client)
    self.test_method(client)
    self.tearDown(client)

This means you can treat everything in your test method, and setUp and tearDown methods, as if they are within a with client: block

Practically, this lets you use the flask globals after making a request using client - which is great for testing

Additional info in the official docs

Emulating official flask testing example using flask-unittest

The official flask testing example can be found in the flask repo

The original tests are written using pytest. This example demonstrates how flask-unittest can provide the same functionality for you, with the same degree of control!

Note that this demonstration does not implement the test_cli_runner - since that is not directly supported by flask-unittest (yet). However, it's completely possible to simply use .test_cli_runner() on the app object in the testcases provided by flask-unittest to emulate this.

The primary thing to demonstrate here, is to emulate the pytest fixtures defined in the original conftest.py-

@pytest.fixture
def app():
    """Create and configure a new app instance for each test."""
    # create a temporary file to isolate the database for each test
    db_fd, db_path = tempfile.mkstemp()
    # create the app with common test config
    app = create_app({"TESTING": True, "DATABASE": db_path})

    # create the database and load test data
    with app.app_context():
        init_db()
        get_db().executescript(_data_sql)

    yield app

    # close and remove the temporary database
    os.close(db_fd)
    os.unlink(db_path)


@pytest.fixture
def client(app):
    """A test client for the app."""
    return app.test_client()

As you can see, this creates the app and the test client per test. So we'll be using AppClientTestCase for this.

Let's make a base class that provides functionality for this - all the other testcases can inherit from it. Defined in conftest.py

import flask_unittest


class TestBase(flask_unittest.AppClientTestCase):

    def create_app(self):
        """Create and configure a new app instance for each test."""
        # create a temporary file to isolate the database for each test
        db_fd, db_path = tempfile.mkstemp()
        # create the app with common test config
        app = create_app({"TESTING": True, "DATABASE": db_path})

        # create the database and load test data
        with app.app_context():
            init_db()
            get_db().executescript(_data_sql)

            # Yield the app
            '''
            This can be outside the `with` block too, but we need to 
            call `close_db` before exiting current context
            Otherwise windows will have trouble removing the temp file
            that doesn't happen on unices though, which is nice
            '''
            yield app

            ## Close the db
            close_db()

        ## Cleanup temp file
        os.close(db_fd)
        os.remove(db_path)

This is very similar to the original pytest fixtures and achieves the exact same functionality in the actual testcases too!

Do note however, there's an extra call inside with app.app_context() - close_db. Windows struggles to remove the temp database using os.remove if it hasn't been closed already - so we have to do that (this is true for the original pytest methods too).

Also of note, creation of the AuthActions object should be handled manually in each of the test case. This is just how unittest works in contrast to pytest. This shouldn't pose any issue whatsoever though.

Now let's look at an actual testcase. We'll be looking at test_auth.py, since it demonstrates the use of app, client and the flask globals very nicely.

For context, the original file is defined at test_auth.py

The full emulation of this file is at test_auth.py

Ok! Let's look at the emulation of test_register.

For context, this is the original function-

def test_register(client, app):
    # test that viewing the page renders without template errors
    assert client.get("/auth/register").status_code == 200

    # test that successful registration redirects to the login page
    response = client.post("/auth/register", data={"username": "a", "password": "a"})
    assert "http://localhost/auth/login" == response.headers["Location"]

    # test that the user was inserted into the database
    with app.app_context():
        assert (
            get_db().execute("select * from user where username = 'a'").fetchone()
            is not None
        )

And here's the flask-unittest version!

from example.tests.conftest import AuthActions, TestBase


class TestAuth(TestBase):

    def test_register(self, app, client):
        # test that viewing the page renders without template errors
        self.assertStatus(client.get("/auth/register"), 200)

        # test that successful registration redirects to the login page
        response = client.post("/auth/register", data={"username": "a", "password": "a"})
        self.assertLocationHeader(response, "http://localhost/auth/login")

        # test that the user was inserted into the database
        with app.app_context():
            self.assertIsNotNone(
                get_db().execute("select * from user where username = 'a'").fetchone()
            )

See how similar it is? The only difference is that the function should be a method in a class that is extending flask_unittest.AppClientTestCase with create_app defined. In our case, that's TestBase from conftest.py - so we extend from that.

As mentioned previously, each test method of an AppClientTestCase should have the parameters self, app, client - not necessarily with the same names but the second param will be the Flask object, and the third param will be the FlaskClient object

Also, this is using self.assert... functions as per unittest convention. However, regular asserts should work just fine.

Nice! Let's look at a function that uses flask globals - test_login

Here's the original snippet-

def test_login(client, auth):
    # test that viewing the page renders without template errors
    assert client.get("/auth/login").status_code == 200

    # test that successful login redirects to the index page
    response = auth.login()
    assert response.headers["Location"] == "http://localhost/"

    # login request set the user_id in the session
    # check that the user is loaded from the session
    with client:
        client.get("/")
        assert session["user_id"] == 1
        assert g.user["username"] == "test"

And here's the flask-unittest version-

class TestAuth(TestBase):

    def test_login(self, _, client):
        # test that viewing the page renders without template errors
        self.assertStatus(client.get("/auth/login"), 200)

        # test that successful login redirects to the index page
        auth = AuthActions(client)
        response = auth.login()
        self.assertLocationHeader(response, "http://localhost/")

        # login request set the user_id in the session
        # check that the user is loaded from the session
        client.get("/")
        self.assertEqual(session["user_id"], 1)
        self.assertEqual(g.user["username"], "test")

(this is a continuation of the previous example for test_register)

Once again, very similar. But there's a couple of things to note here.

Firstly, notice we are ignoring the second argument of test_login, since we have no reason to use app here. We do, however, need to use the FlaskClient object

Also notice, we don't have to do with client to access the request context. flask-unittest already handles this for us, so we have direct access to session and g.

Let's check out a case where we only use the Flask object and not the FlaskClient object - in which case, we can use AppTestCase.

The original function, test_get_close_db, is defined at test_db.py

def test_get_close_db(app):
    with app.app_context():
        db = get_db()
        assert db is get_db()

    with pytest.raises(sqlite3.ProgrammingError) as e:
        db.execute("SELECT 1")

    assert "closed" in str(e.value)

The flask-unittest version can be seen at test_db.py

import flask_unittest

class TestDB(flask_unittest.AppTestCase):

   # create_app omitted for brevity - remember to include it!

    def test_get_close_db(self, app):
        with app.app_context():
            db = get_db()
            assert db is get_db()

        try:
            db.execute("SELECT 1")
        except sqlite3.ProgrammingError as e:
            self.assertIn("closed", str(e.args[0]))

Very similar once again!

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