support Python 2 with fewer warts
The future module helps run Python 3.x-compatible code under Python 2 with minimal code cruft.
The goal is to allow you to write clean, modern, forward-compatible Python 3 code today and to run it with minimal effort under Python 2 alongside a Python 2 stack that may contain dependencies that have not yet been ported to Python 3.
It is designed to be used as follows:
from __future__ import (division, absolute_import, print_function, unicode_literals) from future import *
followed by clean Python 3 code (with a few restrictions) that can run unchanged on Python 2.7.
# Supports the standard library reorganization (PEP 3108) import socketserver import queue import configparser # and other moved modules # New range object with slicing support for i in range(10**11)[:10]: pass # Other common iterators: map, reduce, zip my_iter = zip(range(3), ['a', 'b', 'c']) assert iter != list(my_iter) # New simpler super() function: class VerboseList(list): def append(self, item): print('Adding an item') super().append(item) # These raise NameErrors: # apply(), cmp(), coerce(), reduce(), xrange(), etc. # This identity is restored. This is normally valid on Py3 and Py2, but # 'from __future__ import unicode_literals' breaks it on Py2: assert isinstance('happy', str)