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Clean single-source support for Python 3 and 2

Project description

future is the missing compatibility layer between Python 3 and Python 2. It allows you to use a single, clean Python 3.x-compatible codebase to support both Python 3 and Python 2 with minimal overhead.

Notable projects that use future for Python 2/3 compatibility are Mezzanine and ObsPy.

It is designed to be used as follows:

from __future__ import (absolute_import, division,
                        print_function, unicode_literals)
from future.builtins import (
                bytes, dict, int, list, object, range, str,
                ascii, chr, hex, input, next, oct, open,
                pow, round, super,
                filter, map, zip)

followed by predominantly standard, idiomatic Python 3 code that then runs similarly on Python 2.6/2.7 and Python 3.3+.

The imports have no effect on Python 3. On Python 2, they shadow the corresponding builtins, which normally have different semantics on Python 3 versus 2, to provide their Python 3 semantics.

Standard library reorganization

from future import standard_library provides a context-manager called hooks that installs import hooks (PEP 3108) to allow renamed and moved standard library modules to be imported from their new Py3 locations.

Automatic conversion

An included script called futurize aids in converting code (from either Python 2 or Python 3) to code compatible with both platforms. It is similar to python-modernize but goes further in providing Python 3 compatibility through the use of the backported types and builtin functions in future.




Author:Ed Schofield
Sponsor:Python Charmers Pty Ltd, Australia, and Python Charmers Pte Ltd, Singapore.
Others:See docs/credits.rst or


Copyright 2013-2014 Python Charmers Pty Ltd, Australia. The software is distributed under an MIT licence. See LICENSE.txt.

Project details

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