Clean single-source support for Python 3 and 2
future is the missing compatibility layer between Python 2 and Python 3. It allows you to use a single, clean Python 3.x-compatible codebase to support both Python 2 and Python 3 with minimal overhead.
It is designed to be used as follows:
from __future__ import (absolute_import, division, print_function, unicode_literals) from builtins import ( bytes, dict, int, list, object, range, str, ascii, chr, hex, input, next, oct, open, pow, round, super, filter, map, zip)
followed by predominantly standard, idiomatic Python 3 code that then runs similarly on Python 2.6/2.7 and Python 3.3+.
The imports have no effect on Python 3. On Python 2, they shadow the corresponding builtins, which normally have different semantics on Python 3 versus 2, to provide their Python 3 semantics.
Standard library reorganization
future supports the standard library reorganization (PEP 3108) through the following Py3 interfaces:
>>> # Top-level packages with Py3 names provided on Py2: >>> import html.parser >>> import queue >>> import tkinter.dialog >>> import xmlrpc.client >>> # etc.>>> # Aliases provided for extensions to existing Py2 module names: >>> from future.standard_library import install_aliases >>> install_aliases()>>> from collections import Counter, OrderedDict # backported to Py2.6 >>> from collections import UserDict, UserList, UserString >>> import urllib.request >>> from itertools import filterfalse, zip_longest >>> from subprocess import getoutput, getstatusoutput
An included script called futurize aids in converting code (from either Python 2 or Python 3) to code compatible with both platforms. It is similar to python-modernize but goes further in providing Python 3 compatibility through the use of the backported types and builtin functions in future.
Ed Schofield, Jordan M. Adler, et al
Python Charmers Pty Ltd, Australia, and Python Charmers Pte Ltd, Singapore. http://pythoncharmers.com
See docs/credits.rst or http://python-future.org/credits.html
Copyright 2013-2019 Python Charmers Pty Ltd, Australia. The software is distributed under an MIT licence. See LICENSE.txt.
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