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Python client for Google Cloud Messaging (GCM)

Project description

Python client for Google Cloud Messaging (GCM).


  • requests - HTTP request, handles proxies etc.
  • omnijson if you use Python 2.5 or older.


Th only alternative library known at the time of writing was python-gcm. This library differs in the following design decisions:

  • Predictable execution time. Do not automatically retry request on failure. According to Google’s recommendations, each retry has to wait exponential back-off delay. We use Celery back-end, where the best way to retry after some delay will be scheduling the task with countdown=delay. Sleeping while in Celery worker hurts your concurrency.
  • Do not forget results if you need to retry. This sounds obvious, but python-gcm drops important results, such as canonical ID mapping if request needs to be (partially) retried.
  • Clean pythonic API. No need to borrow all Java like exceptions etc.
  • Do not hard-code validation, let GCM fail. This decision makes library a little bit more future proof.


GCM client was created by Sardar Yumatov, contact me if you find any bugs or need help. You can view outstanding issues on the GCM Bitbucket page.


Read documentation for more info.

Usage is straightforward:

from gcmclient import *

# You have to obtain Google API Key from developers console.
# You work through a proxy? Pass 'proxies' keyword argument, as described
# in 'requests' library. Check of other options too.
gcm = GCM(API_KEY)

# construct (key => scalar) payload. do not use nested structures.
data = {'str': 'string', 'int': 10}

# unicast or multicast message, read GCM manual about extra options.
unicast = PlainTextMessage("registration_id", data, dry_run=True)
multicast = JSONMessage(["registration_id_1", "registration_id_2"],

    # attempt send
    res_unicast = gcm.send(unicast)
    res_multicast = gcm.send(multicast)

    for res in [res_unicast, res_multicast]:
        # nothing to do on success
        for reg_id, msg_id in res.success.items():
            print "Successfully sent %s as %s" % (reg_id, msg_id)

        # update your registration ID's
        for reg_id, new_reg_id res.canonical.items():
            print "Replacing %s with %s in database" % (reg_id, new_reg_id)

        # probably app was uninstalled
        for reg_id in res.not_registered:
            print "Removing %s from database" % reg_id

        # unrecoverably failed, these ID's will not be retried
        for reg_id, err_code in res.failed.items():
            print "Removing %s because %s" % (reg_id, err_code)

        # if some registration ID's have recoverably failed
        if res.needs_retry():
            # construct new message with only failed regids
            retry_msg = res.retry()
            # you have to wait before attemting again. delay()
            # will tell you how long to wait depending on your
            # current retry counter, starting from 0.
            print "Wait or schedule task after %s seconds" % res.delay(retry)
            # retry += 1 and send retry_msg again

catch GCMAuthenticationError:
    # stop and fix your settings
    print "Your Google API key is rejected"
catch ValueError, e:
    # probably your extra options, such as time_to_live,
    # are invalid. Read error message for more info.
    print "Invalid message/option or invalid GCM response"
    print e.args[0]
catch Exception:
    # your network is down or maybe proxy settings
    # are broken. when problem is resolved, you can
    # retry the whole message.
    print "Something wrong with requests library"

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