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GluonTS is a Python toolkit for probabilistic time series modeling, built around MXNet.

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GluonTS - Probabilistic Time Series Modeling in Python

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GluonTS is a Python toolkit for probabilistic time series modeling, built around Apache MXNet (incubating).

GluonTS provides utilities for loading and iterating over time series datasets, state of the art models ready to be trained, and building blocks to define your own models and quickly experiment with different solutions.


GluonTS requires Python 3.7, and the easiest way to install it is via pip:

pip install --upgrade mxnet~=1.7 gluonts


Dockerfiles compatible with Amazon Sagemaker can be found in the examples/dockerfiles folder.

Quick start guide

This simple example illustrates how to train a model from GluonTS on some data, and then use it to make predictions. As a first step, we need to collect some data: in this example we will use the volume of tweets mentioning the AMZN ticker symbol.

import pandas as pd
url = ""
df = pd.read_csv(url, header=0, index_col=0)

The first 100 data points look like follows:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt


We can now prepare a training dataset for our model to train on. Datasets in GluonTS are essentially iterable collections of dictionaries: each dictionary represents a time series with possibly associated features. For this example, we only have one entry, specified by the "start" field which is the timestamp of the first datapoint, and the "target" field containing time series data. For training, we will use data up to midnight on April 5th, 2015.

from gluonts.dataset.common import ListDataset
training_data = ListDataset(
    [{"start": df.index[0], "target": df.value[:"2015-04-05 00:00:00"]}],
    freq = "5min"

A forecasting model in GluonTS is a predictor object. One way of obtaining predictors is by training a correspondent estimator. Instantiating an estimator requires specifying the frequency of the time series that it will handle, as well as the number of time steps to predict. In our example we're using 5 minutes data, so freq="5min", and we will train a model to predict the next hour, so prediction_length=12. We also specify some minimal training options.

from gluonts.model.deepar import DeepAREstimator
from import Trainer

estimator = DeepAREstimator(freq="5min", prediction_length=12, trainer=Trainer(epochs=10))
predictor = estimator.train(training_data=training_data)

During training, useful information about the progress will be displayed. To get a full overview of the available options, please refer to the documentation of DeepAREstimator (or other estimators) and Trainer.

We're now ready to make predictions: we will forecast the hour following the midnight on April 15th, 2015.

test_data = ListDataset(
    [{"start": df.index[0], "target": df.value[:"2015-04-15 00:00:00"]}],
    freq = "5min"

from gluonts.dataset.util import to_pandas

for test_entry, forecast in zip(test_data, predictor.predict(test_data)):
    forecast.plot(color='g', prediction_intervals=[50.0, 90.0])


Note that the forecast is displayed in terms of a probability distribution: the shaded areas represent the 50% and 90% prediction intervals, respectively, centered around the median (dark green line).

Further examples

The following are good entry-points to understand how to use many features of GluonTS:

The following modules illustrate how custom models can be implemented:


If you wish to contribute to the project, please refer to our contribution guidelines.


If you use GluonTS in a scientific publication, we encourage you to add the following references to the related papers:

  author  = {Alexander Alexandrov and Konstantinos Benidis and Michael Bohlke-Schneider
    and Valentin Flunkert and Jan Gasthaus and Tim Januschowski and Danielle C. Maddix
    and Syama Rangapuram and David Salinas and Jasper Schulz and Lorenzo Stella and
    Ali Caner Türkmen and Yuyang Wang},
  title   = {{GluonTS: Probabilistic and Neural Time Series Modeling in Python}},
  journal = {Journal of Machine Learning Research},
  year    = {2020},
  volume  = {21},
  number  = {116},
  pages   = {1-6},
  url     = {}
  author  = {Alexandrov, A. and Benidis, K. and Bohlke-Schneider, M. and
    Flunkert, V. and Gasthaus, J. and Januschowski, T. and Maddix, D. C.
    and Rangapuram, S. and Salinas, D. and Schulz, J. and Stella, L. and
    Türkmen, A. C. and Wang, Y.},
  title   = {{GluonTS: Probabilistic Time Series Modeling in Python}},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:1906.05264},
  year    = {2019}


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