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Grok-like configuration for Zope browser pages

Project description

This package provides support for writing browser pages for Zope and registering them directly in Python (without ZCML).

Setting up grokcore.view

This package is essentially set up like the grokcore.component package, please refer to its documentation for details. The additional ZCML line you will need is:

<include package="grokcore.view" file="meta.zcml" />
<include package="grokcore.view" />

Put the first line somewhere near the top of your root ZCML file (but below the line where you include grokcore.component’s configuration) and the second line somewhere next to your other dependency includes.


Simple browser page

A browser page is implemented by subclassing the grokcore.view.View baseclass. At a minimum, a browser page must have

  1. an associated template (or implement the render method for direct control)

  2. a context that it’s registered for as a view

  3. a name (which is, if not specified explicitly, the class’s name in lower case characters).

A browser page that does not use a template but just outputs some computed data also subclasses the grokcore.view.View baseclass. At a minimum, such a view must have

  1. a render() method

  2. a context that it’s registered for as a view

  3. a name (which is, if not specified explicitly, the class’s name in lower case characters).

For example, the following class defines a view that’s registered for all objects and simply prints “Hello World!”:

import grokcore.view
import zope.interface

class Hello(grokcore.view.View):

    def render(self):
        self.response.setHeader("Content-Type", "text/plain")
        return "Hello World!"

Here we’ve made use of the implicit name feature. This class will be available as the hello view for all objects. So for instance, you’ll be able to invoke it with URLs like:


We could also have spelled this out explicitly:

class Hello(grokcore.view.View):


Browser page with template

Of course, more than often a view should render HTML which you would construct using some sort of templating engine. grokcore.view comes with built-in support for Zope’s PageTemplate engine. By convention, PageTemplate templates end with the .pt extension.

So let our Hello view render HTML instead of plain text, we remove the render() method from the class and instead we create a template, e.g. like so:

  <p>Hello <span tal:replace="request/principal/title" />!</p>

This will greet a logged in user with his or her actual name.

Such a template-using page is a subclass of grokcore.view.View:

import grokcore.view
import zope.interface

class Hello(grokcore.view.View):

To associate the template with the view, we have to put it in a certain place. Let’s say the Hello view class from above was in an module. Then we create an app_templates directory next to it and place the template file in there (the name of this directory can be customized with the templatedir directive, see below). The file name can be anything as long as the extension is .pt. However, we can again make use of a convention here. If we name the template like the class (except in lower case characters), then the template and the class are associated automatically. If not, we would have to use the template directive on the view class to spell out the name of the template file explicitly.

To cut a long story short, if we named it app_templates/, it would be found automatically.

Static resources

Browser pages often need additional static resources like CSS and JavaScript files. These can be conveniently placed into a directory called static in the package that contains the view code. When this directory exists it will automatically be registered as a resource directory. It then is available as the static variable in all views of this package and you can refer to files inside this directory like so:

<img src="hello.png" tal:attributes="src static/hello.png" />


In addition to the very convenient “static resources”, one can use more explicitly configured and flexible DirectoryResource components. DirectoryResource component allow for differentiating resources based on layers and names and provide a way to register resources in one package and make use of these resources in another package’s views:

class FooResource(grokcore.view.DirectoryResource):

Or with an explicit name:

class BarResource(grokcore.view.DirectoryResource):'bar')

Registered for a layer:

class BazResource(grokcore.view.DirectoryResource):

Layers and skins

To define a browser layer, simply extend the IBrowserRequest interface:

class IGreenLayer(grokcore.view.IBrowserRequest):

If you then wanted to define a skin, simply inherit from all the layer interfaces that should be in the skin and use the skin() directive to give the layer a name:

class IGreenSkin(IGreenLayer, grokcore.view.IDefaultBrowserLayer):'Green')

To place a view on a layer, simply use the layer directive:

class Hello(grokcore.view.View):


API overview

Base classes


Base class for browser pages. Use the context directive to specify the view’s context. Use the name directive to set the view’s name; if not used, the view’s name will be the class’s name in lower case characters. You may also use the template directive to specify the name of the template file that should be associated with the view as well as the layer directive to specify which layer it should be on if not the default layer. Implement the render method to forgo looking up a template and show the result of calling the render method instead.

View API

grokcore.view.View is a regular Zope browser page, so it behaves exactly like a regular browser page from the outside. It provides a bit more to the developer using it as a base class, though:


The view’s context object. This can be discriminated by using the context directive on the view class.


The request object, typically provides IBrowserRequest.


The response object, typically provides IHTTPResponse.


Directory resource representing the package’s static directory or None if no such directory was found during grokking.


Redirect to the given URL.

url(obj=None, name=None, data=None)

Constructs a URL:

  • If no arguments are given, the URL to the view itself is constructed.

  • If only the obj argument is given, the URL to that object is constructed.

  • If both obj and name arguments are supplied, construct the URL to the object and append name (presumably the name of a view).

Optionally, data can be a dictionary whose contents is added to the URL as a query string.

Method for developers to implement:


This method will be called before the view’s associated template is rendered. If you therefore want to pre-compuate values for the template, implement this method. You can save the values on self (the view object) and later access them through the view variable from the template. The method can take arbitrary keyword parameters which are filled from request values.


Return either an encoded 8-bit string or a unicode string. The method can take arbitrary keyword parameters which are filled from request values. If not implemented, a template is looked up in the template dir instead.



Module-level directive that tells the template machinery which directory to look in for templates that should associated with views in a particular module. If not used, it defaults to <module_name>_templates.


Class-level directive that specifies the name a template file that’s associated with a view class, without the file extension. If not used, it defaults to the class’s name in lower case characters.


Class-level directive that defines which layer the view is registered on. If not used, it defaults to the IDefaultBrowserLayer.


Directive used on a layer interface to register it as skin using a human-readable name (skin_name).


Directove used in a DirectoryResource registration to point to a non- package directory(hierarchy) containing resources like images, css files, etc.


url(request, obj, name=None, data=None)

Generate the URL to an object, with an optional view name attached. The data argument can be a dictionary whose contents is converted into the a query string that’s appended to the URL.


Create an inline PageTemplate object.


Create a PageTemplate object from a file.


Browser request interface from zope.publisher.


Default layer for browser components from zope.publisher.

In addition, the grokcore.view package exposes the grokcore.component and APIs.


4.0 (2023-02-16)

  • Add support for Python 3.11.

  • Drop support for Python 2.7, 3.5, 3.6.

3.2 (2022-02-16)

  • Add support for Python 3.7, 3.8, 3.9, and 3.10.

  • Drop support for Python 3.4.

  • Update the tests to martian >= 1.5, thus requiring at least that version.

3.1 (2018-06-13)

  • Added AfterTraversalEvent which is fired after all traversal is done.

3.0.3 (2018-01-12)

  • Rearrange tests such that Travis CI can pick up all functional tests too.

3.0.2 (2018-01-05)

  • Additional test fixes.

3.0.1 (2018-01-05)

  • Additional test fixes.

3.0 (2018-01-03)

  • In the template directory grokker, ignore directories and files without extensions.

  • Drop support of Python 2.6.

  • Claim support for Python 3.4, 3.5, and 3.6.

2.10.2 (2016-02-02)

  • Update tests.

2.10.1 (2014-07-29)

  • Fix broken

2.10 (2014-07-29)

  • Add an helper render_provider to look up and render a given content provider.

2.9 (2014-05-15)

  • Make possible to disable the template warning with the help of the GROK_DISABLE_TEMPLATE_WARNING environment variable.

  • The skin option of grokcore.view.util.url now accepts strings that will be used as skin name as possible alternative to a skin interface.

  • The skin directive can now be used on interfaces that inherits only from IRequest instead of IBrowserRequest.

2.8 (2012-12-11)

  • Add a skin=[skin component] argument to the grokcore.view.util.url() function and grokcore.view.components.View.url method. This allows for computing URLs on a specific skin. Note that it is not verified whether the computed URL actually exist on the specified skin.

2.7 (2012-05-01)

  • Use the component registration api in grokcore.component.

  • Improve error message when a templatedir() directive points to a non- existent directory. (fix launchpad issue 680528).

  • Improve error message when a template is required for a component but cannot be found (Fix Launchpad issue #225855, #242698).

  • Fix how the static resource are found. Instead of using as name the package name where the component is defined, using as name the package where the template for the component is defined, or the base component. This is done by setting an attribute __static_name__ on the component that specify which resource directory should be used. This fix missing resources when you extend the component and don’t redefined the template.

2.6.1 (2011-06-28)

  • Fix bug where zope.browserpage was not correctly declared as a dependency.

2.6 (2011-06-28)

  • Add the ContentProvider component.

2.5 (2011-04-04)

  • Fix a test that relied on older zope.testbrowser behaviour.

2.4 (2011-03-01)

  • grok.View component can optionally use the grok.provides directive, specifying an interface that the component provides (instead of the zope.interface.Interface that views by default provide).

  • Add a new ZCML directive, ignoreTemplates that let you configure which template filename pattern should be ignored by the template registry. The pattern attribute of the directive accepts regular expresssion that will be matched against the (template) file extension.

  • Use the zope configuration action ordering feature to have templates registered for all packages and modules, before trying to associate the templates. Checking for unassociated templates is done very very late in the configuration action order.

  • Inherited grok.template() information is looked up against the module of the view class that uses the grok.template() directive. This allows for subclassing view components that use the grok.template() directive from other packages.

2.3 (2011-01-04)

  • Removed the static directory grokker in order to make way for using fanstatic.

2.2 (2010-12-16)

  • Factor out a base template grokker that associate templates for viewish components.

  • Merge support for a global template registry that removes unnecessary warnings about unassociated templates in “shared” template directories.

2.1 (2010-11-03)

  • Use an update martian and grokcore.component.

  • The custom zope publication has now moved from the grok package to grokcore.view. The registration of the publication is optional, and is used by grok and the grokcore.json package.

  • The util function make_checker has been moved from the grok package to grokcore.view.

2.0 (2010-11-01)

  • The view directive has been moved from grokcore.viewlet to grokcore.view.

  • The IGrokSecurityView has been moved from grok to grokcore.view.

  • Fix the url() function to behave properly while passed an empty data dict.

  • Fix the url() method to accept the “status” and “trusted” arguments, passed on to the redirect method on the response object.

  • grokcore.view no longer depends on and related packages. Instead we now use to run functional tests.

  • Made package comply to repository policy.

  • Fixed launchpad bug #395061 : removed the default_fallback_to_name function. It can be imported from if needed.

  • grokcore.view no longer depends on We removed all the extra dependencies and fixed one test that used and

  • Back-ported the changes of the 1.13 branch related to the directory resource registration, using the latest ztk packages.

  • Factor out generally useful methods and properties for view-ish components into components.ViewSupport mixin.

  • Works with new Martian (0.13) and grokcore.component 2.1.

  • Test fix: support windows paths.

  • Warnings are now emitted as log messages with level logging.WARNING to a logger named grokcore.view with level logging.ERROR.

    That means that by default no warnings are emitted anymore (while errors will still appear).

    To get the warnings back, reduce the level of logger grokcore.view to logging.WARNING or lower. This can be done in Python or via a logging conf file, for instance in the .ini files of regular grokprojects. See the Python standard lib logging module for details.

1.12.1 (2009-09-17)

  • A compatibility fix to support grokcore.viewlet.

1.12 (2009-09-17)

  • Use 1.0b1 versions.cfg in Grok’s release info instead of a local copy; a local copy for all grokcore packages is just too hard to maintain.

  • Revert the splitting CodeView/View. The original reasons for the split have been obsoleted by the recent martain developments regarding inheritted module level directives. At the same time the split up components proved cumbersome to use and a too big a change between the 1.0a and 1.0b releases of Grok.

    View components will now again behave like it did up until the latest alpha release of Grok.

    CodeView is still available as a backwards compatibility alias for View. Please update all references to CodeView to View.

  • Fix the template registry and grokker for views to let View and other components using View as base class to be associated with a template directly by setting it as ‘template’ attribute on the view class. Example:

    class MyView(grokcore.view.View):
        template = grokcore.view.PageTemplate('<p>hello</p>')

    This isn’t exactly officially supported but enough people depend on it and have documented it so that we don’t want to just break it.

1.11 (2009-09-15)

  • The response attribute needs to be available in CodeView as well.

1.10 (2009-09-14)

  • Up the version requirement for to 1.2.

  • Bring versions.cfg in line with current grok versions.cfg.

1.9 (2009-07-04)

  • Fix needed for grokcore.formlib: allow a base_method’ed render() on view. This allows grokcore.formlib to have a render() in addition to a template.

  • Reverted change to checkTemplates: for some formlib edge cases it detects the right templates again.

1.8 (2009-07-04)

  • Add validator to templatedir directive to disallow path separator.

  • Splitted CodeView out of View. View only uses templates, CodeView only uses a render() method. So views that have a render method must subclass from CodeView instead of View (that should be the only change needed).

  • Add grok.View permissions to functional tests (requires 1.1)

1.7 (2009-05-19)

  • Revert dependency from zope.container back to

1.6 (2009-04-28)

  • Simplify the DirectoryResource and DirectoryResourceFactory implementations by making better use of the hook points provided by

1.5 (2009-04-10)

  • Don’t register a ‘static’ resource directory if the ‘static’ directory does not exist.

  • Make it possible to instantiate an ungrokked view by being slightly more defensive in __init__. This makes it easier to write unit tests.

1.4 (2009-04-08)

1.3 (2009-01-28)

  • Adapt tests to work also from eggs not only source checkouts by avoiding src in directory comparisons.

  • Fix the factory for subdirectories of the DirectoryResource implementation by using hooks in

  • Update APIs interfaces to include the new path directive and new DirectoryResource component.

1.2 (2008-10-16)

  • Expose the DirectoryResource class as a component for registering directories as resources. This is accompanied by the path directive that is used to point to the directory holding resources by way of an relative (to the module) or absolute path. DirectoryResource components can be differentiated by name and layer.

1.1 (2008-09-22)

  • module containing the grokkers has been split in a package with separate modules for the view, template, skin and static resources grokkers. This allows applications to use only grokkers they need (and maybe redefine others).

1.0 (2006-08-07)

  • Created grokcore.view in July 2008 by factoring security-related components, grokkers and directives out of Grok.

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