WSGI HTTP Server for UNIX
gunicorn ‘Green Unicorn’ is a WSGI HTTP Server for UNIX handle fast clients and sleepy application.
Gunicorn requires Python 2.5 or newer (Python 3.x will be supported soon).
Install from sources:
$ python setup.py install
Or from Pypi:
$ easy_install -U gunicorn
To install eventlet:
$ easy_install -U eventlet
Replace eventlet by gevent if you want to use gevent. You can now launch gunicorn with Eventlet or Gevent arbiter, see Gunicorn usage for more information.
If you encounter errors when compiling the extensions for gevent or eventlet you probably need to install a newer version of libev.
$ gunicorn --help Usage: gunicorn [OPTIONS] [APP_MODULE] Options: -c CONFIG, --config=CONFIG Config file. [none] -b BIND, --bind=BIND Adress to listen on. Ex. 127.0.0.1:8000 or unix:/tmp/gunicorn.sock -w WORKERS, --workers=WORKERS Number of workers to spawn.  -a ARBITER, --arbiter=ARBITER gunicorn arbiter entry point or module [egg:gunicorn#main] -p PIDFILE, --pid=PIDFILE set the background PID FILE -D, --daemon Run daemonized in the background. -m UMASK, --umask=UMASK Define umask of daemon process -u USER, --user=USER Change worker user -g GROUP, --group=GROUP Change worker group -n APP_NAME, --name=APP_NAME Application name --log-level=LOGLEVEL Log level below which to silence messages. [info] --log-file=LOGFILE Log to a file. - equals stdout. [-] -d, --debug Debug mode. only 1 worker. --spew Install a trace hook --version show program's version number and exit -h, --help show this help message and exit
Example with test app:
$ cd examples $ gunicorn --workers=2 test:app
For django projects use the gunicorn_django command:
$ cd yourdjangoproject $ gunicorn_django --workers=2
or use run_gunicorn command.
add gunicorn to INSTALLED_APPS in the settings file:
INSTALLED_APPS = ( ... "gunicorn", )
python manage.py run_gunicorn
For paste-compatible projects (like Pylons, TurboGears 2, …) use the gunicorn_paste command:
$ cd your pasteproject $ gunicorn_paste --workers=2 development.ini
or usual paster command:
$ cd your pasteproject $ paster serve development.ini workers=2
In last case don’t forget to add a server section for gunicorn. Here is an example that use gunicorn as main server:
[server:main] use = egg:gunicorn#main host = 127.0.0.1 port = 5000
There are various kernel parameters that you might want to tune in order to deal with a large number of simultaneous connections. Generally these should only affect sites with a large number of concurrent requests and apply to any sort of network server you may be running. They’re listed here for ease of reference.
The commands listed are tested under Mac OS X 10.6. Your flavor of Unix may use slightly different flags. Always reference the appropriate man pages if uncertain.
Increasing the File Descriptor Limit
One of the first settings that usually needs to be bumped is the maximum number of open file descriptors for a given process. For the confused out there, remember that Unices treat sockets as files.
$ sudo ulimit -n 1024
Increasing the Listen Queue Size
Listening sockets have an associated queue of incoming connections that are waiting to be accepted. If you happen to have a stampede of clients that fill up this queue new connections will eventually start getting dropped.
$ sudo sysctl -w kern.ipc.somaxconn="1024"
Widening the Ephemeral Port Range
After a socket is closed it eventually enters the TIME_WAIT state. This can become an issue after a prolonged burst of client activity. Eventually the ephemeral port range is used up which can cause new connections to stall while they wait for a valid port.
This setting is generally only required on machines that are being used to test a network server.
$ sudo sysctl -w net.inet.ip.portrange.first="8048"
Check this article for more information on ephemeral ports.
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