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Hazelcast Python Client

Project description

Table of Contents

Introduction

This document provides information about the Python client for Hazelcast. This client uses Hazelcast's Open Client Protocol and works with Hazelcast IMDG 3.6 and higher versions.

Resources

See the following for more information on Python and Hazelcast IMDG:

Release Notes

See the Releases page of this repository.

1. Getting Started

This chapter provides information on how to get started with your Hazelcast Python client. It outlines the requirements, installation and configuration of the client, setting up a cluster, and provides a simple application that uses a distributed map in Python client.

1.1. Requirements

  • Windows, Linux/UNIX or Mac OS X
  • Python 2.7 or Python 3.4 or newer
  • Java 6 or newer
  • Hazelcast IMDG 3.6 or newer
  • Latest Hazelcast Python client

1.2. Working with Hazelcast IMDG Clusters

Hazelcast Python client requires a working Hazelcast IMDG cluster to run. This cluster handles storage and manipulation of the user data. Clients are a way to connect to the Hazelcast IMDG cluster and access such data.

Hazelcast IMDG cluster consists of one or more cluster members. These members generally run on multiple virtual or physical machines and are connected to each other via network. Any data put on the cluster is partitioned to multiple members transparent to the user. It is therefore very easy to scale the system by adding new members as the data grows. Hazelcast IMDG cluster also offers resilience. Should any hardware or software problem causes a crash to any member, the data on that member is recovered from backups and the cluster continues to operate without any downtime. Hazelcast clients are an easy way to connect to a Hazelcast IMDG cluster and perform tasks on distributed data structures that live on the cluster.

In order to use Hazelcast Python client, we first need to setup a Hazelcast IMDG cluster.

1.2.1. Setting Up a Hazelcast IMDG Cluster

There are following options to start a Hazelcast IMDG cluster easily:

  • You can run standalone members by downloading and running JAR files from the website.
  • You can embed members to your Java projects.

We are going to download JARs from the website and run a standalone member for this guide.

1.2.1.1. Running Standalone JARs

Follow the instructions below to create a Hazelcast IMDG cluster:

  1. Go to Hazelcast's download page and download either the .zip or .tar distribution of Hazelcast IMDG.
  2. Decompress the contents into any directory that you want to run members from.
  3. Change into the directory that you decompressed the Hazelcast content and then into the bin directory.
  4. Use either start.sh or start.bat depending on your operating system. Once you run the start script, you should see the Hazelcast IMDG logs in the terminal.

You should see a log similar to the following, which means that your 1-member cluster is ready to be used:

INFO: [192.168.0.3]:5701 [dev] [3.10.4]

Members {size:1, ver:1} [
	Member [192.168.0.3]:5701 - 65dac4d1-2559-44bb-ba2e-ca41c56eedd6 this
]

Sep 06, 2018 10:50:23 AM com.hazelcast.core.LifecycleService
INFO: [192.168.0.3]:5701 [dev] [3.10.4] [192.168.0.3]:5701 is STARTED

1.2.1.2. Adding User Library to CLASSPATH

When you want to use features such as querying and language interoperability, you might need to add your own Java classes to the Hazelcast member in order to use them from your Python client. This can be done by adding your own compiled code to the CLASSPATH. To do this, compile your code with the CLASSPATH and add the compiled files to the user-lib directory in the extracted hazelcast-<version>.zip (or tar). Then, you can start your Hazelcast member by using the start scripts in the bin directory. The start scripts will automatically add your compiled classes to the CLASSPATH.

Note that if you are adding an IdentifiedDataSerializable or a Portable class, you need to add its factory too. Then, you should configure the factory in the hazelcast.xml configuration file. This file resides in the bin directory where you extracted the hazelcast-<version>.zip (or tar).

The following is an example configuration when you are adding an IdentifiedDataSerializable class:

<hazelcast>
    ...
    <serialization>
       <data-serializable-factories>
           <data-serializable-factory factory-id=<identified-factory-id>>
               IdentifiedFactoryClassName
           </data-serializable-factory>
       </data-serializable-factories>
   </serialization>
   ...
</hazelcast>

If you want to add a Portable class, you should use <portable-factories> instead of <data-serializable-factories> in the above configuration.

See the Hazelcast IMDG Reference Manual for more information on setting up the clusters.

1.3. Downloading and Installing

You can download and install the Python client from PyPI using pip. Run the following command:

pip install hazelcast-python-client

Alternatively, it can be installed from the source using the following command:

python setup.py install

1.4. Basic Configuration

If you are using Hazelcast IMDG and Python client on the same computer, generally the default configuration should be fine. This is great for trying out the client. However, if you run the client on a different computer than any of the cluster members, you may need to do some simple configurations such as specifying the member addresses.

The Hazelcast IMDG members and clients have their own configuration options. You may need to reflect some of the member side configurations on the client side to properly connect to the cluster.

This section describes the most common configuration elements to get you started in no time. It discusses some member side configuration options to ease the understanding of Hazelcast's ecosystem. Then, the client side configuration options regarding the cluster connection are discussed. The configurations for the Hazelcast IMDG data structures that can be used in the Python client are discussed in the following sections.

See the Hazelcast IMDG Reference Manual and Configuration Overview section for more information.

1.4.1. Configuring Hazelcast IMDG

Hazelcast IMDG aims to run out-of-the-box for most common scenarios. However if you have limitations on your network such as multicast being disabled, you may have to configure your Hazelcast IMDG members so that they can find each other on the network. Also, since most of the distributed data structures are configurable, you may want to configure them according to your needs. We will show you the basics about network configuration here.

You can use the following options to configure Hazelcast IMDG:

  • Using the hazelcast.xml configuration file.
  • Programmatically configuring the member before starting it from the Java code.

Since we use standalone servers, we will use the hazelcast.xml file to configure our cluster members.

When you download and unzip hazelcast-<version>.zip (or tar), you see the hazelcast.xml in the bin directory. When a Hazelcast member starts, it looks for the hazelcast.xml file to load the configuration from. A sample hazelcast.xml is shown below.

<hazelcast>
    <group>
        <name>dev</name>
        <password>dev-pass</password>
    </group>
    <network>
        <port auto-increment="true" port-count="100">5701</port>
        <join>
            <multicast enabled="true">
                <multicast-group>224.2.2.3</multicast-group>
                <multicast-port>54327</multicast-port>
            </multicast>
            <tcp-ip enabled="false">
                <interface>127.0.0.1</interface>
                <member-list>
                    <member>127.0.0.1</member>
                </member-list>
            </tcp-ip>
        </join>
        <ssl enabled="false"/>
    </network>
    <partition-group enabled="false"/>
    <map name="default">
        <backup-count>1</backup-count>
    </map>
</hazelcast>

We will go over some important configuration elements in the rest of this section.

  • <group>: Specifies which cluster this member belongs to. A member connects only to the other members that are in the same group as itself. As shown in the above configuration sample, there are <name> and <password> tags under the <group> element with some pre-configured values. You may give your clusters different names so that they can live in the same network without disturbing each other. Note that the cluster name should be the same across all members and clients that belong to the same cluster. The <password> tag is not in use since Hazelcast 3.9. It is there for backward compatibility purposes. You can remove or leave it as it is if you use Hazelcast 3.9 or later.
  • <network>
    • <port>: Specifies the port number to be used by the member when it starts. Its default value is 5701. You can specify another port number, and if you set auto-increment to true, then Hazelcast will try the subsequent ports until it finds an available port or the port-count is reached.
    • <join>: Specifies the strategies to be used by the member to find other cluster members. Choose which strategy you want to use by setting its enabled attribute to true and the others to false.
      • <multicast>: Members find each other by sending multicast requests to the specified address and port. It is very useful if IP addresses of the members are not static.
      • <tcp>: This strategy uses a pre-configured list of known members to find an already existing cluster. It is enough for a member to find only one cluster member to connect to the cluster. The rest of the member list is automatically retrieved from that member. We recommend putting multiple known member addresses there to avoid disconnectivity should one of the members in the list is unavailable at the time of connection.

These configuration elements are enough for most connection scenarios. Now we will move onto the configuration of the Python client.

1.4.2. Configuring Hazelcast Python Client

Hazelcast Python client can be configured programmatically.

This section describes some network configuration settings to cover common use cases in connecting the client to a cluster. See the Configuration Overview section and the following sections for information about detailed network configurations and/or additional features of Hazelcast Python client configuration.

An easy way to configure your Hazelcast Python client is to create a ClientConfig object and set the appropriate options. Then you can supply this object to your client at the startup. This is the programmatic configuration approach.

Once you imported hazelcast to your Python project, you may follow programmatic configuration approach.

You need to create a ClientConfig object and adjust its properties. Then you can pass this object to the client when starting it.

import hazelcast

config = hazelcast.ClientConfig()
client = hazelcast.HazelcastClient(config)

If you run the Hazelcast IMDG members in a different server than the client, you most probably have configured the members' ports and cluster names as explained in the previous section. If you did, then you need to make certain changes to the network settings of your client.

1.4.2.1. Group Settings

You need to provide the group name of the cluster, if it is defined on the server side, to which you want the client to connect.

config = hazelcast.ClientConfig()
config.group_config.name = "group-name-of-your-cluster"
config.group_config.password = "group password"

NOTE: If you have a Hazelcast IMDG release older than 3.11, you need to provide also a group password along with the group name.

1.4.2.2. Network Settings

You need to provide the IP address and port of at least one member in your cluster so the client can find it.

import hazelcast

config = hazelcast.ClientConfig()
config.network_config.addresses.append("IP-address:port")

1.4.3. Client System Properties

While configuring your Python client, you can use various system properties provided by Hazelcast to tune its clients. These properties can be set programmatically through config.set_property method or by using an environment variable.

The value of the any property will be:

  • the programmatically configured value, if programmatically set,
  • the environment variable value, if the environment variable is set,
  • the default value, if none of the above is set.

See the following for an example client system property configuration:

Programmatically:

from hazelcast.config import ClientProperties

# Sets invocation timeout as 2 seconds
config.set_property(ClientProperties.INVOCATION_TIMEOUT_SECONDS.name, 2) 

or

# Sets invocation timeout as 2 seconds
config.set_property("hazelcast.client.invocation.timeout.seconds", 2)

By using an environment variable:

import os

environ = os.environ
environ[ClientProperties.INVOCATION_TIMEOUT_SECONDS.name] = "2"

If you set a property both programmatically and via an environment variable, the programmatically set value will be used.

See the complete list of client system properties, along with their descriptions, which can be used to configure your Hazelcast Python client.

1.5. Basic Usage

Now that we have a working cluster and we know how to configure both our cluster and client, we can run a simple program to use a distributed map in the Python client.

The following example first configures the logger for the Python client. You can find more information about the logging options in the Logging Configuration section.

Then, it creates a configuration object and starts a client.

import hazelcast

# We create a config for illustrative purposes.
# We do not adjust this config. Therefore it has default settings.
config = hazelcast.ClientConfig() 

# Client connects to the cluster with the given configuration. 
client = hazelcast.HazelcastClient(config) 

This should print logs about the cluster members such as address, port and UUID to the stderr.

Feb 15, 2019 12:51:59 PM HazelcastClient
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] A non-empty group password is configured for the Hazelcast client. Starting with Hazelcast IMDG version 3.11, clients with the same group name, but with different group passwords (that do not use authentication) will be accepted to a cluster. The group password configuration will be removed completely in a future release.
Feb 15, 2019 12:51:59 PM HazelcastClient.LifecycleService
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] (20181119 - 9080a46) HazelcastClient is STARTING
Feb 15, 2019 12:51:59 PM HazelcastClient.ClusterService
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] Connecting to Address(host=127.0.0.1, port=5701)
Feb 15, 2019 12:51:59 PM HazelcastClient.ConnectionManager
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] Authenticated with Connection(address=('127.0.0.1', 5701), id=0)
Feb 15, 2019 12:51:59 PM HazelcastClient.ClusterService
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] New member list:

Members [1] {
	Member [10.216.1.49]:5701 - 1f4bb35d-b68f-46eb-bd65-61e3f4bc9922
}

Feb 15, 2019 12:51:59 PM HazelcastClient.LifecycleService
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] (20181119 - 9080a46) HazelcastClient is CONNECTED
Feb 15, 2019 12:51:59 PM HazelcastClient
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] Client started.

Congratulations. You just started a Hazelcast Python client.

Using a Map

Let's manipulate a distributed map on a cluster using the client.

import hazelcast

config = hazelcast.ClientConfig()
client = hazelcast.HazelcastClient(config)

personnel_map = client.get_map("personnel-map")
personnel_map.put("Alice", "IT")
personnel_map.put("Bob", "IT")
personnel_map.put("Clark", "IT")

print("Added IT personnel. Printing all known personnel")

for person, department in personnel_map.entry_set().result():
    print("{} is in {} department".format(person, department))

client.shutdown()

Output

Feb 15, 2019 12:53:15 PM HazelcastClient
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] A non-empty group password is configured for the Hazelcast client. Starting with Hazelcast IMDG version 3.11, clients with the same group name, but with different group passwords (that do not use authentication) will be accepted to a cluster. The group password configuration will be removed completely in a future release.
Feb 15, 2019 12:53:15 PM HazelcastClient.LifecycleService
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] (20181119 - 9080a46) HazelcastClient is STARTING
Feb 15, 2019 12:53:15 PM HazelcastClient.ClusterService
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] Connecting to Address(host=127.0.0.1, port=5701)
Feb 15, 2019 12:53:15 PM HazelcastClient.ConnectionManager
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] Authenticated with Connection(address=('127.0.0.1', 5701), id=0)
Feb 15, 2019 12:53:15 PM HazelcastClient.ClusterService
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] New member list:

Members [1] {
	Member [10.216.1.49]:5701 - 1f4bb35d-b68f-46eb-bd65-61e3f4bc9922
}

Feb 15, 2019 12:53:15 PM HazelcastClient.LifecycleService
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] (20181119 - 9080a46) HazelcastClient is CONNECTED
Feb 15, 2019 12:53:15 PM HazelcastClient
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] Client started.
Added IT personnel. Printing all known personnel
Alice is in IT department
Clark is in IT department
Bob is in IT department
Feb 15, 2019 12:53:15 PM HazelcastClient.LifecycleService
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] (20181119 - 9080a46) HazelcastClient is SHUTTING_DOWN
Feb 15, 2019 12:53:15 PM HazelcastClient.AsyncoreReactor
WARNING: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] Connection closed by server
Feb 15, 2019 12:53:15 PM HazelcastClient.LifecycleService
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] (20181119 - 9080a46) HazelcastClient is SHUTDOWN
Feb 15, 2019 12:53:15 PM HazelcastClient
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] Client shutdown.

You see this example puts all the IT personnel into a cluster-wide personnel-map and then prints all the known personnel.

Now, run the following code.

personnel_map = client.get_map("personnel-map")
personnel_map.put("Denise", "Sales")
personnel_map.put("Erwing", "Sales")
personnel_map.put("Faith", "Sales")

print("Added Sales personnel. Printing all known personnel")

for person, department in personnel_map.entry_set().result():
    print("{} is in {} department".format(person, department))

Output

Feb 15, 2019 12:54:05 PM HazelcastClient
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] A non-empty group password is configured for the Hazelcast client. Starting with Hazelcast IMDG version 3.11, clients with the same group name, but with different group passwords (that do not use authentication) will be accepted to a cluster. The group password configuration will be removed completely in a future release.
Feb 15, 2019 12:54:05 PM HazelcastClient.LifecycleService
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] (20181119 - 9080a46) HazelcastClient is STARTING
Feb 15, 2019 12:54:05 PM HazelcastClient.ClusterService
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] Connecting to Address(host=127.0.0.1, port=5701)
Feb 15, 2019 12:54:05 PM HazelcastClient.ConnectionManager
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] Authenticated with Connection(address=('127.0.0.1', 5701), id=0)
Feb 15, 2019 12:54:05 PM HazelcastClient.ClusterService
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] New member list:

Members [1] {
	Member [10.216.1.49]:5701 - 1f4bb35d-b68f-46eb-bd65-61e3f4bc9922
}

Feb 15, 2019 12:54:05 PM HazelcastClient.LifecycleService
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] (20181119 - 9080a46) HazelcastClient is CONNECTED
Feb 15, 2019 12:54:05 PM HazelcastClient
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] Client started.
Added Sales personnel. Printing all known personnel
Denise is in Sales department
Erwing is in Sales department
Faith is in Sales department
Alice is in IT department
Clark is in IT department
Bob is in IT department
Feb 15, 2019 12:54:05 PM HazelcastClient.LifecycleService
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] (20181119 - 9080a46) HazelcastClient is SHUTTING_DOWN
Feb 15, 2019 12:54:05 PM HazelcastClient.AsyncoreReactor
WARNING: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] Connection closed by server
Feb 15, 2019 12:54:05 PM HazelcastClient.LifecycleService
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] (20181119 - 9080a46) HazelcastClient is SHUTDOWN
Feb 15, 2019 12:54:05 PM HazelcastClient
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] Client shutdown.

You will see this time we add only the sales employees but we get the list of all known employees including the ones in IT. That is because our map lives in the cluster and no matter which client we use, we can access the whole map.

You may wonder why we have used result() method over the entry_set() method of the personnel_map. That is because the Hazelcast Python client is designed to be fully asynchronous. Every method call over distributed objects such as put(), get(), entry_set(), etc. will return a Future object that is similar to the Future class of the concurrent.futures module.

With this design choice, method calls over the distributed objects can be executed asynchronously without blocking the execution order of your program.

You may get the value returned by the method calls using the result() method of the Future class. result will block the execution of your program and will wait until the future finishes running. Then, it will return the value returned by the call which are key-value pairs in our entry_set() method call.

You may also attach a function to the future objects that will be called, with the future as its only argument, when the future finishes running.

For example, the part where we printed the personnel in above code can be rewritten with a callback attached to the entry_set(), as shown below..

import time

def entry_set_cb(future):
    for person, department in future.result():
        print("{} is in {} department".format(person, department))

personnel_map.entry_set().add_done_callback(entry_set_cb)
time.sleep(0.1) # wait for Future to complete

Asynchronous operations are far more efficient in single threaded Python interpreter but you may want all of your method calls over distributed objects to be blocking. For this purpose, Hazelcast Python client provides a helper method called blocking(). This method blocks the execution of your program for all the method calls over distributed objects until the return value of your call is calculated and returns that value directly instead of a Future object.

To make the personnel_map presented previously in this section blocking, you need to call blocking() method over it.

personnel_map = client.get_map("personnel-map").blocking()

Now, all the methods over the personnel_map, such as put() and entry_set(), will be blocking. So, you don't need to call result() over it or attach a callback to it anymore.

for person, department in personnel_map.entry_set():
    print("{} is in {} department".format(person, department))

1.6. Code Samples

See the Hazelcast Python examples for more code samples.

You can also see the latest Hazelcast Python API Documentation or global API Documentation page.

2. Features

Hazelcast Python client supports the following data structures and features:

  • Map
  • Queue
  • Set
  • List
  • MultiMap
  • Replicated Map
  • Ringbuffer
  • Topic
  • Lock
  • Semaphore
  • AtomicLong
  • CRDT PN Counter
  • AtomicReference
  • IdGenerator
  • CountDownLatch
  • Distributed Executor Service
  • Event Listeners
  • Sub-Listener Interfaces for Map Listener
  • Entry Processor
  • Transactional Map
  • Transactional MultiMap
  • Transactional Queue
  • Transactional List
  • Transactional Set
  • Query (Predicates)
  • Entry Processor
  • Built-in Predicates
  • Listener with Predicate
  • Near Cache Support
  • Programmatic Configuration
  • SSL Support (requires Enterprise server)
  • Mutual Authentication (requires Enterprise server)
  • Authorization
  • Smart Client
  • Unisocket Client
  • Lifecycle Service
  • Hazelcast Cloud Discovery
  • IdentifiedDataSerializable Serialization
  • Portable Serialization
  • Custom Serialization
  • Global Serialization

3. Configuration Overview

This chapter describes the options to configure your Python client.

3.1. Configuration Options

You can configure Hazelcast Python client programmatically (API).

3.1.1. Programmatic Configuration

For programmatic configuration of the Hazelcast Python client, just instantiate a ClientConfig object and configure the desired aspects. An example is shown below.

config = hazelcast.ClientConfig()
config.network_config.addresses.append("127.0.0.1:5701")
client = hazelcast.HazelcastClient(config)

See the ClientConfig class documentation at Hazelcast Python Client API Docs for details.

4. Serialization

Serialization is the process of converting an object into a stream of bytes to store the object in the memory, a file or database, or transmit it through the network. Its main purpose is to save the state of an object in order to be able to recreate it when needed. The reverse process is called deserialization. Hazelcast offers you its own native serialization methods. You will see these methods throughout this chapter.

Hazelcast serializes all your objects before sending them to the server. The bool, int, long (for Python 2), float, str, and unicode (for Python 2) types are serialized natively and you cannot override this behavior. The following table is the conversion of types for the Java server side.

Python Java
bool Boolean
int Byte, Short, Integer, Long, BigInteger
long Byte, Short, Integer, Long, BigInteger
float Float, Double
str String
unicode String

Note: A int or long type is serialized as Integer by default. You can configure this behavior using the SerializationConfig.default_integer_type.

Arrays of the above types can be serialized as boolean[], byte[], short[], int[], float[], double[], long[] and string[] for the Java server side, respectively.

Serialization Priority

When Hazelcast Python client serializes an object:

  1. It first checks whether the object is None.

  2. If the above check fails, then it checks if it is an instance of IdentifiedDataSerializable.

  3. If the above check fails, then it checks if it is an instance of Portable.

  4. If the above check fails, then it checks if it is an instance of one of the default types (see the default types above).

  5. If the above check fails, then it looks for a user-specified Custom Serialization.

  6. If the above check fails, it will use the registered Global Serialization if one exists.

  7. If the above check fails, then the Python client uses cPickle (for Python 2) or pickle (for Python 3) by default.

However, cPickle/pickle Serialization is not the best way of serialization in terms of performance and interoperability between the clients in different languages. If you want the serialization to work faster or you use the clients in different languages, Hazelcast offers its own native serialization types, such as IdentifiedDataSerializable Serialization and Portable Serialization.

On top of all, if you want to use your own serialization type, you can use a Custom Serialization.

4.1. IdentifiedDataSerializable Serialization

For a faster serialization of objects, Hazelcast recommends to extend the IdentifiedDataSerializable class.

The following is an example of a class that extends IdentifiedDataSerializable:

from hazelcast.serialization.api import IdentifiedDataSerializable

class Address(IdentifiedDataSerializable):
    def __init__(self, street=None, zip_code=None, city=None, state=None):
        self.street = street
        self.zip_code = zip_code
        self.city = city
        self.state = state

    def get_class_id(self):
        return 1

    def get_factory_id(self):
        return 1

    def write_data(self, object_data_output):
        object_data_output.write_utf(self.street)
        object_data_output.write_int(self.zip_code)
        object_data_output.write_utf(self.city)
        object_data_output.write_utf(self.state)

    def read_data(self, object_data_input):
        self.street = object_data_input.read_utf()
        self.zip_code = object_data_input.read_int()
        self.city = object_data_input.read_utf()
        self.state = object_data_input.read_utf()

Note: For IdentifiedDataSerializable to work in Python client, the class that inherits it should have default valued parameters in its __init__ method so that an instance of that class can be created without passing any arguments to it.

The IdentifiedDataSerializable uses get_class_id() and get_factory_id() methods to reconstitute the object. To complete the implementation, an IdentifiedDataSerializable factory should also be created and registered into the SerializationConfig which can be accessed from Config.serialization_config. A factory is a dictionary that stores class ID and the IdentifiedDataSerializable class type pairs as the key and value. The factory's responsibility is to store the right IdentifiedDataSerializable class type for the given class ID.

A sample IdentifiedDataSerializable factory could be created as follows:

factory = {1: Address}

Note that the keys of the dictionary should be the same as the class IDs of their corresponding IdentifiedDataSerializable class types.

The last step is to register the IdentifiedDataSerializable factory to the SerializationConfig.

config.serialization_config.data_serializable_factories[1] = factory

Note that the ID that is passed to the SerializationConfig is same as the factory ID that the Address class returns.

4.2. Portable Serialization

As an alternative to the existing serialization methods, Hazelcast offers portable serialization. To use it, you need to extend the Portable class. Portable serialization has the following advantages:

  • Supporting multiversion of the same object type.
  • Fetching individual fields without having to rely on the reflection.
  • Querying and indexing support without deserialization and/or reflection.

In order to support these features, a serialized Portable object contains meta information like the version and concrete location of the each field in the binary data. This way Hazelcast is able to navigate in the binary data and deserialize only the required field without actually deserializing the whole object which improves the query performance.

With multiversion support, you can have two members where each of them having different versions of the same object, and Hazelcast will store both meta information and use the correct one to serialize and deserialize portable objects depending on the member. This is very helpful when you are doing a rolling upgrade without shutting down the cluster.

Also note that portable serialization is totally language independent and is used as the binary protocol between Hazelcast server and clients.

A sample portable implementation of a Foo class looks like the following:

from hazelcast.serialization.api import Portable

class Foo(Portable):
    def __init__(self, foo=None):
        self.foo = foo

    def get_class_id(self):
        return 1

    def get_factory_id(self):
        return 1

    def write_portable(self, writer):
        writer.write_utf("foo", self.foo)

    def read_portable(self, reader):
        self.foo = reader.read_utf("foo")

Note: For Portable to work in Python client, the class that inherits it should have default valued parameters in its __init__ method so that an instance of that class can be created without passing any arguments to it.

Similar to IdentifiedDataSerializable, a Portable class must provide the get_class_id() and get_factory_id() methods. The factory dictionary will be used to create the Portable object given the class ID.

A sample Portable factory could be created as follows:

factory = {1: Foo}

Note that the keys of the dictionary should be the same as the class IDs of their corresponding Portable class types.

The last step is to register the Portable factory to the SerializationConfig.

config.serialization_config.data_serializable_factories[1] = factory

Note that the ID that is passed to the SerializationConfig is same as the factory ID that Foo class returns.

4.3. Custom Serialization

Hazelcast lets you plug a custom serializer to be used for serialization of objects.

Let's say you have a class called Musician and you would like to customize the serialization for it, since you may want to use an external serializer for only one class.

class Musician:
    def __init__(self, name):
        self.name = name

Let's say your custom MusicianSerializer will serialize Musician. This time, your custom serializer must extend the StreamSerializer class.

from hazelcast.serialization.api import StreamSerializer

class MusicianSerializer(StreamSerializer):
    def get_type_id(self):
        return 10

    def destroy(self):
        pass

    def write(self, out, obj):
        out.write_int(len(obj.name))
        for s in obj.name:
            out.write_char(s)

    def read(self, inp):
        length = inp.read_int()
        name = ""
        for i in range(length):
            name += chr(inp.read_int())
        return Musician(name)

Note that the serializer id must be unique as Hazelcast will use it to lookup the MusicianSerializer while it deserializes the object. Now the last required step is to register the MusicianSerializer to the configuration.

config.serialization_config.set_custom_serializer(Musician, MusicianSerializer)

From now on, Hazelcast will use MusicianSerializer to serialize Musician objects.

4.4. Global Serialization

The global serializer is identical to custom serializers from the implementation perspective. The global serializer is registered as a fallback serializer to handle all other objects if a serializer cannot be located for them.

By default, cPickle/pickle serialization is used if the class is not IdentifiedDataSerializable or Portable or there is no custom serializer for it. When you configure a global serializer, it is used instead of cPickle/pickle serialization.

Use Cases:

  • Third party serialization frameworks can be integrated using the global serializer.

  • For your custom objects, you can implement a single serializer to handle all of them.

A sample global serializer that integrates with a third party serializer is shown below.

import some_third_party_serializer
from hazelcast.serialization.api import StreamSerializer

class GlobalSerializer(StreamSerializer):
    def get_type_id(self):
        return 20

    def destroy(self):
        pass

    def write(self, out, obj):
        out.write_utf(some_third_party_serializer.serialize(obj))

    def read(self, inp):
        return some_third_party_serializer.deserialize(inp.read_utf())

You should register the global serializer in the configuration.

config.serialization_config.global_serializer = GlobalSerializer

5. Setting Up Client Network

All network related configuration of Hazelcast Python client is performed via the ClientNetworkConfig class when using programmatic configuration. Let's first give the examples for this approach. Then we will look at its sub-elements and attributes.

Here is an example of configuring the network for Python Client programmatically.

config.network_config.addresses.extend(["10.1.1.21""10.1.1.22:5703"])
config.network_config.smart_routing = True
config.network_config.redo_operation = True
config.network_config.connection_timeout = 6.0
config.network_config.connection_attempt_period = 5.0
config.network_config.connection_attempt_limit = 5

5.1. Providing Member Addresses

Address list is the initial list of cluster addresses which the client will connect to. The client uses this list to find an alive member. Although it may be enough to give only one address of a member in the cluster (since all members communicate with each other), it is recommended that you give the addresses for all the members.

config.network_config.addresses.append("10.1.1.21") # single value
config.network_config.addresses.extend(["10.1.1.23", "10.1.1.22:5703"]) # multiple values

If the port part is omitted, then 5701, 5702 and 5703 will be tried in a random order.

You can specify multiple addresses with or without the port information as seen above. The provided list is shuffled and tried in a random order. Its default value is localhost.

5.2. Setting Smart Routing

Smart routing defines whether the client mode is smart or unisocket. See the Python Client Operation Modes section for the description of smart and unisocket modes.

The following is an example configuration.

config.network_config.smart_routing = True

Its default value is True (smart client mode).

5.3. Enabling Redo Operation

It enables/disables redo-able operations. While sending the requests to the related members, the operations can fail due to various reasons. Read-only operations are retried by default. If you want to enable retry for the other operations, you can set the redo_operation to True.

config.network_config.redo_operation = True

Its default value is False (disabled).

5.4. Setting Connection Timeout

Connection timeout is the timeout value in seconds for the members to accept the client connection requests. If the member does not respond within the timeout, the client will retry to connect as many as ClientNetworkConfig.connection_attempt_limit times.

The following is an example configuration.

config.network_config.connection_timeout = 6.0

Its default value is 5.0 seconds.

5.5. Setting Connection Attempt Limit

While the client is trying to connect initially to one of the members in the ClientNetworkConfig.addresses, that member might not be available at that moment. Instead of giving up, throwing an error and stopping the client, the client will retry as many as ClientNetworkConfig.connection_attempt_limit times. This is also the case when the previously established connection between the client and that member goes down.

The following is an example configuration.

config.network_config.connection_attempt_limit = 5

Its default value is 2.

5.6. Setting Connection Attempt Period

Connection attempt period is the duration in seconds between the connection attempts defined by ClientNetworkConfig.connection_attempt_limit.

The following is an example configuration.

config.network_config.connection_attempt_period = 5.0

Its default value is 3.0 seconds.

5.7. Enabling Client TLS/SSL

You can use TLS/SSL to secure the connection between the clients and members. If you want to enable TLS/SSL for the client-cluster connection, you should set the SSL configuration. Please see the TLS/SSL section.

As explained in the TLS/SSL section, Hazelcast members have key stores used to identify themselves (to other members) and Hazelcast Python clients have certificate authorities used to define which members they can trust. Hazelcast has the mutual authentication feature which allows the Python clients also to have their private keys and public certificates, and members to have their certificate authorities so that the members can know which clients they can trust. See the Mutual Authentication section.

5.8. Enabling Hazelcast Cloud Discovery

The purpose of Hazelcast Cloud Discovery is to provide the clients the means to use IP addresses provided by hazelcast orchestrator. To enable Hazelcast Cloud Discovery, specify a token for the discovery_token field and set the enabled field to True.

The following is the example configuration.

config.group_config.name = "hazel"
config.group_config.password = "cast"

config.network_config.ssl_config.enabled = True

config.network_config.cloud_config.enabled = True
config.network_config.cloud_config.discovery_token = "dc9220bc5d9"

To be able to connect to the provided IP addresses, you should use secure TLS/SSL connection between the client and members. Therefore, you should enable the SSL configuration as described in the TLS/SSL for Hazelcast Python Client section.

6. Securing Client Connection

This chapter describes the security features of Hazelcast Python client. These include using TLS/SSL for connections between members and between clients and members, and mutual authentication. These security features require Hazelcast IMDG Enterprise edition.

6.1. TLS/SSL

One of the offers of Hazelcast is the TLS/SSL protocol which you can use to establish an encrypted communication across your cluster with key stores and trust stores.

  • A Java keyStore is a file that includes a private key and a public certificate. The equivalent of a key store is the combination of keyfile and certfile at the Python client side.

  • A Java trustStore is a file that includes a list of certificates trusted by your application which is named certificate authority. The equivalent of a trust store is a cafile at the Python client side.

You should set keyStore and trustStore before starting the members. See the next section on how to set keyStore and trustStore on the server side.

6.1.1. TLS/SSL for Hazelcast Members

Hazelcast allows you to encrypt socket level communication between Hazelcast members and between Hazelcast clients and members, for end to end encryption. To use it, see the TLS/SSL for Hazelcast Members section.

6.1.2. TLS/SSL for Hazelcast Python Clients

TLS/SSL for the Hazelcast Python client can be configured using the SSLConfig class. Let's first give an example of a sample configuration and then go over the configuration options one by one:

import hazelcast
from hazelcast.config import PROTOCOL

config = hazelcast.ClientConfig()
config.network_config.ssl_config.enabled = True
config.network_config.ssl_config.cafile = "/home/hazelcast/cafile.pem"
config.network_config.ssl_config.certfile = "/home/hazelcast/certfile.pem"
config.network_config.ssl_config.keyfile = "/home/hazelcast/keyfile.pem"
config.network_config.ssl_config.password = "hazelcast"
config.network_config.ssl_config.protocol = PROTOCOL.TLSv1_3
config.network_config.ssl_config.ciphers = "DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA"
Enabling TLS/SSL

TLS/SSL for the Hazelcast Python client can be enabled/disabled using the enabled option. When this option is set to True, TLS/SSL will be configured with respect to the other SSLConfig options. Setting this option to False will result in discarding the other SSLConfig options.

The following is an example configuration:

config.network_config.ssl_config.enabled = True

Default value is False (disabled).

Setting CA File

Certificates of the Hazelcast members can be validated against cafile. This option should point to the absolute path of the concatenated CA certificates in PEM format. When SSL is enabled and cafile is not set, a set of default CA certificates from default locations will be used.

The following is an example configuration:

config.network_config.ssl_config.cafile = "/home/hazelcast/cafile.pem"
Setting Client Certificate

When mutual authentication is enabled on the member side, clients or other members should also provide a certificate file that identifies themselves. Then, Hazelcast members can use these certificates to validate the identity of their peers.

Client certificate can be set using the certfile. This option should point to the absolute path of the client certificate in PEM format.

The following is an example configuration:

config.network_config.ssl_config.certfile = "/home/hazelcast/certfile.pem"
Setting Private Key

Private key of the certfile can be set using the keyfile. This option should point to the absolute path of the private key file for the client certificate in the PEM format.

If this option is not set, private key will be taken from certfile. In this case, certfile should be in the following format.

-----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
... (private key in base64 encoding) ...
-----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
... (certificate in base64 PEM encoding) ...
-----END CERTIFICATE-----

The following is an example configuration:

config.network_config.ssl_config.keyfile = "/home/hazelcast/keyfile.pem"
Setting Password of the Private Key

If the private key is encrypted using a password, password will be used to decrypt it. The password may be a function to call to get the password. In that case, it will be called with no arguments, and it should return a string, bytes or bytearray. If the return value is a string it will be encoded as UTF-8 before using it to decrypt the key.

Alternatively a string, bytes or bytearray value may be supplied directly as the password.

The following is an example configuration:

config.network_config.ssl_config.password = "hazelcast"
Setting the Protocol

protocol can be used to select the protocol that will be used in the TLS/SSL communication. Hazelcast Python client offers the following protocols:

  • SSLv2 : SSL 2.0 Protocol. RFC 6176 prohibits the usage of SSL 2.0.
  • SSLv3 : SSL 3.0 Protocol. RFC 7568 prohibits the usage of SSL 3.0.
  • SSL : Alias for SSL 3.0
  • TLSv1 : TLS 1.0 Protocol described in RFC 2246
  • TLSv1_1 : TLS 1.1 Protocol described in RFC 4346
  • TLSv1_2 : TLS 1.2 Protocol described in RFC 5246
  • TLSv1_3 : TLS 1.3 Protocol described in RFC 8446
  • TLS : Alias for TLS 1.2

Note that TLSv1+ requires at least Python 2.7.9 or Python 3.4 built with OpenSSL 1.0.1+, and TLSv1_3 requires at least Python 2.7.15 or Python 3.7 built with OpenSSL 1.1.1+.

These protocol versions can be selected using the hazelcast.config.PROTOCOL as follows:

from hazelcast.config import PROTOCOL

config.network_config.ssl_config.protocol = PROTOCOL.TLSv1_3

Note that the Hazelcast Python client and the Hazelcast members should have the same protocol version in order for TLS/SSL to work. In case of the protocol mismatch, connection attempts will be refused.

Default value is PROTOCOL.TLS which is an alias for PROTOCOL.TLSv1_2.

Setting Cipher Suites

Cipher suites that will be used in the TLS/SSL communication can be set using the ciphers option. Cipher suites should be in the OpenSSL cipher list format. More than one cipher suite can be set by separating them with a colon.

TLS/SSL implementation will honor the cipher suite order. So, Hazelcast Python client will offer the ciphers to the Hazelcast members with the given order.

Note that, when this option is not set, all the available ciphers will be offered to the Hazelcast members with their default order.

The following is an example configuration:

config.network_config.ssl_config.ciphers = "DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA:DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA"

6.1.3. Mutual Authentication

As explained above, Hazelcast members have key stores used to identify themselves (to other members) and Hazelcast clients have trust stores used to define which members they can trust.

Using mutual authentication, the clients also have their key stores and members have their trust stores so that the members can know which clients they can trust.

To enable mutual authentication, firstly, you need to set the following property on the server side in the hazelcast.xml file:

<network>
    <ssl enabled="true">
        <properties>
            <property name="javax.net.ssl.mutualAuthentication">REQUIRED</property>
        </properties>
    </ssl>
</network>

You can see the details of setting mutual authentication on the server side in the Mutual Authentication section of the Hazelcast IMDG Reference Manual.

On the client side, you have to provide SSLConfig.cafile, SSLConfig.certfile and SSLConfig.keyfile on top of the other TLS/SSL configurations. See the TLS/SSL for Hazelcast Python Clients for the details of these options.

7. Using Python Client with Hazelcast IMDG

This chapter provides information on how you can use Hazelcast IMDG's data structures in the Python client, after giving some basic information including an overview to the client API, operation modes of the client and how it handles the failures.

7.1. Python Client API Overview

Hazelcast Python client is designed to be fully asynchronous. See the Basic Usage section to learn more about asynchronous nature of the Python Client.

If you are ready to go, let's start to use Hazelcast Python client.

The first step is configuration. You can configure the Python client programmatically.

The following is an example on how to create a ClientConfig object and configure it programmatically:

import hazelcast

config = hazelcast.ClientConfig()
config.group_config.name = "dev"
config.network_config.addresses.append("10.90.0.1")

The second step is initializing the HazelcastClient to be connected to the cluster:

client = hazelcast.HazelcastClient(config)

This client object is your gateway to access all the Hazelcast distributed objects.

Let's create a map and populate it with some data, as shown below.

customer_map = client.get_map("customers").blocking()
customer_map.put("1", "John Stiles")
customer_map.put("2", "Richard Miles")
customer_map.put("3", "Judy Doe")

As the final step, if you are done with your client, you can shut it down as shown below. This will release all the used resources and close connections to the cluster.

client.shutdown()

7.2. Python Client Operation Modes

The client has two operation modes because of the distributed nature of the data and cluster: smart and unisocket.

7.2.1. Smart Client

In the smart mode, the clients connect to each cluster member. Since each data partition uses the well known and consistent hashing algorithm, each client can send an operation to the relevant cluster member, which increases the overall throughput and efficiency. Smart mode is the default mode.

7.2.2. Unisocket Client

For some cases, the clients can be required to connect to a single member instead of each member in the cluster. Firewalls, security or some custom networking issues can be the reason for these cases.

In the unisocket client mode, the client will only connect to one of the configured addresses. This single member will behave as a gateway to the other members. For any operation requested from the client, it will redirect the request to the relevant member and return the response back to the client returned from this member.

7.3. Handling Failures

There are two main failure cases you should be aware of. Below sections explain these and the configurations you can perform to achieve proper behavior.

7.3.1. Handling Client Connection Failure

While the client is trying to connect initially to one of the members in the ClientNetworkConfig.addresses, all the members might not be available. Instead of giving up, throwing an error and stopping the client, the client will retry as many as connection_attempt_limit times.

You can configure connection_attempt_limit for the number of times you want the client to retry connecting. See the Setting Connection Attempt Limit section.

The client executes each operation through the already established connection to the cluster. If this connection(s) disconnects or drops, the client will try to reconnect as configured.

7.3.2. Handling Retry-able Operation Failure

While sending the requests to the related members, the operations can fail due to various reasons. Read-only operations are retried by default. If you want to enable retrying for the other operations, you can set the redo_operation to True. See the Enabling Redo Operation section.

You can set a timeout for retrying the operations sent to a member. This can be provided by using the property hazelcast.client.invocation.timeout.seconds via ClientConfig.set_property method. The client will retry an operation within this given period, of course, if it is a read-only operation or you enabled the redo_operation as stated in the above paragraph. This timeout value is important when there is a failure resulted by either of the following causes:

  • Member throws an exception.

  • Connection between the client and member is closed.

  • Client’s heartbeat requests are timed out.

When a connection problem occurs, an operation is retried if it is certain that it has not run on the member yet or if it is idempotent such as a read-only operation, i.e., retrying does not have a side effect. If it is not certain whether the operation has run on the member, then the non-idempotent operations are not retried. However, as explained in the first paragraph of this section, you can force all the client operations to be retried (redo_operation) when there is a connection failure between the client and member. But in this case, you should know that some operations may run multiple times causing conflicts. For example, assume that your client sent a queue.offer operation to the member and then the connection is lost. Since there will be no response for this operation, you will not know whether it has run on the member or not. If you enabled redo_operation, it means this operation may run again, which may cause two instances of the same object in the queue.

When invocation is being retried, the client may wait some time before it retries again. This duration can be configured using the following property:

config.set_property("hazelcast.client.invocation.retry.pause.millis", 500)

The default retry wait time is 1 second.

7.4. Using Distributed Data Structures

Most of the distributed data structures are supported by the Python client. In this chapter, you will learn how to use these distributed data structures.

7.4.1. Using Map

Hazelcast Map is a distributed dictionary. Through the Python client, you can perform operations like reading and writing from/to a Hazelcast Map with the well known get and put methods. For details, see the Map section in the Hazelcast IMDG Reference Manual.

A Map usage example is shown below.

# Get the Distributed Map from Cluster.
my_map = client.get_map("my-distributed-map").blocking()

# Standard Put and Get
my_map.put("key", "value")
my_map.get("key")

# Concurrent Map methods, optimistic updating
my_map.put_if_absent("somekey", "somevalue") 
my_map.replace_if_same("key", "value", "newvalue")

7.4.2. Using MultiMap

Hazelcast MultiMap is a distributed and specialized map where you can store multiple values under a single key. For details, see the MultiMap section in the Hazelcast IMDG Reference Manual.

A MultiMap usage example is shown below.

# Get the Distributed MultiMap from Cluster.
multi_map = client.get_multi_map("my-distributed-multimap").blocking()

# Put values in the map against the same key
multi_map.put("my-key", "value1")
multi_map.put("my-key", "value2")
multi_map.put("my-key", "value3")

# Print out all the values for associated with key called "my-key"
# Outputs '['value2', 'value1', 'value3']'
values = multi_map.get("my-key") 
print(values) 

# Remove specific key/value pair
multi_map.remove("my-key", "value2") 

7.4.3. Using Replicated Map

Hazelcast Replicated Map is a distributed key-value data structure where the data is replicated to all members in the cluster. It provides full replication of entries to all members for high speed access. For details, see the Replicated Map section in the Hazelcast IMDG Reference Manual.

A Replicated Map usage example is shown below.

# Get a Replicated Map called "my-replicated-map"
replicated_map = client.get_replicated_map("my-replicated-map").blocking()

# Put and Get a value from the Replicated Map
# key/value replicated to all members
replaced_value = replicated_map.put("key", "value") 

# Will be None as its first update
print("replaced value = {}".format(replaced_value)) # Outputs 'replaced value = None'

# The value is retrieved from a random member in the cluster
value = replicated_map.get("key")

print("value for key = {}".format(value)) # Outputs 'value for key = value'

7.4.4. Using Queue

Hazelcast Queue is a distributed queue which enables all cluster members to interact with it. For details, see the Queue section in the Hazelcast IMDG Reference Manual.

A Queue usage example is shown below.

# Get a Blocking Queue called "my-distributed-queue"
queue = client.get_queue("my-distributed-queue").blocking()

# Offer a String into the Distributed Queue
queue.offer("item")

# Poll the Distributed Queue and return the String
item = queue.poll()

# Timed blocking Operations
queue.offer("another-item", 1)
another_item = queue.poll(5)

# Indefinitely blocking Operations
queue.put("yet-another-item")

print(queue.take()) # Outputs 'yet-another-item'

7.4.5. Using Set

Hazelcast Set is a distributed set which does not allow duplicate elements. For details, see the Set section in the Hazelcast IMDG Reference Manual.

A Set usage example is shown below.

# Get the Distributed Set from Cluster.
my_set = client.get_set("my-distributed-set").blocking()

# Add items to the set with duplicates
my_set.add("item1")
my_set.add("item1")
my_set.add("item2")
my_set.add("item2")
my_set.add("item2")
my_set.add("item3")

# Get the items. Note that there are no duplicates.
for item in my_set.get_all():
    print(item)

7.4.6. Using List

Hazelcast List is a distributed list which allows duplicate elements and preserves the order of elements. For details, see the List section in the Hazelcast IMDG Reference Manual.

A List usage example is shown below.

# Get the Distributed List from Cluster.
my_list = client.get_list("my-distributed-list").blocking()

# Add element to the list
my_list.add("item1")
my_list.add("item2")

# Remove the first element
print("Removed: {}".format(my_list.remove_at(0))) # Outputs 'Removed: item1'

# There is only one element left
print("Current size is {}".format(my_list.size())) # Outputs 'Current size is 1'

# Clear the list
my_list.clear()

7.4.7. Using Ringbuffer

Hazelcast Ringbuffer is a replicated but not partitioned data structure that stores its data in a ring-like structure. You can think of it as a circular array with a given capacity. Each Ringbuffer has a tail and a head. The tail is where the items are added and the head is where the items are overwritten or expired. You can reach each element in a Ringbuffer using a sequence ID, which is mapped to the elements between the head and tail (inclusive) of the Ringbuffer. For details, see the Ringbuffer section in the Hazelcast IMDG Reference Manual.

A Ringbuffer usage example is shown below.

# Get a RingBuffer called "my-ringbuffer"
ringbuffer = client.get_ringbuffer("my-ringbuffer").blocking()

# Add two items into ring buffer
ringbuffer.add(100)
ringbuffer.add(200)

# We start from the oldest item.
# If you want to start from the next item, call ringbuffer.tail_sequence()+1
sequence = ringbuffer.head_sequence()
print(ringbuffer.read_one(sequence)) # Outputs '100'

sequence += 1
print(ringbuffer.read_one(sequence)) # Outputs '200'

7.4.8. Using Topic

Hazelcast Topic is a distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers. For details, see the Topic section in the Hazelcast IMDG Reference Manual.

A Topic usage example is shown below.

# Function to be called when a message is published
def print_on_message(topic_message):
    print("Got message:", topic_message.message)

# Get a Topic called "my-distributed-topic"
topic = client.get_topic("my-distributed-topic")

# Add a Listener to the Topic
topic.add_listener(print_on_message)

# Publish a message to the Topic
topic.publish("Hello to distributed world") # Outputs 'Got message: Hello to distributed world'

7.4.9. Using Lock

Hazelcast Lock is a distributed lock implementation. You can synchronize Hazelcast members and clients using a Lock. For details, see the Lock section in the Hazelcast IMDG Reference Manual.

A Lock usage example is shown below.

# Get a distributed lock called "my-distributed-lock"
lock = client.get_lock("my-distributed-lock").blocking()

# Now create a lock and execute some guarded code
lock.lock()
try:
    # Do something here
    pass
finally:
    lock.unlock()

7.4.10. Using Atomic Long

Hazelcast Atomic Long is the distributed long which offers most of the operations such as get, set, get_and_set, compare_and_set and increment_and_get. For details, see the Atomic Long section in the Hazelcast IMDG Reference Manual.

An Atomic Long usage example is shown below.

# Get an Atomic Counter, we'll call it "counter"
counter = client.get_atomic_long("counter").blocking()

# Add and Get the "counter"
counter.add_and_get(3)  # value is 3

# Display the "counter" value
print("counter: {}".format(counter.get())) # Outputs 'counter: 3'

7.4.11. Using Semaphore

Hazelcast Semaphore is a distributed semaphore implementation. For details, see the Semaphore section in the Hazelcast IMDG Reference Manual.

A Semaphore usage example is shown below.

# Get a Semaphore called "my-distributed-semaphore"
semaphore = client.get_semaphore("my-distributed-semaphore").blocking()

# Initialize the Semaphore with 10 permits
semaphore.init(10)

# Acquire 5 permits
semaphore.acquire(5)

# Print the number of the available permits
print(semaphore.available_permits()) # Outputs '5'

7.4.12. Using Transactions

Hazelcast Python client provides transactional operations like beginning transactions, committing transactions and retrieving transactional data structures like the TransactionalMap, TransactionalSet, TransactionalList, TransactionalQueue and TransactionalMultiMap.

You can create a Transaction object using the Python client to begin, commit and rollback a transaction. You can obtain transaction-aware instances of queues, maps, sets, lists and multimaps via the Transaction object, work with them and commit or rollback in one shot. For details, see the Transactions section in the Hazelcast IMDG Reference Manual.

# Create a Transaction object and begin the transaction
transaction = client.new_transaction(timeout=10)
transaction.begin()

# Get transactional distributed data structures
txn_map = transaction.get_map("transactional-map")
txn_queue = transaction.get_queue("transactional-queue")
txt_set = transaction.get_set("transactional-set")
try:
    obj = txn_queue.poll()

    # Process obj

    txn_map.put("1", "value1")
    txt_set.add("value")

    # Do other things

    # Commit the above changes done in the cluster.
    transaction.commit()  
except Exception as ex:
    # In the case of a transactional failure, rollback the transaction 
    transaction.rollback()
    print("Transaction failed! {}".format(ex.args))

In a transaction, operations will not be executed immediately. Their changes will be local to the Transaction object until committed. However, they will ensure the changes via locks.

For the above example, when txn_map.put() is executed, no data will be put in the map but the key will be locked against changes. While committing, operations will be executed, the value will be put to the map and the key will be unlocked.

The isolation level in Hazelcast Transactions is READ_COMMITTED on the level of a single partition. If you are in a transaction, you can read the data in your transaction and the data that is already committed. If you are not in a transaction, you can only read the committed data.

7.4.13. Using PN Counter

Hazelcast PNCounter (Positive-Negative Counter) is a CRDT positive-negative counter implementation. It is an eventually consistent counter given there is no member failure. For details, see the PN Counter section in the Hazelcast IMDG Reference Manual.

A PN Counter usage example is shown below.

# Get a PN Counter called 'pn-counter'
pn_counter = client.get_pn_counter("pn-counter").blocking()

# Counter is initialized with 0
print(pn_counter.get()) # 0

# .._and_get() variants does the operation
# and returns the final value
print(pn_counter.add_and_get(5))  # 5
print(pn_counter.decrement_and_get())  # 4

# get_and_..() variants returns the current 
# value and then does the operation
print(pn_counter.get_and_increment())  # 4
print(pn_counter.get())  # 5

7.4.14. Using Flake ID Generator

Hazelcast FlakeIdGenerator is used to generate cluster-wide unique identifiers. Generated identifiers are long primitive values and are k-ordered (roughly ordered). IDs are in the range from 0 to 2^63-1 (maximum signed long value). For details, see the FlakeIdGenerator section in the Hazelcast IMDG Reference Manual.

# Get a Flake ID Generator called 'flake-id-generator'
generator = client.get_flake_id_generator("flake-id-generator").blocking()

# Generate a some unique identifier
print("ID: {}".format(generator.new_id()))

7.5. Distributed Events

This chapter explains when various events are fired and describes how you can add event listeners on a Hazelcast Python client. These events can be categorized as cluster and distributed data structure events.

7.5.1. Cluster Events

You can add event listeners to a Hazelcast Python client. You can configure the following listeners to listen to the events on the client side:

  • Membership Listener: Notifies when a member joins to/leaves the cluster.

  • Lifecycle Listener: Notifies when the client is starting, started, shutting down and shutdown.

7.5.1.1. Listening for Member Events

You can add the following types of member events to the ClusterService.

  • member_added: A new member is added to the cluster.
  • member_removed: An existing member leaves the cluster.

The ClusterService class exposes an add_listener() method that allows one or more functions to be attached to the member events emitted by the class.

The following is a membership listener registration by using the add_listener() method.

client.cluster.add_listener(member_added=lambda m: print("Member Added: The address is {}".format(m.address)))

7.5.1.2. Listening for Lifecycle Events

The Lifecycle Listener notifies for the following events:

  • STARTING: The client is starting.
  • CONNECTED: The client is connected.
  • SHUTTING_DOWN: The client is shutting down.
  • SHUTDOWN: The client’s shutdown has completed.

The following is an example of the Lifecycle listener that is added to the ClientConfig object and its output.

config.add_lifecycle_listener(lambda s: print("Lifecycle Event >>> {}".format(s)))

client = hazelcast.HazelcastClient(config)

client.shutdown()

Output:

Lifecycle Event >>> STARTING
Lifecycle Event >>> CONNECTED
Lifecycle Event >>> SHUTTING_DOWN
Lifecycle Event >>> SHUTDOWN

7.5.2. Distributed Data Structure Events

You can add event listeners to the distributed data structures.

7.5.2.1. Listening for Map Events

You can listen to map-wide or entry-based events by attaching functions to the Map objects using the add_entry_listener() method. You can listen the following events.

  • added_func : Function to be called when an entry is added to map.
  • removed_func : Function to be called when an entry is removed from map.
  • updated_func : Function to be called when an entry is updated.
  • evicted_func : Function to be called when an entry is evicted from map.
  • evict_all_func : Function to be called when entries are evicted from map.
  • clear_all_func : Function to be called when entries are cleared from map.
  • merged_func : Function to be called when WAN replicated entry is merged.
  • expired_func : Function to be called when an entry's live time is expired.

You can also filter the events using key or predicate. There is also an option called include_value. When this option is set to true, event will also include the value.

An entry-based event is fired after the operations that affect a specific entry. For example, Map.put(), Map.remove() or Map.evict(). An EntryEvent object is passed to the listener function.

See the following example.

def added(event):
    print("Entry Added: {}-{}".format(event.key, event.value))

customer_map.add_entry_listener(include_value=True, added_func=added)
customer_map.put("4", "Jane Doe").result() # Outputs 'Entry Added: 4-Jane Doe'

A map-wide event is fired as a result of a map-wide operation. For example, Map.clear() or Map.evict_all(). An EntryEvent object is passed to the listener function.

See the following example.

def cleared(event):
    print("Map Cleared: {}".format(event.number_of_affected_entries))

customer_map.add_entry_listener(include_value=True, clear_all_func=cleared)
customer_map.clear().result() # Outputs 'Map Cleared: 4'

7.6. Distributed Computing

This chapter explains how you can use Hazelcast IMDG's entry processor implementation in the Python client.

7.6.1. Using EntryProcessor

Hazelcast supports entry processing. An entry processor is a function that executes your code on a map entry in an atomic way.

An entry processor is a good option if you perform bulk processing on a Map. Usually you perform a loop of keys -- executing Map.get(key), mutating the value, and finally putting the entry back in the map using Map.put(key,value). If you perform this process from a client or from a member where the keys do not exist, you effectively perform two network hops for each update: the first to retrieve the data and the second to update the mutated value.

If you are doing the process described above, you should consider using entry processors. An entry processor executes a read and updates upon the member where the data resides. This eliminates the costly network hops described above.

NOTE: Entry processor is meant to process a single entry per call. Processing multiple entries and data structures in an entry processor is not supported as it may result in deadlocks on the server side.

Hazelcast sends the entry processor to each cluster member and these members apply it to the map entries. Therefore, if you add more members, your processing completes faster.

Processing Entries

The Map class provides the following methods for entry processing:

  • execute_on_key processes an entry mapped by a key.

  • execute_on_keys processes entries mapped by a list of keys.

  • execute_on_entries can process all entries in a map with a defined predicate. Predicate is optional.

In the Python client, an EntryProcessor should be IdentifiedDataSerializable or Portable because the server should be able to deserialize it to process.

The following is an example for EntryProcessor which is an IdentifiedDataSerializable.

from hazelcast.serialization.api import IdentifiedDataSerializable

class IdentifiedEntryProcessor(IdentifiedDataSerializable):
    def __init__(self, value=None):
        self.value = value

    def read_data(self, object_data_input):
        self.value = object_data_input.read_utf()

    def write_data(self, object_data_output):
        object_data_output.write_utf(self.value)

    def get_factory_id(self):
        return 5

    def get_class_id(self):
        return 1

Now, you need to make sure that the Hazelcast member recognizes the entry processor. For this, you need to implement the Java equivalent of your entry processor and its factory, and create your own compiled class or JAR files. For adding your own compiled class or JAR files to the server's CLASSPATH, see the Adding User Library to CLASSPATH section.

The following is the Java equivalent of the entry processor in Python client given above:

import com.hazelcast.map.AbstractEntryProcessor;
import com.hazelcast.nio.ObjectDataInput;
import com.hazelcast.nio.ObjectDataOutput;
import com.hazelcast.nio.serialization.IdentifiedDataSerializable;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.Map;

public class IdentifiedEntryProcessor extends AbstractEntryProcessor<String, String> implements IdentifiedDataSerializable {
     static final int CLASS_ID = 1;
     private String value;

    public IdentifiedEntryProcessor() {
    }

     @Override
    public int getFactoryId() {
        return IdentifiedFactory.FACTORY_ID;
    }

     @Override
    public int getId() {
        return CLASS_ID;
    }

     @Override
    public void writeData(ObjectDataOutput out) throws IOException {
        out.writeUTF(value);
    }

     @Override
    public void readData(ObjectDataInput in) throws IOException {
        value = in.readUTF();
    }

     @Override
    public Object process(Map.Entry<String, String> entry) {
        entry.setValue(value);
        return value;
    }
}

You can implement the above processor’s factory as follows:

import com.hazelcast.nio.serialization.DataSerializableFactory;
import com.hazelcast.nio.serialization.IdentifiedDataSerializable;

public class IdentifiedFactory implements DataSerializableFactory {
    public static final int FACTORY_ID = 5;

     @Override
    public IdentifiedDataSerializable create(int typeId) {
        if (typeId == IdentifiedEntryProcessor.CLASS_ID) {
            return new IdentifiedEntryProcessor();
        }
        return null;
    }
}

Now you need to configure the hazelcast.xml to add your factory as shown below.

<hazelcast>
    <serialization>
        <data-serializable-factories>
            <data-serializable-factory factory-id="5">
                IdentifiedFactory
            </data-serializable-factory>
        </data-serializable-factories>
    </serialization>
</hazelcast>

The code that runs on the entries is implemented in Java on the server side. The client side entry processor is used to specify which entry processor should be called. For more details about the Java implementation of the entry processor, see the Entry Processor section in the Hazelcast IMDG Reference Manual.

After the above implementations and configuration are done and you start the server where your library is added to its CLASSPATH, you can use the entry processor in the Map methods. See the following example.

distributed_map = client.get_map("my-distributed-map").blocking()

distributed_map.put("key", "not-processed")
distributed_map.execute_on_key("key", IdentifiedEntryProcessor("processed"))

print(distributed_map.get("key")) # Outputs 'processed'

7.7. Distributed Query

Hazelcast partitions your data and spreads it across cluster of members. You can iterate over the map entries and look for certain entries (specified by predicates) you are interested in. However, this is not very efficient because you will have to bring the entire entry set and iterate locally. Instead, Hazelcast allows you to run distributed queries on your distributed map.

7.7.1. How Distributed Query Works

  1. The requested predicate is sent to each member in the cluster.
  2. Each member looks at its own local entries and filters them according to the predicate. At this stage, key-value pairs of the entries are deserialized and then passed to the predicate.
  3. The predicate requester merges all the results coming from each member into a single set.

Distributed query is highly scalable. If you add new members to the cluster, the partition count for each member is reduced and thus the time spent by each member on iterating its entries is reduced. In addition, the pool of partition threads evaluates the entries concurrently in each member, and the network traffic is also reduced since only filtered data is sent to the requester.

Predicate Module Operators

The Predicate module offered by the Python client includes many operators for your query requirements. Some of them are explained below.

  • is_equal_to: Checks if the result of an expression is equal to a given value.
  • is_not_equal_to: Checks if the result of an expression is not equal to a given value.
  • is_instance_of: Checks if the result of an expression has a certain type.
  • is_like: Checks if the result of an expression matches some string pattern. % (percentage sign) is the placeholder for many characters, _ (underscore) is placeholder for only one character.
  • is_ilike: Checks if the result of an expression matches some string pattern in a case-insensitive manner.
  • is_greater_than: Checks if the result of an expression is greater than a certain value.
  • is_greater_than_or_equal_to: Checks if the result of an expression is greater than or equal to a certain value.
  • is_less_than: Checks if the result of an expression is less than a certain value.
  • is_less_than_or_equal_to: Checks if the result of an expression is less than or equal to a certain value.
  • is_between: Checks if the result of an expression is between two values (this is inclusive).
  • is_in: Checks if the result of an expression is an element of a certain list.
  • is_not: Checks if the result of an expression is false.
  • matches_regex: Checks if the result of an expression matches some regular expression.
  • true: Creates an always true predicate that will pass all items.
  • false: Creates an always false predicate that will filter out all items.

Hazelcast offers the following ways for distributed query purposes:

  • Combining Predicates with AND, OR, NOT

  • Distributed SQL Query

7.7.1.1. Employee Map Query Example

Assume that you have an employee map containing the instances of Employee class, as coded below.

from hazelcast.serialization.api import Portable

class Employee(Portable):
    def __init__(self, name=None, age=None, active=None, salary=None):
        self.name = name
        self.age = age
        self.active = active
        self.salary = salary

    def get_class_id(self):
        return 100

    def get_factory_id(self):
        return 1000

    def read_portable(self, reader):
        self.name = reader.read_utf("name")
        self.age = reader.read_int("age")
        self.active = reader.read_boolean("active")
        self.salary = reader.read_double("salary")

    def write_portable(self, writer):
        writer.write_utf("name", self.name)
        writer.write_int("age", self.age)
        writer.write_boolean("active", self.active)
        writer.write_double("salary", self.salary)

Note that Employee extends Portable. As portable types are not deserialized on the server side for querying, you don’t need to implement its Java equivalent on the server side.

For types that are not portable, you need to implement its Java equivalent and its data serializable factory on the server side for server to reconstitute the objects from binary formats. In this case, you need to compile the Employee and related factory classes with server's CLASSPATH and add them to the user-lib directory in the extracted hazelcast-<version>.zip (or tar) before starting the server. See the Adding User Library to CLASSPATH section.

NOTE: Querying with Portable class is faster as compared to IdentifiedDataSerializable.

7.7.1.2. Querying by Combining Predicates with AND, OR, NOT

You can combine predicates by using the and_, or_ and not_ operators, as shown in the below example.

from hazelcast.serialization.predicate import and_, is_equal_to, is_less_than

employee_map = client.get_map("employee")

predicate = and_(is_equal_to('active', True), is_less_than('age', 30))

employees = employee_map.values(predicate).result()

In the above example code, predicate verifies whether the entry is active and its age value is less than 30. This predicate is applied to the employee map using the Map.values method. This method sends the predicate to all cluster members and merges the results coming from them.

NOTE: Predicates can also be applied to key_set and entry_set of the Hazelcast IMDG's distributed map.

7.7.1.3. Querying with SQL

SqlPredicate takes the regular SQL where clause. See the following example:

from hazelcast.serialization.predicate import sql

employee_map = client.get_map("employee")

employees = employee_map.values(sql("active AND age < 30")).result()
Supported SQL Syntax

AND/OR: <expression> AND <expression> AND <expression>…

  • active AND age > 30
  • active = false OR age = 45 OR name = 'Joe'
  • active AND ( age > 20 OR salary < 60000 )

Equality: =, !=, <, ⇐, >, >=

  • <expression> = value
  • age <= 30
  • name = 'Joe'
  • salary != 50000

BETWEEN: <attribute> [NOT] BETWEEN <value1> AND <value2>

  • age BETWEEN 20 AND 33 ( same as age >= 20 AND age ⇐ 33 )
  • age NOT BETWEEN 30 AND 40 ( same as age < 30 OR age > 40 )

IN: <attribute> [NOT] IN (val1, val2,…)

  • age IN ( 20, 30, 40 )
  • age NOT IN ( 60, 70 )
  • active AND ( salary >= 50000 OR ( age NOT BETWEEN 20 AND 30 ) )
  • age IN ( 20, 30, 40 ) AND salary BETWEEN ( 50000, 80000 )

LIKE: <attribute> [NOT] LIKE 'expression'

The % (percentage sign) is the placeholder for multiple characters, an _ (underscore) is the placeholder for only one character.

  • name LIKE 'Jo%' (true for 'Joe', 'Josh', 'Joseph' etc.)
  • name LIKE 'Jo_' (true for 'Joe'; false for 'Josh')
  • name NOT LIKE 'Jo_' (true for 'Josh'; false for 'Joe')
  • name LIKE 'J_s%' (true for 'Josh', 'Joseph'; false 'John', 'Joe')

ILIKE: <attribute> [NOT] ILIKE 'expression'

ILIKE is similar to the LIKE predicate but in a case-insensitive manner.

  • name ILIKE 'Jo%' (true for 'Joe', 'joe', 'jOe','Josh','joSH', etc.)
  • name ILIKE 'Jo_' (true for 'Joe' or 'jOE'; false for 'Josh')

REGEX: <attribute> [NOT] REGEX 'expression'

  • name REGEX 'abc-.*' (true for 'abc-123'; false for 'abx-123')
Querying Examples with Predicates

You can use the __key attribute to perform a predicated search for the entry keys. See the following example:

from hazelcast.serialization.predicate import sql

person_map = client.get_map("persons").blocking()

person_map.put("John", 28)
person_map.put("Mary", 23)
person_map.put("Judy", 30)

predicate = sql("__key like M%")

persons = person_map.values(predicate)

print(persons[0]) # Outputs '23'

In this example, the code creates a list with the values whose keys start with the letter "M”.

You can use the this attribute to perform a predicated search for the entry values. See the following example:

from hazelcast.serialization.predicate import is_greater_than_or_equal_to

person_map = client.get_map("persons").blocking()

person_map.put("John", 28)
person_map.put("Mary", 23)
person_map.put("Judy", 30)

predicate = is_greater_than_or_equal_to("this", 27)

persons = person_map.values(predicate)

print(persons[0], persons[1]) # Outputs '28 30'

In this example, the code creates a list with the values greater than or equal to "27".

7.8. Performance

7.8.1. Near Cache

Map entries in Hazelcast are partitioned across the cluster members. Hazelcast clients do not have local data at all. Suppose you read the key k a number of times from a Hazelcast client and k is owned by a member in your cluster. Then each map.get(k) will be a remote operation, which creates a lot of network trips. If you have a map that is mostly read, then you should consider creating a local Near Cache, so that reads are sped up and less network traffic is created.

These benefits do not come for free, please consider the following trade-offs:

  • Clients with a Near Cache will have to hold the extra cached data, which increases memory consumption.
  • If invalidation is enabled and entries are updated frequently, then invalidations will be costly.
  • Near Cache breaks the strong consistency guarantees; you might be reading stale data.

Near Cache is highly recommended for maps that are mostly read.

7.8.1.1. Configuring Near Cache

The following snippet show how a Near Cache is configured in the Python client, presenting all available values for each element:

from hazelcast.config import NearCacheConfig, IN_MEMORY_FORMAT, EVICTION_POLICY

near_cache_config = NearCacheConfig("mostly-read-map")
near_cache_config.invalidate_on_change = False
near_cache_config.time_to_live_seconds = 600
near_cache_config.max_idle_seconds = 5
near_cache_config.in_memory_format = IN_MEMORY_FORMAT.OBJECT
near_cache_config.eviction_policy = EVICTION_POLICY.LRU
near_cache_config.eviction_max_size = 100
near_cache_config.eviction_sampling_count = 8
near_cache_config.eviction_sampling_pool_size = 16

config.add_near_cache_config(near_cache_config)

Following are the descriptions of all configuration elements:

  • in_memory_format: Specifies in which format data will be stored in your Near Cache. Note that a map’s in-memory format can be different from that of its Near Cache. Available values are as follows:
    • BINARY: Data will be stored in serialized binary format (default value).
    • OBJECT: Data will be stored in deserialized format.
  • invalidate_on_change: Specifies whether the cached entries are evicted when the entries are updated or removed. Its default value is True.
  • time_to_live_seconds: Maximum number of seconds for each entry to stay in the Near Cache. Entries that are older than this period are automatically evicted from the Near Cache. Regardless of the eviction policy used, time_to_live_seconds still applies. Any non-negative number can be assigned. Its default value is None. None means infinite.
  • max_idle_seconds: Maximum number of seconds each entry can stay in the Near Cache as untouched (not read). Entries that are not read more than this period are removed from the Near Cache. Any non-negative number can be assigned. Its default value is None. None means infinite.
  • eviction_policy: Eviction policy configuration. Available values are as follows:
    • LRU: Least Recently Used (default value).
    • LFU: Least Frequently Used.
    • NONE: No items are evicted and the eviction_max_size property is ignored. You still can combine it with time_to_live_seconds and max_idle_seconds to evict items from the Near Cache.
    • RANDOM: A random item is evicted.
  • eviction_max_size: Maximum number of entries kept in the memory before eviction kicks in.
  • eviction_sampling_count: Number of random entries that are evaluated to see if some of them are already expired. If there are expired entries, those are removed and there is no need for eviction.
  • eviction_sampling_pool_size: Size of the pool for eviction candidates. The pool is kept sorted according to eviction policy. The entry with the highest score is evicted.

7.8.1.2. Near Cache Example for Map

The following is an example configuration for a Near Cache defined in the mostly-read-map map. According to this configuration, the entries are stored as OBJECT's in this Near Cache and eviction starts when the count of entries reaches 5000; entries are evicted based on the LRU (Least Recently Used) policy. In addition, when an entry is updated or removed on the member side, it is eventually evicted on the client side.

near_cache_config = NearCacheConfig("mostly-read-map")
near_cache_config.invalidate_on_change = True
near_cache_config.in_memory_format = IN_MEMORY_FORMAT.OBJECT
near_cache_config.eviction_policy = EVICTION_POLICY.LRU
near_cache_config.eviction_max_size = 5000

config.add_near_cache_config(near_cache_config)

7.8.1.3. Near Cache Eviction

In the scope of Near Cache, eviction means evicting (clearing) the entries selected according to the given eviction_policy when the specified eviction_max_size has been reached.

The eviction_max_size defines the entry count when the Near Cache is full and determines whether the eviction should be triggered.

Once the eviction is triggered, the configured eviction_policy determines which, if any, entries must be evicted.

7.8.1.4. Near Cache Expiration

Expiration means the eviction of expired records. A record is expired:

  • If it is not touched (accessed/read) for max_idle_seconds
  • time_to_live_seconds passed since it is put to Near Cache

The actual expiration is performed when a record is accessed: it is checked if the record is expired or not. If it is expired, it is evicted and KeyError is raised to the caller.

7.8.1.5. Near Cache Invalidation

Invalidation is the process of removing an entry from the Near Cache when its value is updated or it is removed from the original map (to prevent stale reads). See the Near Cache Invalidation section in the Hazelcast IMDG Reference Manual.

7.9. Monitoring and Logging

7.9.1. Enabling Client Statistics

You can monitor your clients using Hazelcast Management Center.

As a prerequisite, you need to enable the client statistics before starting your clients. This can be done by setting the hazelcast.client.statistics.enabled system property to true on the member as the following:

<hazelcast>
    ...
    <properties>
        <property name="hazelcast.client.statistics.enabled">true</property>
    </properties>
    ...
</hazelcast>

Also, you need to enable the client statistics in the Python client. There are two properties related to client statistics:

  • hazelcast.client.statistics.enabled: If set to True, it enables collecting the client statistics and sending them to the cluster. When it is True you can monitor the clients that are connected to your Hazelcast cluster, using Hazelcast Management Center. Its default value is False.

  • hazelcast.client.statistics.period.seconds: Period in seconds the client statistics are collected and sent to the cluster. Its default value is 3.

You can enable client statistics and set a non-default period in seconds as follows:

config = hazelcast.ClientConfig()
config.set_property(ClientProperties.STATISTICS_ENABLED.name, True)
config.set_property(ClientProperties.STATISTICS_PERIOD_SECONDS.name, 4)

Hazelcast Python client can collect statistics related to the client and Near Caches without an extra dependency. However, to get the statistics about the runtime and operating system, psutil is used as an extra dependency.

If the psutil is installed, runtime and operating system statistics will be sent to cluster along with statistics related to the client and Near Caches. If not, only the client and Near Cache statistics will be sent.

psutil can be installed independently or with the Hazelcast Python client as follows:

From PyPI

pip install hazelcast-python-client[stats]

From source

pip install -e .[stats]

After enabling the client statistics, you can monitor your clients using Hazelcast Management Center. Please refer to the Monitoring Clients section in the Hazelcast Management Center Reference Manual for more information on the client statistics.

7.9.2 Logging Configuration

Hazelcast Python client allows you to configure the logging through the LoggerConfig in the ClientConfig class.

LoggerConfig contains options that allow you to set the logging level and a custom logging configuration file to the Hazelcast Python client.

By default, Hazelcast Python client will log to the sys.stderr with the INFO logging level and %(asctime)s %(name)s\n%(levelname)s: %(version_message)s %(message)s format where the version_message contains the information about the client version, group name and client name.

Below is an example of the default logging configuration.

import hazelcast

client = hazelcast.HazelcastClient()
client.shutdown()

Output to the sys.stderr

Feb 15, 2019 12:57:13 PM HazelcastClient
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] A non-empty group password is configured for the Hazelcast client. Starting with Hazelcast IMDG version 3.11, clients with the same group name, but with different group passwords (that do not use authentication) will be accepted to a cluster. The group password configuration will be removed completely in a future release.
Feb 15, 2019 12:57:13 PM HazelcastClient.LifecycleService
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] (20181119 - 9080a46) HazelcastClient is STARTING
Feb 15, 2019 12:57:13 PM HazelcastClient.ClusterService
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] Connecting to Address(host=127.0.0.1, port=5701)
Feb 15, 2019 12:57:13 PM HazelcastClient.ConnectionManager
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] Authenticated with Connection(address=('127.0.0.1', 5701), id=0)
Feb 15, 2019 12:57:13 PM HazelcastClient.ClusterService
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] New member list:

Members [1] {
	Member [10.216.1.49]:5701 - 1f4bb35d-b68f-46eb-bd65-61e3f4bc9922
}

Feb 15, 2019 12:57:13 PM HazelcastClient.LifecycleService
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] (20181119 - 9080a46) HazelcastClient is CONNECTED
Feb 15, 2019 12:57:13 PM HazelcastClient
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] Client started.
Feb 15, 2019 12:57:13 PM HazelcastClient.LifecycleService
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] (20181119 - 9080a46) HazelcastClient is SHUTTING_DOWN
Feb 15, 2019 12:57:13 PM HazelcastClient.AsyncoreReactor
WARNING: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] Connection closed by server
Feb 15, 2019 12:57:13 PM HazelcastClient.LifecycleService
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] (20181119 - 9080a46) HazelcastClient is SHUTDOWN
Feb 15, 2019 12:57:13 PM HazelcastClient
INFO: [3.10] [dev] [hz.client_0] Client shutdown.

Let's go over the LoggerConfig options one by one.

Setting Logging Level

Although you can not change the logging levels used within the Hazelcast Python client, you can specify a logging level that is used to threshold the logs that are at least as severe as your specified level using ClientConfig.logger_config.level.

Here is the table listing the default logging levels that come with the logging module and numeric values that represent their severity:

Level Numeric Value
CRITICAL 50
ERROR 40
WARNING 30
INFO 20
DEBUG 10
NOTSET 0

For example, setting the logging level to logging.DEBUG will cause all the logging messages that are equal or higher than the logging.DEBUG in terms of severity to be emitted by your logger.

By default, the logging level is set to logging.INFO.

To turn off the logging, you can set ClientConfig.logger_config.level to a value greater than the numeric value of logging.CRITICAL. For example, the configuration below turns off the logging for the Hazelcast Python client.

config.logger_config.level = 100  # Any value greater than 50 will turn off the logging
client = hazelcast.HazelcastClient(config)

Setting a Custom Logging Configuration

ClientConfig.logger_config.config_file can be used to configure the logger for the Hazelcast Python client entirely.

When set, this field should contain the absolute path of the JSON file that contains the logging configuration as described in the Configuration dictionary schema. This file will be read and the contents of it will be directly fed into the logging.dictConfig function.

When this field is set, the level field is simply discarded and configuration in this file is used.

All Hazelcast Python client related loggers have HazelcastClient as their parent logger. So, you can configure logging for the HazelcastClient base logger and this logging configuration can be used for all client related loggers.

Let's replicate the default configuration used within the Hazelcast client with this configuration method.

config.json

{
    "version": 1,
    "disable_existing_loggers": false,
    "filters": {
        "version_message_filter": {
            "()": "some_package.log.VersionMessageFilter"
        }
    },
    "formatters": {
        "hazelcast_formatter": {
            "()": "some_package.log.HazelcastFormatter",
            "format": "%(asctime)s %(name)s\n%(levelname)s: %(version_message)s %(message)s",
            "datefmt": "%b %d, %Y %I:%M:%S %p"
        }
    },
    "handlers": {
        "console_handler": {
            "class": "logging.StreamHandler",
            "stream": "ext://sys.stdout",
            "filters": ["version_message_filter"],
            "formatter": "hazelcast_formatter"
        }
    },
    "loggers": {
        "HazelcastClient": {
            "handlers": ["console_handler"],
            "level": "INFO"
        }
    }
}

some_package/log.py

import logging

from hazelcast.version import CLIENT_VERSION

class VersionMessageFilter(logging.Filter):
    def filter(self, record):
        record.version_message = "[" + CLIENT_VERSION + "]"
        return True

class HazelcastFormatter(logging.Formatter):
    def format(self, record):
        client_name = getattr(record, "client_name", None)
        group_name = getattr(record, "group_name", None)
        if client_name and group_name:
            record.msg = "[" + group_name + "] [" + client_name + "] " + record.msg
        return super(HazelcastFormatter, self).format(record)

some_package/test.py

import hazelcast

config = hazelcast.ClientConfig()
config.logger_config.config_file = "/home/hazelcast/config.json"

client = hazelcast.HazelcastClient(config)

## Some operations

client.shutdown()

To learn more about the logging module and its capabilities, please see the logging cookbook and documentation of the logging module.

8. Development and Testing

If you want to help with bug fixes, develop new features or tweak the implementation to your application's needs, you can follow the steps in this section.

8.1. Building and Using Client From Sources

Follow the below steps to build and install Hazelcast Python client from its source:

  1. Clone the GitHub repository (https://github.com/hazelcast/hazelcast-python-client.git).
  2. Run python setup.py install to install the Python client.

If you are planning to contribute, please make sure that it fits the guidelines described in PEP8.

8.2. Testing

In order to test Hazelcast Python client locally, you will need the following:

  • Java 6 or newer
  • Maven

Following commands starts the tests according to your operating system:

sh run-tests.sh

or

PS> .\run-tests.ps1

Test script automatically downloads hazelcast-remote-controller and Hazelcast IMDG. The script uses Maven to download those.

9. Getting Help

You can use the following channels for your questions and development/usage issues:

10. Contributing

Besides your development contributions as explained in the Development and Testing chapter above, you can always open a pull request on this repository for your other requests.

11. License

Apache 2 License.

12. Copyright

Copyright (c) 2008-2019, Hazelcast, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Visit www.hazelcast.com for more information.

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