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a genome-scale differential loop finder

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A genome-scale differential loop finder.

For the latest source, discussion, etc, please visit the Bitbucket repository at


We require Python 2.7.11+ or 3.6+ and the dependencies listed in

A typical quick install process should be:

$ virtualenv venv
$ source venv/bin/activate
(venv)$ pip install hic3defdr

A typical dev-mode install process should be:

$ git clone
$ cd hic3defdr
$ virtualenv venv
$ source venv/bin/activate
(venv)$ pip install -e .

If installation succeeded then hic3defdr.HiC3DeFDR should be importable from an interactive shell started in some other directory:

(venv)$ cd <some other directory>
(venv)$ python
>>> from hic3defdr import HiC3DeFDR

Optional dependencies

Evaluating simulations requires scikit-learn:

(venv)$ pip install scikit-learn

To display progress bars during selected steps of the analysis, install tqdm:

(venv)$ pip install tqdm

Basic walkthrough

Before we start, we'll seed numpy's random number generator for reproducibility:

>>> import numpy as np
>>> np.random.seed(42)

To analyze the ES_1, ES_3, NPC_1, and NPC_2 reps of the dataset dataset from Bonev et al. 2017 with default parameters, we would first describe the dataset in terms of replicate names, chromosome names, and a design matrix. We will just analyze chromosomes 18 and 19 here for illustrative purposes.

>>> import pandas as pd
>>> repnames = ['ES_1', 'ES_3', 'NPC_1', 'NPC_2']
>>> #chroms = ['chr%i' % i for i in range(1, 20)] + ['chrX']
>>> chroms = ['chr18', 'chr19']
>>> design = pd.DataFrame({'ES': [1, 1, 0, 0], 'NPC': [0, 0, 1, 1]},
...                       dtype=bool, index=repnames)

If you're following along, you can download the data like this:

$ python -m hic3defdr.util.demo_data

or from inside an interactive shell:

>>> from hic3defdr.util.demo_data import ensure_demo_data
>>> ensure_demo_data()

The data will be downloaded to a folder called hic3defdr-demo-data under your home directory.

The required input files consist of:

  • upper triangular, raw contact matrices in scipy.sparse NPZ format,
  • bias vectors in plain-text np.savetxt() format, and
  • loop cluster files in sparse JSON format (see below for more details), specifying the locations of loops present in each condition

TODO: explain how to import data from common Hi-C analysis tools into this format

We would next describe the location of the input data files and use those to construct a HiC3DeFDR object:

>>> import os.path
>>> from hic3defdr import HiC3DeFDR
>>> base_path = os.path.expanduser('~/hic3defdr-demo-data/')
>>> h = HiC3DeFDR(
...     raw_npz_patterns=[base_path + '<rep>/<chrom>_raw.npz'.replace('<rep>', repname) for repname in repnames],
...     bias_patterns=[base_path + '<rep>/<chrom>_kr.bias'.replace('<rep>', repname) for repname in repnames],
...     chroms=chroms,
...     design=design,
...     outdir='output',
...     loop_patterns={c: base_path + 'clusters/%s_<chrom>_clusters.json' % c for c in ['ES', 'NPC']},
...     res=10000
... )
creating directory output

This object saves itself to disk, so it can be re-loaded at any time:

>>> h = HiC3DeFDR.load('output')

To run the analysis for all chromosomes through q-values, run:

>>> h.run_to_qvalues()

To threshold, cluster, and classify the significantly differential loops, and collect all the results into a single TSV output file, run:

>>> h.collect()

The output file will be written to output/results_0.01_3.tsv, where "output" refers to the outdir we passed when constructing the HiC3DeFDR object, "0.01" refers to the default FDR of 1%, and "3" refers to the default cluster size threshold of 3.

>>> import pandas as pd
>>> pd.read_csv('output/results_0.05_3.tsv', sep='\t', index_col=0).head()
                                            us_chrom  ...  classification
loop_id                                               ...                
chr18:3480000-3500000_chr18:4680000-4710000    chr18  ...    constitutive
chr18:3490000-3510000_chr18:3790000-3810000    chr18  ...              ES
chr18:3490000-3510000_chr18:3970000-3990000    chr18  ...    constitutive
chr18:3490000-3510000_chr18:4170000-4200000    chr18  ...    constitutive
chr18:3490000-3520000_chr18:4120000-4150000    chr18  ...    constitutive
[5 rows x 9 columns]

See the section "TSV output format" below for more details about the output format.

Step-by-step walkthrough

Calling h.run_to_qvalues() runs the four main steps of the analysis in sequence. These four steps are described in further detail below. Any kwargs passed to h.run_to_qvalues() will be passed along to the appropriate step; see help(HiC3DeFDR.run_to_qvalues) for details.

Step 1: Preparing input data

The function call h.prepare_data() prepares the input raw contact matrices and bias vectors specified by h.raw_npz_patterns and h.bias_patterns for all chromosomes specified in h.chroms, performs library size normalization, and determines what points should be considered for dispersion estimation. This creates intermediate files in the output directory h.outdir that represent the raw and scaled values, as well as the estimated size factors, and a boolean vector disp_idx indicating which points will be used for dispersion estimation. If loop_patterns was passed to the constructor, an additional boolean vector loop_idx is created to mark which points that pass disp_idx lie within looping interactions specified by h.loop_patterns. The raw and scaled data are stored in a rectangular matrix format where each row is a pixel of the contact matrix and each column is a replicate. If the size factors are estimated as a function of distance, the estimated size factors are also stored in this format. Two separate vectors called row and col are used to store the row and column index of the pixel represented by each row of the rectangular matrices. Together, the row and col vectors plus any of the rectangular matrices represent a generalization of a COO format sparse matrix to multiple replicates (in the standard COO format the row and col vectors are complemented by a single value vector).

The size factors can be estimated with a variety of methods defined in the hic3defdr.scaling module. The method to use is specified by the norm kwarg passed to h.prepare_data(). Some of these methods estimate size factors as a function of interaction distance, instead of simply estimating one size factor for each replicate as is common in RNA-seq differential expression analysis. When these methods are used, the number of bins to use when binning distances for distance-based estimation of the size factors can be specified with the n_bins kwarg. The defaults for this function use the conditional median of ratios approach (hic3defdr.scaling.conditional_mor) and an automatically-selected number of bins.

Step 2: Estimating dispersions

The function call h.estimate_disp() estimates the dispersion parameters at each distance scale in the data and fits a lowess curve through the graph of distance versus dispersion to obtain final smoothed dispersion estimates for each pixel.

The estimator kwarg on h.estimate_disp() specifies which dispersion estimation method to use, out of a selection of options defined in the hic3defdr.dispersion module. The default is to use quantile-adjusted conditional maximum likelihood (qCML).

Step 3: Likelihood ratio test

The function call h.lrt() performs a likelihood ratio test (LRT) for each pixel. This LRT compares a null model of no differential expression (fitting one true mean parameter shared by all replicates irrespective of condition) to an alternative model in which the two conditions have different true mean parameters.

Step 4: False discovery rate (FDR) control

The function call performs Benjamini-Hochberg FDR correction on the p-values called via the LRT in the previous step, considering only a subset of pixels that are involved in looping interactions (as specified by h.loop_patterns; if loop_patterns was not passed to the constructor then all pixels are included in the BH-FDR correction). This results in final q-values for each loop pixel.

Thresholding, clustering, and classification

We can threshold, cluster, classify, and collect the significantly differential loops:

>>> h.collect(fdr=0.05, cluster_size=3)

We can also sweep across FDR and/or cluster size thresholds:

>>> h.collect(fdr=[0.01, 0.05], cluster_size=[3, 4])

The final output file for each combination of thresholding parameters will be written to <h.outdir>/results_<fdr>_<cluster_size>.tsv.

This example walkthrough should take less than 5 minutes for the two chromosomes included in the demo data. Run time for a whole-genome analysis will depend on parallelization as discussed in the next section.


The functions run_to_qvalues(), prepare_data(), lrt(), threshold(), classify(), and simulate() operate in a per-chromosome manner. By default, each chromosome in the dataset will be processed in series. If multiple cores and sufficient memory are available, you can use the n_threads kwarg on these functions to use multiple subprocesses to process multiple chromosomes in parallel. Pass either a desired number of subprocesses to use, or pass n_threads=-1 to use all available cores. The output logged to stderr will be truncated to reduce clutter from multiple subprocesses printing to stderr at the same time. This truncation is controlled by the verbose kwarg which is available on some of these parallelized functions.

The function estimate_disp() also accepts an n_threads kwarg, using it to parallelize itself across distance scales.

The function run_to_qvalues() passes the n_threads kwarg through to all the steps it calls.

Intermediates and final output files

All intermediates used in the computation will be saved to the disk inside the outdir folder as <intermediate>_<chrom>.npy (most intermediates), <intermediate>_<chrom>.json/<intermediate>_<chrom>.tsv (thresholded or classified clusters).

Two intermediates are not generated per chromosome. These are disp_fn_<c>.pickle (dispersion function estimated across all chromosomes for condition <c>) and results_<f>_<s>.tsv (final combined results from all chromosomes).

Step Intermediate Shape Description
prepare_data() row (n_pixels,) Top-level row index
prepare_data() col (n_pixels,) Top-level column index
prepare_data() bias (n_bins, n_reps) Bias vectors
prepare_data() raw (n_pixels, n_reps) Raw count values
prepare_data() size_factors (n_reps,) or (n_pixels, n_reps) Size factors
prepare_data() scaled (n_pixels, n_reps) Normalized count values
prepare_data() disp_idx (n_pixels,) Marks pixels for which dispersion is fitted
prepare_data() loop_idx (disp_idx.sum(),) Marks pixels which lie in loops
estimate_disp() cov_per_bin (n_bins, n_conds) Average mean count or distance in each bin
estimate_disp() disp_per_bin (n_bins, n_conds) Pooled dispersion estimates in each bin
estimate_disp() disp_fn_<c> pickled function Fitted dispersion function
estimate_disp() disp (disp_idx.sum(), n_conds) Smoothed dispersion estimates
lrt() mu_hat_null (disp_idx.sum(),) Null model mean parameters
lrt() mu_hat_alt (disp_idx.sum(), n_conds) Alternative model mean parameters
lrt() llr (disp_idx.sum(),) Log-likelihood ratio
lrt() pvalues (disp_idx.sum(),) LRT-based p-value
bh() qvalues (loop_idx.sum(),) BH-corrected q-values
threshold() sig_<f>_<s> JSON/TSV Significantly differential clusters
threshold() insig_<f>_<s> JSON/TSV Constitutive clusters
classify() <c>_<f>_<s> JSON/TSV Classified differential clusters
collect() results_<f>_<s> TSV Final results table

The table uses these abbreviations to refer to variable parts of certain intermediate names:

  • <f>: FDR threshold
  • <s>: cluster size threshold
  • <c>: condition/class label

Sparse JSON cluster format

This is the format used both for supplying pre-identified, per-condition loop clusters as input to HiC3DeFDR as well as the format in which differential and constitutive interaction clusters are reported as output.

The format describes the clusters on each chromosome in a separate JSON file. This JSON file contains a single JSON object, which is a list of list of list of integers. The inner lists are all of length 2 and represent specific pixels of the heatmap for that chromosome in terms of there row and column coordinates in zero-indexed bin units. The outer middle lists can be of any length and represent groups of pixels that belong to the same cluster. The length of the outer list corresponds to the number of clusters on that chromosome.

These clusters can be loaded into and written from the corresponding plain Python objects using hic3defdr.clusters.load_clusters() and hic3defdr.clusters.save_clusters(), respectively. The plain Python objects can be converted to and from scipy sparse matrix objects using hic3defdr.clusters.clusters_to_coo() and hic3defdr.clusters.convert_cluster_array_to_sparse(), respectively.

TSV output format

The final TSV output file results_<f>_<s>.tsv has as its first column a loop_id, a string of the form <us_chrom>:<us_start>-<us_end>_<ds_chrom>:<ds_start>-<ds_end> specifying a rectangle that surrounds the cluster of pixels that make up the loop. The next six columns are the six individual pieces of this loop_id. This is followed by:

  • cluster_size: the number of pixels in the cluster
  • cluster: a list of the exact (row, col) indices of the pixels in the cluster
  • classification: this will be "constitutive" if the loop is not differential, or the name of the condition the loop is specific to (i.e., strongest in) if it is differential


The HiC3DeFDR object can be used to draw visualizations of the analysis.

The visualization functions are wrapped with the @plotter decorator and therefore all support the convenience kwargs provided by that decorator (such as outfile).

Distance dependence curves before and after scaling

>>> _ = h.plot_dd_curves('chr18', outfile='images/dd.png')

Simple heatmap plotting

>>> _ = h.plot_heatmap('chr18', slice(1000, 1100), slice(1000, 1100), rep='ES_1',
...                    outfile='images/heatmap.png')

By default, this plots data at the "scaled" stage (normalized for bias and sequencing depth differences), but you can plot any stage of the data by passing a stage kwarg.

Condition-average heatmap plotting

To plot a within-condition average heatmap, pass a stage name with a '_mean' suffix appended and cond to specify the condition to average within:

>>> _ = h.plot_heatmap('chr18', slice(1000, 1100), slice(1000, 1100),
...                    stage='scaled_mean', cond='ES',
...                    outfile='images/heatmap_mean.png')

Loop zoomin heatmap plotting

We can combine h.plot_heatmap() with the load_clusters() and cluster_to_slices() utility functions in hic3defdr.util.clusters to plot zoomins around specific loops:

>>> from hic3defdr.util.clusters import load_clusters, cluster_to_slices
>>> chrom = 'chr18'
>>> clusters = load_clusters(h.loop_patterns['ES'].replace('<chrom>', chrom))
>>> slices = cluster_to_slices(clusters[23])
>>> _ = h.plot_heatmap(chrom, *slices, rep='ES_1', outfile='images/zoomin.png')

Per-pixel significance plotting

We can pass stage='qvalues' to h.plot_heatmap() to draw heatmaps showing the significance of each pixel:

>>> _ = h.plot_heatmap('chr18', slice(1310, 1370), slice(1310, 1370),
...                    stage='qvalues', cmap='bwr_r', vmin=0.099, vmax=0.101,
...                    outfile='images/heatmap_sig.png')

By passing cmap='bwr_r' we ensure that significant, low q-value pixels will be red while insignificant, high q-value pixels will be blue. By passing vmin=0.099, vmax=0.101, we ensure that the colorbar is focused on a narrow range around an FDR threshold of 10%, allowing us to more easily tell the difference between significant and insignificant pixels.

Correlation matrices

>>> _ = h.plot_correlation_matrix(outfile='images/correlation.png')

Dispersion fitting

>>> _ = h.plot_dispersion_fit('ES', outfile='images/ddr.png')

It's possible to use the the one-dimensional distance dependence curve to convert distances to means. Doing so allows plotting the y-axis in terms of variance. You can do this by passing yaxis='var':

>>> _ = h.plot_dispersion_fit('ES', yaxis='var', outfile='images/dvr.png')

Using the same trick, you can plot the x-axis in terms of mean by passing xaxis='mean':

>>> _ = h.plot_dispersion_fit('ES', xaxis='mean', yaxis='var',
...                           outfile='images/mvr.png')

At low mean and high distance, the distance dependence curve flattens out and the data become more noisy, making this conversion unreliable.

It's also possible to show the dispersion fitted at just one distance scale, overlaying the sample mean and sample variance across replicates for each pixel as a blue hexbin plot:

>>> _ = h.plot_dispersion_fit('ES', distance=25, hexbin=True, xaxis='mean',
...                           yaxis='var', logx=True, logy=True,
...                           outfile='images/mvr_25.png')

If dispersion was fitted against distance rather than mean, pass xaxis='dist' to plot dispersion/variance versus distance.

Comparing dispersion fits

It's possible to compare different dispersion fits using the function compare_disp_fits() as shown here:

>>> from hic3defdr import compare_disp_fits
>>> _ = compare_disp_fits(
...     [h.load_disp_fn(cond) for cond in],
...     max_dist=100,
...     outfile='images/disp_comparison.png'
... )

P-value distribution

>>> _ = h.plot_pvalue_distribution(outfile='images/pvalue_dist.png')

By default, this plots the p-value distribution over all pixels for which dispersion was estimated. To plot the p-value distribution only over points in loops, pass idx='loop'.

Q-value distribution

>>> _ = h.plot_qvalue_distribution(outfile='images/qvalue_dist.png')

MA plot

>>> _ = h.plot_ma(outfile='images/ma.png')

Pixel detail grid

>>> _ = h.plot_grid('chr18', 2218, 2236, 20, outfile='images/grid.png')

The upper right heatmaps show the balanced and scaled values in each replicate, with each condition on its own row.

The upper left heatmaps show the alternative model mean parameter estimates for each condition. Significantly differential clusters are purple while constitutive ones are gray.

The lower left heatmap shows the q-values. Significantly differential clusters are orange while constitutive ones are gray.

The stripplots in the lower left show details information about the specific pixel in the center of the heatmaps (in this example (2218, 2236)). The dots show the values at that pixel for each replicate in normalized and raw space, repsectively. The solid and dashed lines represent the mean parameters under the alt and null models, repsectively.

Green points in the heatmaps represent points that have been filtered out. For the per-replicate heatmaps in the upper right of the grid, the only filters applied are the zero filter, bias filter, and distance filter. For the alt model mean heatmaps in the upper left, this additionally includes the dispersion filter. For the q-value heatmap in the lower left, it additionally includes the loop filter if loop locations were supplied.

Interactive thresholding

In a Jupyter notebook environment with ipywidgets installed, you can play with thresholds on a live-updating plot by running:

%matplotlib notebook

from ipywidgets import interact
from hic3defdr import HiC3DeFDR

h = HiC3DeFDR.load('output')
_, _, outline_clusters = h.plot_grid('chr18', 2218, 2236, 50)
_ = interact(outline_clusters, fdr=[0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2],
             cluster_size=[3, 4])


After the estimate_disp() step has been run, a HiC3DeFDR object can be used to generate simulations of differential looping.

Generating simulations

To create an ES-based simulation over all chromosomes listed in h.chroms, we run

>>> from hic3defdr import HiC3DeFDR
>>> h = HiC3DeFDR.load('output')
>>> h.simulate('ES')

If we passed trend='dist' to h.estimate_disp(), we need to pass it to h.simulate() as well to ensure that the simulation function knows to treat the previously-fitted dispersion function as a function of distance.

This takes the mean of the real scaled data across the ES replicates and perturbs the loops specified in h.loop_patterns['ES'] up or down at random to generate two new conditions called "A" and "B". The scaled mean matrices for these conditions are then biased and scaled by the bias vectors and size factors taken from the real experimental replicates, and the ES dispersion function fitted to the real ES data is applied to the biased and scaled means to obtain dispersion values. These means and dispersions are used to draw an NB random variable for each pixel of each simulated replicate. The number of replicates in each of the simulated conditions "A" and "B" will match the design of the real analysis.

The simulated raw contact matrices will be written to disk in CSR format as <cond><rep>_<chrom>_raw.npz where <cond> is "A" or "B" and <rep> is the rep number within the condition. The design matrix will also be written to disk as design.csv.

The true labels used to perturb the loops will also be written to disk as labels_<chrom>.txt. This file contains as many lines as there are clusters in h.loop_patterns['ES'], with the ith line providing the label for the ith cluster. This file can be loaded with np.loadtxt(..., dtype='|S7').

Evaluating simulations

After generating simulated data, HiC3DeFDR can be run on the simulated data. Then, the true labels can be used to evaluate the performance of HiC3DeFDR on the simulated data.

Evaluation of simulated data requires scikit-learn. To install this package, run

(venv)$ pip install scikit-learn

In order to run HiC3DeFDR on the simulated data, we first need to balance the simulated raw contact matrices to obtain bias vectors for each simulated replicate and chromosome. We will assume are saved next to the raw contact matrices and named <rep>_<chrom>_kr.bias. One example of how this can be done is shown in the following script:

>>> import sys
>>> import numpy as np
>>> import scipy.sparse as sparse
>>> from hic3defdr.util.filtering import filter_sparse_rows_count
>>> from hic3defdr.util.balancing import kr_balance
>>> from hic3defdr.util.printing import eprint
>>> infile_pattern = 'sim/<rep>_<chrom>_raw.npz'
>>> repnames = ['A1', 'A2', 'B1', 'B2']
>>> chroms = ['chr18', 'chr19']
>>> for repname in repnames:
...     for chrom in chroms:
...         eprint('balancing rep %s chrom %s' % (repname, chrom))
...         infile = infile_pattern.replace('<rep>', repname)\
...             .replace('<chrom>', chrom)
...         outfile = infile.replace('_raw.npz', '_kr.bias')
...         _, bias, _ = kr_balance(
...             filter_sparse_rows_count(sparse.load_npz(infile)), fl=0)
...         np.savetxt(outfile, bias)

Next, we create a new HiC3DeFDR object to analyze the simulated data and run the analysis through to q-values:

>>> import os.path
>>> from hic3defdr import HiC3DeFDR
>>> repnames = ['A1', 'A2', 'B1', 'B2']
>>> chroms = ['chr18', 'chr19']
>>> sim_path = 'sim/'
>>> base_path = os.path.expanduser('~/hic3defdr-demo-data/')
>>> h_sim = HiC3DeFDR(
...     raw_npz_patterns=[sim_path + '<rep>_<chrom>_raw.npz'.replace('<rep>', repname) for repname in repnames],
...     bias_patterns=[sim_path + '<rep>_<chrom>_kr.bias'.replace('<rep>', repname) for repname in repnames],
...     chroms=chroms,
...     design=sim_path + 'design.csv',
...     outdir='output-sim',
...     loop_patterns={'ES': base_path + 'clusters/ES_<chrom>_clusters.json'}
... )
creating directory output-sim
>>> h_sim.run_to_qvalues()

Next, we can evaluate the simulation against the clusters in h_sim.loop_patterns['ES'] with true labels from sim/labels_<chrom>.txt:

>>> h_sim.evaluate('ES', 'sim/labels_<chrom>.txt')

This writes a file in h_sim's output directory called eval.npz. This file can be loaded with np.load() and has four keys whose values are all one dimensional vectors:

  • 'thresh': the thresholds (in 1 - qvalue space) which make up the convex edge of the ROC curve; all other vectors are parallel to this one
  • 'fdr': the observed false discovery rate at each threshold
  • 'tpr': the observed true positive rate at each threshold
  • 'fpr': the observed false positive rate at each threshold

eval.npz files (possibly across many runs) can be visualized as ROC curves and FDR control curves by running:

>>> import numpy as np
>>> from hic3defdr import plot_roc, plot_fdr
>>> _ = plot_roc([np.load('output-sim/eval.npz')], ['hic3defdr'], outfile='images/roc.png')
>>> _ = plot_fdr([np.load('output-sim/eval.npz')], ['hic3defdr'], outfile='images/fdr.png')

Multiple eval.npz files can be compared in the same plot by simply adding elements to the lists in these function calls.

The ROC plot shows FPR versus TPR, with the gray diagonal line representing the performance of random guessing. The AUROC for each curve is shown in the legend. If only one curve is plotted, selected thresholds (in units of FDR threshold) are annotated with black arrows.

The FDR control plot shows the observed FDR as a function of the FDR threshold. Points below the gray diagonal line represent points at which FDR is successfully controlled.

As an added bonus, it's also possible to evaluate the performance on specific subsets of distance scales by using the min_dist and max_dist kwargs on HiC3DeFDR.evaluate() as illustrated below:

>>> dist_bins = [
...    ('short', (None, 15)),  # distances in bin units
...    ('mid', (16, 30)),
...    ('long', (31, None))
... ]
>>> for _, (min_dist, max_dist) in dist_bins:
...     h_sim.evaluate('ES', 'sim/labels_<chrom>.txt', min_dist=min_dist,
...                    max_dist=max_dist)
>>> _ = plot_roc([np.load('output-sim/eval_%s_%s.npz' % (min_dist, max_dist))
...               for _, (min_dist, max_dist) in dist_bins],
...              [label for label, _ in dist_bins],
...              outfile='images/roc_by_dist.png')
>>> _ = plot_fdr([np.load('output-sim/eval_%s_%s.npz' % (min_dist, max_dist))
...               for _, (min_dist, max_dist) in dist_bins],
...              [label for label, _ in dist_bins],
...              outfile='images/fdr_by_dist.png')

It's also possible to compare the FPR and FNR at the different subsets:

>>> from hic3defdr import plot_fn_vs_fp
>>> _ = plot_fn_vs_fp([np.load('output-sim/eval_%s_%s.npz' % (min_dist, max_dist))
...                    for _, (min_dist, max_dist) in dist_bins],
...                   [label for label, _ in dist_bins], xlabel='distance subset',
...                   outfile='images/fn_vs_fp.png')

Other visualizations

Distance bias

We can visualize and compare the distance bias of different simulations (the degree to which low p-values are enriched or depleted in different distance scales) using the plot_distance_bias() function as shown below:

>>> from hic3defdr import plot_distance_bias
>>> dist_bins = [
...    ('short', (None, 15)),  # distances in bin units
...    ('mid', (16, 30)),
...    ('long', (31, None))
... ]
>>> _ = plot_distance_bias([h, h_sim], [b for _, b in dist_bins], labels=['real', 'sim'], outfile='images/distance_bias.png')

Package structure

The hic3defdr package is layed out in three parts:

  1. hic3defdr.util: library of re-usable functions for performing computations related to differential loop calling
  2. hic3defdr.plotting: library of re-usable functions to plotting visualizations related to differential loop calling
  3. hic3defdr.analysis: a module that defines the HiC3DeFDR class, which provides an implementation of stitching together all the computational steps and visualizations in an easy-to-use way

The HiC3DeFDR class includes many methods, so to keep things organized these methods are defined in four separate mixin classes which are combined to form the full HiC3DeFDR class in hic3defdr/analysis/

  • hic3defdr.analysis.core.CoreHiC3DeFDR
  • hic3defdr.analysis.analysis.AnalyzingHiC3DeFDR
  • hic3defdr.analysis.simulation.SimulatingHiC3DeFDR
  • hic3defdr.analysis.plotting.PlottingHiC3DeFDR

We recommend that most users simply import the HiC3DeFDR class and interact with this package through that interface, but the functions defined in hic3efdr.util and hic3defdr.plotting may also be useful to some users and are designed to be somewhat re-usable.

The complete layout of the package is summarized below:

hic3defdr/                      # package root
├──                 # version configuration
├── analysis/                   # HiC3DeFDR class and alternatives
│   ├──         # defines alternative analysis models
│   ├──             # HiC3DeFDR's pipeline methods
│   ├──          # HiC3DeFDR's class definition and constructor
│   ├──                 # HiC3DeFDR's core save/load methods
│   ├──             # HiC3DeFDR's plotting methods
│   └──           # HiC3DeFDR's simulation/evaluation methods
├── plotting/                   # library of plotting functions
│   ├──           # dispersion/variance fit visualizations
│   ├──        # distance bias comparison barplots
│   ├──  # distance dependence curve comparison
│   ├──                  # FDR control curve plotting
│   ├──             # FN vs FP tradeoff barplots
│   ├──                 # "pixel detail grid" combination visualization
│   ├──              # simple contact matrix heatmap plotting
│   ├──           # p-value/q-value histograms
│   ├──                   # MA plots
│   └──                  # ROC curve plots
└── util/                       # library of utility functions 
    ├──              # creating groups of points
    ├──            # KR matrix balancing
    ├──        # BandedMatrix class (used for filtering)
    ├──       # classifying differential loop pixels
    ├──        # creating tables summarizing cluster info
    ├──             # interacting with called loop clusters
    ├──            # utilities for downloading the demo dataset
    ├──           # estimating dispersions in NB data
    ├──           # evaluating results of simulations
    ├──            # filtering (applied before balancing)
    ├──               # lowess fitting
    ├──                  # NB likelihood ratio testing
    ├──             # interacting with sparse matrices
    ├──      # parallelizing work across cores
    ├──             # printing updates and info to the console
    ├──             # showing progress bars
    ├──            # dealing with scaling factors in NB
    ├──              # scaling reps to account for sequencing depth
    ├──           # simulating pseudoreplicates
    └──         # thresholding differential pixels/clusters

Additional options

Additional options are exposed as kwargs on the functions in this library. Use help(<function>) to get detailed information about the options available for any function and what these options may be used for.


We run our tests with tox. To execute tests, install tox (pip install tox) and then run tox to run all tests or tox -e <testenv> to run a specific test environment. See tox.ini for the full specification of all test environments.

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