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Automated test solution for http requests based on recording and playback

Project description

Parrot

Automated test solution for http requests based on recording and playback

1. Instructions for use

1.1 Install

The Parrot project is developed based on Python 3, and the recommended version is 3.7.x. Please ensure that the corresponding version of python environment is installed on the target machine.

Method One: install via pip command

iParrot project has been submitted to PyPI.

  1. You could install via pip install iParrot command.
  2. If you need a upgrade, try pip install -U iParrot command.

Method Two: install using source code

Code Repository: https://github.com/idle-man/iParrot

Download source code pkg and install via python setup.py install command.

After the installation is complete, the parrot executable will be generated, try parrot help or parrot -v. If there is a problem, feedback an issue: https://github.com/idle-man/iParrot/issues


1.2 Usage

1.2.1 View commands supported by Parrot: parrot help

Two core commands are: record and playback

$ parrot help
Automated test solution for http requests based on recording and playback
Version: ...

Usage: parrot [-h] [-v] [command] [<args>]

command:
  record   - parse source file and generate test cases
            see detail usage: `parrot help record`
  playback - run standardized test cases and do validations
            see detail usage: `parrot help playback`
  template - generate standardized test case template file
            see detail usage: `parrot help template`
  replace  - replace existing test cases with specified rules
            see detail usage: `parrot help replace`
  home     - show homepage on github
  doc      - show readme on github


optional arguments:
  -h, --help         show this help message and exit
  -v, -V, --version  show version

1.2.2 View usage of record: parrot help record

The purpose of this step is to parse the user-specified source file (currently .har) into a standardized set of use cases.

$ parrot help record
...

Usage: parrot record [<args>]

Arguments:
  -s, --source SOURCE   source file with path, *.har or directory [required]
  -t, --target TARGET   target output path, 'ParrotProject' as default
  -i, --include INCLUDE include filter on url, separated by ',' if multiple
  -e, --exclude EXCLUDE exclude filter on url, separated by ',' if multiple
  -vi, --validation-include V_INCLUDE
                        include filter on response validation, separated by ',' if multiple
  -ve, --validation-exclude V_EXCLUDE  
                        exclude filter on response validation, separated by ',' if multiple
  -ae, --auto-extract   automatic identification of interface dependencies or not, False as default

  --log-level LOG_LEVEL log level: debug, info, warn, error, info as default
  --log-mode  LOG_MODE  log mode : 1-on screen, 2-in log file, 3-1&2, 1 as default
  --log-path  LOG_PATH  log path : <project path> as default
  --log-name  LOG_NAME  log name : parrot.log as default

1.2.3 View usage of playback: parrot help playback

This step is to execute the specified set of test cases and generate a test report.

$ parrot help playback
...

Usage: parrot playback [<args>]

Arguments:
  -s, --suite, -c, --case SUITE_OR_CASE
                        test suite or case with path, *.yml or directory [required]
  -t, --target TARGET   output path for report and log, 'ParrotProject' as default
  -i, --interval INTERVAL
                        interval time(ms) between each step, use the recorded interval as default
  -env, --environment ENVIRONMENT
                        environment tag, defined in project/environments/*.yml, use defined config in test_suites as default
  -reset, --reset-after-case
                        reset runtime environment or not, False as default

  --fail-stop           stop or not when a test step failed on validation, False as default
  --fail-retry-times FAIL_RETRY_TIMES
                        max retry times when a test step failed on validation, 0 as default
  --fail-retry-interval FAIL_RETRY_INTERVAL 
                        retry interval(ms) when a test step failed on validation, 100 as default

  --log-level LOG_LEVEL log level: debug, info, warn, error, info as default
  --log-mode  LOG_MODE  log mode : 1-on screen, 2-in log file, 3-1&2, 1 as default
  --log-path  LOG_PATH  log path : <project path> as default
  --log-name  LOG_NAME  log name : parrot.log as default

1.2.4 View usage of template: parrot help template

This step is to automatically generate standardized test case templates and examples, which is convenient for users to refer to self-built use cases.

$ parrot help template
...

Usage: parrot template [<args>]

Arguments:
  -t, --target TARGET   target output path, 'ParrotProject' as default

  --log-level LOG_LEVEL log level: debug, info, warn, error, info as default
  --log-mode  LOG_MODE  log mode : 1-on screen, 2-in log file, 3-1&2, 1 as default
  --log-path  LOG_PATH  log path : <project path> as default
  --log-name  LOG_NAME  log name : parrot.log as default

1.2.5 View usage of replace: parrot help replace

This step is to batch replace the config.variables of the generated use cases according to your specified rules.

$ parrot help replace
...

Usage: parrot replace [<args>]

Arguments:
  -s, --suite, -c, --case SUITE_OR_CASE
                        test suite or case with path, *.yml or directory [required]
  -t, --target TARGET   target output path, 'ParrotProjectNew' as default
  -r, --rule RULE       replace rules, separated by ',' if multiple [required]
                        'key=>value', 'value1=>value2' or 'apiA::key=>value' only for specified api

  --log-level LOG_LEVEL log level: debug, info, warn, error, info as default
  --log-mode  LOG_MODE  log mode : 1-on screen, 2-in log file, 3-1&2, 1 as default
  --log-path  LOG_PATH  log path : <project path> as default
  --log-name  LOG_NAME  log name : parrot.log as default


1.3 Demo

1.3.1 Build Sample application and export HAR

In order to facilitate the function debugging and operation demonstration, a simple web application(based on Python Flask) was specially built: https://github.com/idle-man/ParrotSample

Please refer to its README to complete the application setup in the local environment. It provides the "recommended function operations".

We use this as an example, using the browser's developer tools, after completing this series of operations, export the HAR file, assuming we named it sample.har and placed it in your working directory.

HAR is a common standardized format for storing HTTP requests and responses.

Its versatility: can be exported with consistent format from Charles, Fiddler, Chrome, etc.

Its standardization: JSON format and UTF-8 coding.


1.3.2 Record - Transforming HAR into standardized use cases

We assume that you have completed the installation of parrot as described in Chapter 1. Now we use the command line tool on the computer and switch to the path where sample.har is located.

It is recommended to use PyCharm, which contains Terminal, which is convenient for operation and helps to view the following use cases.

According to the instructions in Section 1.2.2, we have a general understanding of the basic usage of the record command. Now let's make a try on sample.har.

# A simple record: -s & -t

$ parrot record -s sample.har -t demo0

If it is successful, after the execution is complete, you will see the generated use cases set in current directory. The structure is as follows:

demo0/
  ├── environments
  │    └── *env*.yml: Project-level environment variable configuration
  ├── test_steps
  │    └── *case_name*.yml: The minimum execution unit, a http request is a step
  ├── test_cases
  │    └── *case_name*.yml: Independent closed-loop unit,  consisting of one or more steps
  └── test_suites
       └── *suite_name*.yml: Test case set, consisting of one or more cases

Each Entry in HAR will be converted into a test_step containing the specific request and validation information.

Each test_step test_case test_suite contains its own config setup_hooks teardown_hooks.

The specific format can be found in the Appendix: Use Case Structure.

# Not all recorded requests need to be converted to use cases: -i & -e

Because HAR is a full export without selection, it may contain some requests that we don't need to test, such as *.css *.js. In order to avoid the manual processing, we can filter them out during the record phase.

Parrot currently provides -i/--include and -e/--exclude filter modes, specifically:

  • -i, --include: According to the specified parameters, the url in each Entry is ambiguously matched, and the matching will be retained. The relationship between multiple include parameters is OR.
  • -e, --exclude: According to the specified parameters, the url in each Entry is ambiguously matched, and the matching will be excluded. The relationship between multiple excludes is OR.

The two parameters can be used only in one or in combination to achieve your filtering needs.

In our above requirement, we want to filter out the unwanted *.css and *.js, just use -e, --exclude.

$ parrot record -s sample.har -t demo1 -e ".css, .js"

After that, you can check if the requirement is met in demo1/test_steps.

# Not all content in response can be expected: -vi & -ve

An example of the validations generated in test_step, the user can also customize this format:

validations:
- <comparator>:
    <check>: <expected result>

The check: According to the important information in the above Mode One, the unified format is: <PREFIX>.<KEYS>

  • Available PREFIX: status, content, headers, cookies, in lower case
  • KEYS in status: code
  • KEYS in headers and cookies: Currently only extracting the outer keys
  • KEYS in content(json format): content.a.b[1].c

By default, automatically generated validations will include status.code and all keys of content and unofficial keys of headers.

In fact, some of these keys do not need to be verified for reasons such as variability, etc., such as the tag timestamp contained in the response information of each request in sample.har, which is best removed when it is automatically generated.

Parrot currently provides -vi/--validation-include and -ve/--validation-exclude filter modes, specifically:

  • -vi, --validation-include: According to the specified parameters, the headers and content in the response in each Entry are fuzzy matched, and the matching will be retained. The relationship between multiple -vi is OR.
  • -ve, --validation-exclude: According to the specified parameters, the headers and content in the response in each Entry are fuzzy matched, the matching will be excluded. The relationship between multiple -ve is OR.

The two parameters can be used only in one or in combination to achieve your filtering needs.

In our above requirement, we want to filter out unwanted tag and timestamp, just use -ve, --validation-exclude.

$ parrot record -s sample.har -t demo2 -e ".css, .js" -ve "content.tag, timestamp"

About the comparator, the default is eq when it is automatically generated, which can be edited manually. Currently, to view all the comparators that parrot supports, see Appendix: Verification Method Set.

# Sometimes we need to generate the parameters in real time.

Take the hobby_suggest request in sample.har as an example. The today parameter of the interface needs the date of the execution time. The default value recorded by the recording is the static value. If we run it in the next day, it will not meet the requirements. At this point, you need to generate this parameter in real time.

The way Parrot supports is: ${{function(params)}}, where those functions are provided in iparrot.modules.helper, which can be used directly. See Appendix: Helper Method Set.

Example:

config:
  ...
  variables:
    p1: ABC
    p2: 123
    p3: ${{today()}}
request:
  method: GET
  ...
  params:
    param1: ${p1}
    param2: ${p2}
    today: ${p3}
  ...

# Sometimes there is a dependency on the response of the previous request.

Take the hobby_detail request in sample.har as an example. Its name argument is from the real-time valid return in the hobby_list request's response. If the data during recording is directly played back, it is likely that there is a failure sometimes.

Parrot's solution is: extract the specific key in the response of the hobby_list request, and use the ${variable} format in the hobby_detail request.

Example:

hobby_list:

config:
  ...
request:
  ...
response:
  extract:
    hobby: content.hobbies[0].name
...

hobby_detail:

config:
  ...
request:
  ...
  params:
    name: ${hobby}
  ...

In iParrot 1.0.6 and later, parrot record has the -ae, --auto-extract parameter added.

If this parameter is specified, parrot will automatically recognize the parameter dependency between interfaces during the parsing process.

The extract extraction and ${variable} references are automatically completed when the use cases are generated.

In view of the possibility of many formats in the actual scene, the 'automatic' identification may cause some accidental or omission, and it is recommended to perform artificial inspection and correction after its execution.

Regarding the recording phase, the above scenarios should cover most of the use cases. If there are other unsupported questions, welcome feedback an issue: https://github.com/idle-man/iParrot/issues


1.3.3 Template - Generate a standardized use case template when no files are recorded

In actual work, there may be cases where there is no HAR file, such as a new project or a new interface before going online.

For users who have existing HAR files, you can skip this step.

parrot1.1.0 and later provides the template command to help you generate standardized use case templates, where you can manually edit your test cases.

See section #1.2.4 for specific usage: parrot help template

The generated use case structure is consistent with the recording phase, including a test_suite, a test_case, a test_step and a environment.

Users can refer above template to write their own formatting use cases, which can also be used for subsequent playback.


1.3.4 Replace - Batch update generated use cases according to specified rules

For use cases that have already been generated, we sometimes have a large number of update requirements, such as:

  • Need to replace the ID in the argument with another one
  • Need to replace a date parameter with a ${{today()}} function call
  • Need to replace the host in the request with a new test address
  • Need to replace the token in the request header with the ${variable} variable reference

Some of the above updates can be done with the help of an IDE.

For the user's convenient use, parrot1.1.0 and later versions provide the replace command, which can be used to batch update the target use case set according to the rules specified by the user.

See section #1.2.5 for specific usage: parrot help replace

For example:

parrot replace -s demo/test_suites/test.yml -t demoNew -r 'xxID=>abcd, 2019-01-01=>${{today()}}, host=>example.com'

The above command will automatically traverse all the yml files in the specified test_suite and its included test_cases and test_steps,

and match the contents of config.variables, request, request.headers, request.cookies blocks.

The content before the '=>' symbol will be absolutely matched with the keys in the above use case block, and if it is missed, it will definitely match the values.

If some key or value matches, the value will be replaced with the content after the '=>' symbol.

If a replacement rule only needs to be valid for a particular interface, you can do this:

parrot replace -s demo/test_suites/test.yml -t demoNew -r 'xxID=>abcd, apiA::2019-01-01=>${{today()}}'

The above 2019-01-01=>${{today()}} rule only works on the yml of the file name fuzzy matched apiA.


1.3.5 Replay - Execute use cases, verify result, generate report

According to the instructions in Section #1.2.3, we have a general understanding of the basic usage of the playback command. Now let's try to play back the demo2 recorded earlier.

# A simple playback: -s & -t

$ parrot playback -s demo2/test_suites -t demo2

If it is successful, the process output information will be visible on the screen during the execution. After the execution is completed, you will see the generated test report in the demo2 directory: parrot_<timestamp>.html, which could be viewed via PyCharm or browser.

# About the running order

Parrot execute the test in the order of cases and steps defined in test_suite.yaml / test_case.yaml, currently only supports serial execution mode.

When the use case is automatically generated, the order of the steps defaults to the order of appearance in the recorded sample, which can be edited manually.

The detailed execution process:

test_suite1
 |-> suite1.setup
 |-> test_case1
   |-> case1.setup
   |-> test_step1
     |-> step1.setup
     |-> request
     |-> validation
     |-> extract
     |-> step1.teardown
   |-> test_step2
     ...
   |-> case1.teardown
 |-> test_case2
   ...
 |-> suite1.teardown
test_suite2
  ...

# About the running interval

The value of interval argument is firstly used, otherwise the value time.start in step defination.

If the playback pass parameter specifies the interval, it will execute according to the interval (in milliseconds), for example:

$ parrot playback -s demo2/test_suites -t demo2 -i 100

Otherwise, if time.start is defined in the request of step (the recording phase will be automatically recorded), the default is to execute according to the interval of time.start of each step.

When the use case is automatically generated, the actual execution time would be recorded as time.start in the step defination.

# About the running validation

As mentioned in the recording phase, each request generates some validations, which contain the expected result.

In the process of request playback, parrot can get the actual result in real time, so you can check the result in real time, and then check whether the value of each check object conforms to the comparator rule. If there is one failure, the entire step fails.

After a single step fails, the current Parrot does not terminate the execution of the playback by default, but the user can perform some intervention by running the parameters:

  • --fail_stop: If specified, the operation will be terminated after a step verification fails
  • --fail_retry_times: The number of retries after a step failed, 0 as default
  • --fail_retry_interval: retry interval after a step failure

1.3.6 Adapting multiple sets of environments

Parrot draws on Postman's environmental management mechanism.

The environment configuration is automatically reserved during recording and can be edited manually.

Take the recorded demo2 in section 1.3.2 as an example. The automatically generated environment is configured as demo2/environments/sample_env.yml. The default generated content is reserved for several sets of environment identifiers and the content is empty:

development: {}
global: {}
production: {}
test: {}

At the same time, the config part of the automatically generated test_suites, test_cases and test_steps is referenced by import and environment: global, which can be edited manually.

global is globally shared, the rest are independent, and the new environment identifier can be customized.

Suppose we have deployed multiple sets of ParrotSample applications, which represent different operating environments, separated by port number:

development: 8081
test: 8082
production: 8080

We hope that the same set of test cases can be reused in different environments. We can do like below:

Firstly, edit demo2/environments/sample_env.yml:

development:
  host: 10.10.100.100:8081
global:
  host: 10.10.100.100:8080
production:
  host: 10.10.100.100:8080
test:
  host: 10.10.100.100:8082

Then, manually replace all the values ​​of the host in all generated test_steps ymls with the ${host} variable reference.

Multiple sets of environment switching during playback

As mentioned in Section 1.2.3, the parrot playback command provides the -env, --environment parameter, which specifies the selected environment identifier at execution time.

$ parrot playback -s demo2/test_suites -t demo2 -env development

Currently, the environment reference is included in the config of test_suites/test_cases/test_steps, and the playback parameter can also be specified. The load priority is:

parameter > test_suite.config > test_case.config > test_step.config


2. Design ideas: starting from the original meaning of software testing

2.1 How to define software testing

Classic definition of software testing:

The process of using a manual or automated means to run or measure a software system, the purpose of which is to verify that it meets specified requirements or to clarify the difference between expected and actual results.

-- Software engineering terminology from IEEE in 1983

A simplified definition:

The process of running a system or application in accordance with defined requirements/steps, obtaining actual result, and comparing with the expected result.


2.2 How to do software testing

Let's take the use case template of the ZenTao project management platform as an example. Everyone's daily use case design is basically similar, see the figure below:

If we want to extract key elements from it, based on the definition of software testing, we can easily find the following content:

  • Steps
  • Expect of each Step
  • Sometimes, in order to ensure complete execution, it is possible to add Prerequisite

Other elements are usually designed to make use cases easier to manage. Think about it, do we usually do like this?


2.3 How to automate software testing

We use HTTP(S) interface test as an example to automate. There are usually two ways:

2.3.1 Use testing tools, such as: POSTMAN, JMETER

Take Postman as an example. The implementation is roughly as shown in the figure below:

Advantage of this approach:

  1. Collection > Folder > Request, layered design makes the use case organization clearer
  2. With the environment variable management mechanism, it is convenient for common variable extraction and multiple sets of environment switching.
  3. Pre-request Script and Tests support pre- and post-actions, while Tests provides a richer validation methods that reduces the coding threshold.

Insufficient in this way:

  1. The cost of creation is high, and each new Request requires a certain amount of effort to complete the addition, especially the Query Params and Tests sections. For dependencies between interfaces, it is necessary to write Pre-request Script more cumbersomely.
  2. The combination and order adjustment between Requests is not convenient enough, especially for Case or Suite with actual business logic.

2.3.2 Write your own automation framework, such as: Python+requests+unittest

The rough implementation, as in the example below:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import requests
import unittest


class TestHttpBin(unittest.TestCase):
    def setUp(self) -> None:
        """do something here"""

    def test_get(self):
        url = 'http://httpbin.org/'
        params = {
            'p1': 'v1',
            'p2': 'v2'
        }
        response = requests.get(url=url, params=params)
        self.assertEqual(response.status_code, 200)

    def test_post(self):
        """do something like test_get"""

    def tearDown(self) -> None:
        """do something here"""


if __name__ == '__main__':
    unittest.main()

Advantage of this approach:

  1. Flexible use case stratification, data-driven, let the use cases be arranged according to their own wishes.
  2. requests module encapsulates the underlying capabilities, we only need to write business logic code.
  3. unittest supports pre- and post- actions, while providing a richer verification methods and lowering the coding threshold.

Insufficient in this way:

  1. The cost of creation/maintenance is high, and each new Request requires a certain amount of effort to complete the coding, especially the more assertions.
  2. There are certain technical thresholds for the design and writing of the framework, especially to ensure sufficient ease of use and versatility. For the dependencies between interfaces, the corresponding process variable transfer mechanism needs to be designed.

2.4 Is there a more convenient way to automate?

Comprehensive #2.3 chapter two kinds of automation methods, a lot of workload is reflected in:

  • A large number of Request/TestCase definitions, especially those with more parameters.
  • A large number of assertion method definitions, different Request verification points have differences.
  • Scenes that depend on other interfaces require more tedious processing of parameter passing.

"Lazy" is the first driving force of the technological advancement.

The design idea of ​​the parrot tool is to solve the above problems, greatly improve the efficiency of automatic realization, and make automation easier.

  • A large number of Request/TestCase definitions can be implemented simply and quickly by recording.
  • Through playback mode, it can support the regular execution of automated use cases, and help you solve problems such as interface dependencies.
  • About verification, based on the recorded Request's Response, automatically generate some regular assertions and support secondary editing.

Compare with the definition of software testing:

  • Recording: Get/Define specified requirement and expected result
  • Playback: Perform the recorded script to get the actual result
  • Verify: Compare the expected and actual results

Traffic playback is a way to automate the realization of the original definition of software testing.

The design of this project is based on above idea to automate the interface testing.

3. Source Code

3.1 GitHub

This project: https://github.com/idle-man/iParrot

Its sample project: https://github.com/idle-man/ParrotSample

All of them contain a detailed README for your reference.

If you have any questions or suggestions, please feel free to submit an issue within the project.

3.2 Framework Structure

iparrot/
  ├── modules
  │    ├── helper.py    : A collection of commonly used methods in which the Function can be used in other modules, also supporting the use of ${{function(params)}} in the cases.
  │    ├── request.py   : Execute HTTP(S) request based on `requests` and get the result
  │    ├── validator.py : The verification engine for request's response information, which supports multiple verification rules, as detailed in Validator.UNIFORM_COMPARATOR
  │    ├── logger.py    : Formatted log printing, support for output to screen or log files
  │    └── reportor.py  : Standardized report printing, support for views of summary results and use case execution details
  ├── extension
  │    └── helper.py    : A collection of common methods that can be customized by the user, where the Function supports use as ${{function(params)}} in the cases
  ├── parser.py : Parse the source file, and automatically generate formatted use cases; parse the specified use case set, load into memory
  ├── player.py : Play back the specified set of use cases, execute them in levels, and finally generate a test report
  └── parrot.py : The main script, you can run `python parrot.py help` to see the specific usage

4. Appendix

4.1 Use case structure

Example:

  • environment

     global: {}
     production: {}
     development: {}
     test: {}
    
  • test_step

     config:
       environment: <environment flag>
       import: <environment file>
       name: step name
       variables:
         p1: ABC
         p2: 123
     request:
       method: POST
       protocol: http
       host: x.x.x.x:8000
       url: /path/of/api
       params: {}
       data:
         param1: ${p1}
         param2: ${p2}
       headers:
         Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8
       cookies: {}
       time.start: 1568757525027
     response:
       extract: {}
     setup_hooks: []
     teardown_hooks: []
     validations:
     - eq:
         status.code: 200
     - exists:
         headers.token
     - is_json:
         content
     - eq:
         content.code: 100
    
  • test_case

     config:
       environment: <environment flag>
       import: <environment file>
       name: case name
       variables: {}
     setup_hooks: []
     teardown_hooks: []
     test_steps:
       - <fullname of step1>
       - <fullname of step2>
    
  • test_suite

     config:
       environment: <evnironment flag>
       import: <environment file>
       name: suite name
       variables: {}
     setup_hooks: []
     teardown_hooks: []
     test_cases: 
       - <fullname of case1>
       - <fullname of case2>
    

4.2 Verification method set

These methods can be used in validations in specific test_steps, for example:

validations:
- eq:
    status.code: 200
- is_json:
    content
- not_null:
    headers.token
- contains:
    content.message: succ

Commonly used verification methods:

  • eq(equals):
    • Example: 1 eq 1, 'a' eq 'a', [1, 2] eq [1, 2], {'a': 1 } eq {'a': 1}, status.code eq 200

    • Usage:

       validations:
       - eq:
           status.code: 200
       - eq:
           headers.Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8
       - eq:
           content.data[0].id: 1000
      
    • Similar methods: neq, lt, gt, le, ge

  • len_eq(length equals):
    • Example: 'ab' len_eq 2, [1, 2] len_eq 2, {'a': 1} len_eq 1

    • Usage:

       validations:
       - len_eq:
           headers.token: 32
       - eq:
           content.datalist: 3
      
    • Similar methods: len_neq, len_lt, len_gt

  • time_le(time spent less than or equals):
    • Example: request 'time.spent' time_le 200 (unit is ms)

    • Usage:

       validations:
       - time_le:
           time.spent: 200
      
    • Similar methods: time_lt, time_gt, time_ge

  • contains:
    • Example: 'abc' contain 'ab', ['a', 'b'] contain 'a', {'a': 1, 'b': 2} contain {'a': 1}

    • Usage:

       validations:
       - contains:
           headers.Content-Type: application/json
       - contains:
           content.message: ok
      
    • Similar methods: not_contains

  • in:
    • Example: 'a' in 'ab', 'a' in ['a', 'b'], 'a' in {'a': 1, 'b': 2}

    • Usage:

       validations:
       - in:
           status.code: [200, 302]
      
    • Similar methods: not_in

  • is_false:
    • Example: 0 is_false, '' is_false, [] is_false, {} is_false

    • Usage:

       validations:
       - is_false:
           content.datalist
       - is_json:
           content
       - is_instance:
           status.code: int
      
    • Similar methods: is_true, exists, is_instance, is_json

  • re(regex):
    • Example: '1900-01-01' re r'\d+-\d+-\d+'

    • Usage:

       validations:
       - re:
           content.data[0].date: r"\d+-\d+-\d+"
      
    • Similar methods: not_re

More methods and instructions can be found in the following way:

import json
from iparrot.modules.validator import Validator

print(json.dumps(Validator.UNIFORM_COMPARATOR, indent=4))

4.3 Helper method set

These methods can be applied to the inside of test_step / test_case / test_suite in the form ${{function(params)}}, such as: setup_hooks teardown_hooks variables

today(form='%Y-%m-%d'): Get today's date

days_ago(days=0, form='%Y-%m-%d'): Get the date a few days ago

days_later(days=0, form='%Y-%m-%d'): Get the date a few days later

now(form='%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'): Get the current time, accurate to the second

now_ms(form='%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'): Get the current time, accurate to the micro second

now_timestamp(): Get the current timestamp, accurate to the second

now_timestamp_ms(): Get the current timestamp, accurate to the micro second

hours_ago(hours=0, form='%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'): Get the time a few hours ago, accurate to the second

hours_later(hours=0, form='%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'): Get the time a few hours later, accurate to the second

get_file_name(file, ext=0): Intercept the file name of the specified file, no suffix by default

get_file_path(file): Intercept the path of the specified file

make_dir(directory): Generate the specified directory

copy_file(source, target): Copy the specified file to the target path

get_random_integer(length=10, head=None, tail=None): Generate random number, with specified length, head, tail

get_random_string(length=10, simple=1, head=None, tail=None): Generate random string, with specified length, head, tail

get_random_phone(head=None, tail=None): Generate random Chinese phone number, with specified length, head, tail

If the above helper methods do not meet your needs, you can use the following method:

Define your own module or pip install specified module in your local environment.

Add import xxx or from xxx import yyy to the desired step / case / suite setup_hooks,

then you could use the ${{function(params)}} format to call the method you want.

Any questions, you can feedback an issue: https://github.com/idle-man/iParrot/issues

More general helper methods, welcome to contribute code or issues, thanks.

5. External reference, thanks

5.1 Postman

5.1.1 Environments management

The mechanism is referenced in the environment of the Parrot use case structure.

A project can be configured with multiple sets of environments to hold some common environment variables.

Variable names are consistent between different environments, and values ​​can vary.

In the use case, you can refer to the variable by means of ${variable}, reducing manual modification.

The switching of the operating environment can be specified in the playback phase by the -env/--environment parameter.

5.1.2 Use case layering mode

  • Collection => test_suite
  • Folder => test_case
  • Request => test_step

5.1.3 Pre and post actions

  • Pre-request Script => setup_hooks
  • Tests => teardown_hooks & validations

5.2 HttpRunner

5.2.1 HAR2Case

The files processed by Parrot in the first phase are Charles trace and Fiddler txt. The format is quite different, and the parsing of plain text is cumbersome.

Later, in the course of HttpRunner's ideas, I used HAR to reconstruct the record part. At the same time, I made some changes in the parameters.

Inspired by HttpRunner's ideas, the record part is rebuilt, and some paramters are updated.

For details, to see parrot help record and iparrot.parser

5.2.2 Use case layering mode

The use case layering mode of HttpRunner, TestSuite>TestCase>TestStep, is clear and a good reference.

When Parrot automatically generates use cases, it directly implements the layering mode on the directory structure and changes the specific use case structure.

5.2.3 setup hooks & teardown hooks

Parrot reuses this naming scheme, which supports set variable, call function, exec code.

5.2.4 extract variable

Parrot in the first phase uses the mode of store and replace, which is intended to keep all changes in a configuration file, and does not invade the use case at all.

In actual use, it is found that the usability is not good and the configuration is slightly cumbersome.

Refer to HttpRunner, return the initiative to the user, and the variable can be extracted according to extract defination and used as ${variable}.

5.2.5 comparator

The first version of Parrot diffs results refer to a configuration file, only supports eq and simple re, and the method set is limited.

Now refer to the HttpRunner, automatically generate eq comparator when recording, and support a variety of comparator customization.

Comparators in Parrot combines with the common verification methods of HttpRunner and Postman, and a certain supplement.

5.2.6 report

Parrot's test report template directly reuses HttpRunner's report style.

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