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ISalt: Interactive Salt Programming

Project description

ISalt is an IPython style console to facilitate the debugging or even development of Salt code.

https://github.com/mirceaulinic/isalt/blob/master/cover.png

Salt code typically makes use of a number of dunder (i.e., _d_ouble _under_score) variables such as __salt__, __opts__, __grains__, __proxy__, or __pillar__, etc., which give you quick access to various resources and features. They also have a different meaning depending on the context - for example, __opts__ on the Minion side is a different object than __opts__ on the Master side; __salt__ on the Minion side gives you access to the list of Execution Modules, while __salt__ on the Master side provides the Runners, and so on.

The main difficulty when working with these variables is that they only make sense when actually running Salt and having a Master and eventually one or more Minions running. It often happens that you don’t necessarily want to have these services running when writing a new function (that use these dunders), or just want to quickly debug something without pushing code to production.

With ISalt, you can easily get access to these variables, by simply executing isalt, e.g.,

$ isalt
>>> __salt__['test.ping']()
True
>>>
>>> __grains__['osfinger']
'Ubuntu-18.04'

In other words, ISalt is an enhanced IPython console which gives you access to the Salt global variables typically used in Salt code.

Install

ISalt is distributed via PyPI, and you can install it by executing:

$ pip install isalt

Dependencies:

No specific version for either of these packages, so it doesn’t mess up with your environment. It should normally work well with any version.

Usage

You can configure various bits of data or conditionals using one or more of the following options, with precedence in this order: ISalt configuration file, environment variables, and CLI arguments.

One of the most important details to keep in mind is the difference between running the code on the Minion side, versus Master side (where we can further distinguish between code to be executed as a Runner, vs. Execution Module for an arbitrary Minion – for the former you may need to provide the Minion ID using the --minion-id CLI argument).

Typically, when you install ISalt where you have a Salt Minion running, it should be sufficient to execute just $ isalt.

When you want to use ISalt on the Master side, but to test Execution Modules, you can run $ isalt --on-master.

When you’re looking into evaluating Runner code, you can only do this one the Master side, therefore, you’d need to start the console as $ isalt --master.

You can check the complete list of CLI optional arguments by

$ isalt -h
usage: isalt [-h] [--saltenv SALTENV] [--pillarenv PILLARENV] [-c CFG_FILE]
             [-e CFG_FILE_ENV_VAR] [--minion-cfg MINION_CFG_FILE]
             [--proxy-cfg PROXY_CFG_FILE] [--master-cfg MASTER_CFG_FILE]
             [--minion] [--proxytype PROXYTYPE] [--proxy] [--sproxy]
             [--master] [--local] [--minion-id MINION_ID] [--on-master]

ISalt console

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  --saltenv SALTENV     Salt environment name.
  --pillarenv PILLARENV
                        The Salt environment name to compile the Pillar from.
  -c CFG_FILE, --cfg-file CFG_FILE
                        The absolute path to the ISalt config file.
  -e CFG_FILE_ENV_VAR, --env-var CFG_FILE_ENV_VAR
                        The name of the environment variable pointing to the
                        ISalt config file.
  --minion-cfg MINION_CFG_FILE
                        The absolute path to the Minion config file.
  --proxy-cfg PROXY_CFG_FILE
                        The absolute path to the Proxy Minion config file.
  --master-cfg MASTER_CFG_FILE
                        The absolute path to the Master config file.
  --minion              Prepare the Salt dunders for the Minion.
  --proxy               Prepare the Salt dunders for the Proxy Minion.
  --sproxy              Prepare the Salt dunders for the salt-sproxy (Master
                        side).
  --master              Prepare the Salt dunders for the Master.
  --local               Override the Minion config and use the local client.
                        This option loads the file roots config from the
                        Master file.
  --minion-id MINION_ID
                        The Minion ID to compile the Salt dunders for. This
                        argument is optional, however it may fail when ISalt
                        is not able to determine the Minion ID, or take it
                        from the environment variable, etc.
  --on-minion           Whether should compile the dunders for the Minion
                        side, starting the ISalt console on the Minion
                        machine. The main difference is that the Pillar and
                        Grains are compiled locally, while when using --on-
                        master, it's using the local cached data.
  --on-master           Whether should compile the dunders for the Minion
                        side, starting the ISalt console on the Master
                        machine. This option is ignored when used in
                        conjunction with --master.

Usage Examples

Using ISalt on the Master

Start with isalt --master. Remember that the __salt__ dunder currently maps to the Runner functions, and not to the execution modules.

$ isalt --master

In [1]: # execute the ``test.sleep`` Runner:

In [2]: # https://docs.saltstack.com/en/latest/ref/runners/all/salt.runners.test.html#module-salt.runners.test

In [3]: __salt__['test.sleep'](1)
1
Out[3]: True

Using ISalt on the Master, loading the (Proxy) Minion dunders

In this mode, you need to specify the Minion ID to use and collect and compile data for (otherwise it’ll use local machine’s hostname):

$ isalt --on-master --minion-id jerry

Note

You can equally specify the Minion ID in the proxy/minion configuration file, from --minion-cfg or --proxy-cfg options.

For Proxy Minions, you have to pass the --proxy CLI argument, e.g.,

$ isalt --on-master --minion-id edge-router --proxy

For Proxy Minions, in order to load the __salt__ modules correctly, you may have to provide the proxytype as well into the Proxy configuration file (by default at /etc/salt/proxy, or a different path set using the --proxy-cfg arg) - or using the --proxytype CLI argument, e.g.,

/etc/salt/proxy

proxy:
  proxytype: napalm

And execute as isalt --on-master --proxy --minion-id jerry.

Or directly as isalt --on-master --proxytype napalm --minion-id jerry.

Using ISalt on the (Proxy) Minion

This is the default ISalt mode, and you no longer have to provide the Minion ID, as it’s collected from local machine, unless you want to use a specific one. As always, you can have the Minion ID in the Proxy / Minion configuration file, the ISALT_MINION_ID environment variable, or the ISalt configuration file (as the minion_id option).

Example:

$ echo $ISALT_MINION_ID
jerry
$ isalt

In [1]: __opts__['id']
Out[1]: 'jerry'

Note

The local Proxy / Minion key must be accepted by the Master. To avoid connecting to the Master, you can use the --local argument to start the Minion in Masterless mode - you will however need to make sure that you point to the file (and pillar) roots you need as those won’t be pulled from the Master.

One good way to deal with this is pointing the file_roots option to the cache directory of the production Minion. For example, you have a Minion that is pulling the production files from the Master, and caching them under /var/cache/salt/minion/files/base (whatever would be your filesystem backend). Now, to use these files when starting ISalt in local mode, you can reference that dir as:

/etc/salt/minion (excerpt)

file_roots:
    base:
      - /var/cache/salt/minion/files/base

Now, starting with isalt --local, you still load your modules, states, and other files without connecting to the Master.

Using ISalt in conjunction with Salt Super Proxy (Master side)

Note

This option requires salt-sproxy to be installed in the same environment as ISalt: pip install salt-sproxy. For simplicity, you can, for example, install as: pip install isalt[sproxy].

Usage example:

$ isalt --sproxy

In this interactive console, you have access to the usual Salt Master dunders, as well as the salt-sproxy features. As a shortcut, you have access to the salt-sproxy core function, through the sproxy global variable:

>>> sproxy
<function execute at 0x7fd394075510>
>>> sproxy('*', preview_target=True)
['router1',
 'router2']

In a similar way, this facilitates the execution of any Salt function through salt-sproxy, e.g.,

>>> sproxy('router1', function='test.ping', static=True)
{'router1': True}
>>>

Tip

For best results using salt-sproxy, it is recommended to pass the static=True argument.

You can also get into the sproxy mode by default, by setting the value role: sproxy into the ISalt configuration file (see also the next paragraph).

Important

Check also the salt-sproxy documentation for more usage instructions and examples.

ISalt configuration file

Every of the options presented above are available through the ISalt configuration file, by default /etc/salt/isalt. To read the file from a specific path, use the -c / --cfg-file args, e.g.,

$ isalt -c /path/to/isalt/config/file

Or, alternative, using the ISALT_CFG_FILE environment variable, e.g.,

$ echo $ISALT_CFG_FILE
/path/to/isalt/config/file
$ isalt

Even more, if you want to read the path to the config file from a different environment variable, use the -e / --env-var arg:

$ echo $ALTERNATIVE_ISALT_CFG_FILE
/path/to/another/isalt/config/file
$ isalt -e ALTERNATIVE_ISALT_CFG_FILE

ISalt configuration file example

on_master: true
proxytype: dummy
proxy_cfg: /path/to/proxy/config
minion_cfg: /path/to/minion/config
master_cfg: /path/to/master/config

With the configuration file above, you can simplify the CLI usage, e.g., from isalt --on-master --proxy-cfg /path/to/proxy/config --proxytype dummy --minion-id jerry to just isalt --minion-id jerry, etc.

Environment Variables

ISALT_CFG_FILE
Absolute path to the ISalt configuration file.
ISALT_ROLE
The Salt system role. Choose between: master, minion, or proxy.
ISALT_ON_MASTER
If you’re running ISalt on the Master.
ISALT_MINION_ID
The Minion ID to use.
ISALT_PROXYTYPE
The Proxy Minion module name to use.
ISALT_MASTER_CONFIG
Absolute path to the Master configuration file.
ISALT_MINION_CONFIG
Absolute path to the Minion configuration file.
ISALT_PROXY_MINION_CONFIG
Absolute path to the Proxy Minion configuration file.
ISALT_USE_CACHED_PILLAR
When starting in Proxy / Minion mode, on the Master: whether to use the cached Pillars that may be already available for the specified Minion, or compile fresh data.

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