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.. image:: https://secure.travis-ci.org/mulkieran/justbytes.png?branch=master

:target: http://travis-ci.org/mulkieran/justbytes

Justbytes

========

Justbytes is a module for handling computation with

address ranges expressed in bytes. Its principle feature is a Range class from

which can be constructed Range objects which represent a precise and finite

address range in bytes. Various arithmetic operations are defined for Range

objects.

Its sole purpose is the representation of real address ranges on real

machines. For that reason, it does not allow powers of ranges, imprecise

ranges, or non-finite ranges. In order that the

usual laws of arithmetic can be maintained, it does allow fractional ranges.

Practical Computing with Address Ranges

---------------------------------------

When computing with address ranges, the numeric value can be viewed as a

logical, rather than a physical, quantity. That is, unlike, e.g., mass or

length, which are quantities which must be measured with a measuring instrument

which has some built-in imprecision, an address range

is a quantity that is not measured, but is known precisely.

This precision arises because the number represents not as much an amount of

memory as a number of addressable, byte-size, locations in memory.

Consequently, computations such as addition of two Ranges, and conversion

between different magnitudes of bytes, i.e., from MiB to GiB, must be done

precisely. The underlying implementation must therefore use a precise

representation of the number of bytes. Floating point numbers, which are

frequently the preferred type for the representation of physical

quantities, are disallowed by this requirement.

Operations

----------

This module does not accomodate multi-dimensionality of address ranges.

Consequently, multiplying one Range object by another Range object will cause

an error to be raised, since bytes^2 is not representable by the module.

For most uses any operation which would yield a multi-dimensional quantity

is not useful. There are no plans to adapt this package so that it

can accomodate multi-dimensionality of address ranges.

Numerous computations with address ranges are nonsensical. For example, 2

raised to a power which is some address range, is a meaningless computation.

All such operations cause an error to be raised.

Some computations with precise, finite, values may yield irrational results.

For example, while 2 is rational, its square root is an irrational number.

There is no allowed operation on Range objects which can result in an

irrational Range value. It turns out that all such operations are either

nonsensical or would result in a value with an unrepresentable type.

The result type of operations is a Range, where appropriate, or a subtype of

Rational, where a numeric value is appropriate.

Floating Point Numbers

----------------------

It is not possible to use floating point numbers in computations with Ranges.

Where a fractional quantity is desired, use Decimal objects instead of floats.

Thus, Range(0) * 1.2 raises an exception, but Range(0) * Decimal("1.2") is

acceptable.

Computing the Representation of a Range

---------------------------------------

The representation of a Range is computed according to a specified

configuration. In the default configuration, the representation uses IEC

rather than SI units.

The representation of a Range is not a string, but a structured representation

of the precise value, as well as the relationship of the representation to

the actual value.

This representation is exposed to clients of the library, which may use it

in any way.

Displaying Ranges

----------------

The Range class also has standard methods for the representation of Range

objects as str objects.

The str representation can also be configured. The manipulation of the

representation to form a str object is abstracted from the rest of the source

to emphasize that clients of the package may choose to represent address ranges

in any manner they choose.

Representing Units

------------------

The size module supplies a set of named prefixes for both SI and binary units,

for all non-fractional prefixes. Fractional prefixes are not defined.

Constructing Ranges Programatically

----------------------------------

New Range objects can be constructed from Range objects, numeric values, e.g.,

int or Decimal, or strings which represent such numeric values.

strings may be used to represent fractional quantities, e.g., "1.2", but

floats are disallowed.

The constructor takes an optional units specifier, which defaults to bytes

for all numeric values, and to None for Range objects. The type of the

unit specifier is a named prefix supplied by the size module or a Range object.

Errors

------

All errors raised by justbytes operations are subtypes of the RangeError class.

Memory Consumption and Bandwidth vs. Address Ranges

---------------------------------------------------

Memory consumption, e.g., by a process during execution on a specified

workload, is a quantity, that like address ranges, is specified in

bytes. However, memory consumption is simply a measurement of the amount of

a phsyical quantity consumed. When bytes are used only to represent memory

consumption, computations do not generally require the special handling

supplied by this library. Generally, measurement of memory consumption can

be treated like any other physical quantity. The same reasoning applies to

bandwidth. For a physical analogy, one can imagine memory consumption to be

analogous to volume, e.g., litres, and bandwidth to be analogous to flow,

e.g., litres per minute.

User Input

----------

This package does not handle arbitrary user input. It is expected that the

client will transform any input, from whatever source, into a number and an

optional unit specification which can be passed directly to the Range

constructor.

Alternative Packages

--------------------

If you are interested in computing in Python with physical, rather than

logical, quantities, you should consult the pint package:

http://pint.readthedocs.org.

:target: http://travis-ci.org/mulkieran/justbytes

Justbytes

========

Justbytes is a module for handling computation with

address ranges expressed in bytes. Its principle feature is a Range class from

which can be constructed Range objects which represent a precise and finite

address range in bytes. Various arithmetic operations are defined for Range

objects.

Its sole purpose is the representation of real address ranges on real

machines. For that reason, it does not allow powers of ranges, imprecise

ranges, or non-finite ranges. In order that the

usual laws of arithmetic can be maintained, it does allow fractional ranges.

Practical Computing with Address Ranges

---------------------------------------

When computing with address ranges, the numeric value can be viewed as a

logical, rather than a physical, quantity. That is, unlike, e.g., mass or

length, which are quantities which must be measured with a measuring instrument

which has some built-in imprecision, an address range

is a quantity that is not measured, but is known precisely.

This precision arises because the number represents not as much an amount of

memory as a number of addressable, byte-size, locations in memory.

Consequently, computations such as addition of two Ranges, and conversion

between different magnitudes of bytes, i.e., from MiB to GiB, must be done

precisely. The underlying implementation must therefore use a precise

representation of the number of bytes. Floating point numbers, which are

frequently the preferred type for the representation of physical

quantities, are disallowed by this requirement.

Operations

----------

This module does not accomodate multi-dimensionality of address ranges.

Consequently, multiplying one Range object by another Range object will cause

an error to be raised, since bytes^2 is not representable by the module.

For most uses any operation which would yield a multi-dimensional quantity

is not useful. There are no plans to adapt this package so that it

can accomodate multi-dimensionality of address ranges.

Numerous computations with address ranges are nonsensical. For example, 2

raised to a power which is some address range, is a meaningless computation.

All such operations cause an error to be raised.

Some computations with precise, finite, values may yield irrational results.

For example, while 2 is rational, its square root is an irrational number.

There is no allowed operation on Range objects which can result in an

irrational Range value. It turns out that all such operations are either

nonsensical or would result in a value with an unrepresentable type.

The result type of operations is a Range, where appropriate, or a subtype of

Rational, where a numeric value is appropriate.

Floating Point Numbers

----------------------

It is not possible to use floating point numbers in computations with Ranges.

Where a fractional quantity is desired, use Decimal objects instead of floats.

Thus, Range(0) * 1.2 raises an exception, but Range(0) * Decimal("1.2") is

acceptable.

Computing the Representation of a Range

---------------------------------------

The representation of a Range is computed according to a specified

configuration. In the default configuration, the representation uses IEC

rather than SI units.

The representation of a Range is not a string, but a structured representation

of the precise value, as well as the relationship of the representation to

the actual value.

This representation is exposed to clients of the library, which may use it

in any way.

Displaying Ranges

----------------

The Range class also has standard methods for the representation of Range

objects as str objects.

The str representation can also be configured. The manipulation of the

representation to form a str object is abstracted from the rest of the source

to emphasize that clients of the package may choose to represent address ranges

in any manner they choose.

Representing Units

------------------

The size module supplies a set of named prefixes for both SI and binary units,

for all non-fractional prefixes. Fractional prefixes are not defined.

Constructing Ranges Programatically

----------------------------------

New Range objects can be constructed from Range objects, numeric values, e.g.,

int or Decimal, or strings which represent such numeric values.

strings may be used to represent fractional quantities, e.g., "1.2", but

floats are disallowed.

The constructor takes an optional units specifier, which defaults to bytes

for all numeric values, and to None for Range objects. The type of the

unit specifier is a named prefix supplied by the size module or a Range object.

Errors

------

All errors raised by justbytes operations are subtypes of the RangeError class.

Memory Consumption and Bandwidth vs. Address Ranges

---------------------------------------------------

Memory consumption, e.g., by a process during execution on a specified

workload, is a quantity, that like address ranges, is specified in

bytes. However, memory consumption is simply a measurement of the amount of

a phsyical quantity consumed. When bytes are used only to represent memory

consumption, computations do not generally require the special handling

supplied by this library. Generally, measurement of memory consumption can

be treated like any other physical quantity. The same reasoning applies to

bandwidth. For a physical analogy, one can imagine memory consumption to be

analogous to volume, e.g., litres, and bandwidth to be analogous to flow,

e.g., litres per minute.

User Input

----------

This package does not handle arbitrary user input. It is expected that the

client will transform any input, from whatever source, into a number and an

optional unit specification which can be passed directly to the Range

constructor.

Alternative Packages

--------------------

If you are interested in computing in Python with physical, rather than

logical, quantities, you should consult the pint package:

http://pint.readthedocs.org.

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