Store and access your passwords safely.
Table of Contents
- Installing and Using Python Keyring Lib
- What is Python keyring lib?
- Installation Instructions
- Using Keyring
- Configure your keyring lib
- Integrate the keyring lib with your application
- Get involved
The Python keyring lib provides a easy way to access the system keyring service from python. It can be used in any application that needs safe password storage.
The keyring library is licensed under both the MIT license and the PSF license.
These primary keyring services are supported by the Python keyring lib:
- Mac OS X Keychain
- Linux Secret Service
- Windows Credential Vault
Other keyring implementations are provided as well. For more detail, browse the source.
Run easy_install or pip:
$ easy_install keyring $ pip install keyring
The basic usage of keyring is pretty simple: just call keyring.set_password and keyring.get_password:
>>> import keyring >>> keyring.set_password("system", "username", "password") >>> keyring.get_password("system", "username") 'password'
The python keyring lib contains implementations for several backends. The library will automatically choose the keyring that is most suitable for your current environment. You can also specify the keyring you like to be used in the config file or by calling the set_keyring() function.
This section describes how to change your option in the config file.
The configuration of the lib is stored in a file named “keyringrc.cfg”. This file must be found in a platform-specific location. To determine where the config file is stored, run the following:
python -c "import keyring.util.platform_; print(keyring.util.platform_.config_root())"
Some keyrings also store the keyring data in the file system. To determine where the data files are stored, run this command:
python -c "import keyring.util.platform_; print(keyring.util.platform_.data_root())"
To specify a keyring backend, set the default-keyring option to the full path of the class for that backend, such as keyring.backends.OS_X.Keyring.
If keyring-path is indicated, keyring will add that path to the Python module search path before loading the backend.
For example, this config might be used to load the SimpleKeyring from the demo directory in the project checkout:
[backend] default-keyring=simplekeyring.SimpleKeyring keyring-path=/home/kang/pyworkspace/python-keyring-lib/demo/
The interface for the backend is defined by keyring.backend.KeyringBackend. Every backend should derive from that base class and define a priority attribute and three functions: get_password(), set_password(), and delete_password().
See the backend module for more detail on the interface of this class.
Keyring additionally allows programmatic configuration of the backend calling the api set_keyring(). The indicated backend will subsequently be used to store and retrieve passwords.
Here’s an example demonstrating how to invoke set_keyring:
# define a new keyring class which extends the KeyringBackend import keyring.backend class TestKeyring(keyring.backend.KeyringBackend): """A test keyring which always outputs same password """ priority = 1 def set_password(self, servicename, username, password): pass def get_password(self, servicename, username): return "password from TestKeyring" def delete_password(self, servicename, username, password): pass # set the keyring for keyring lib keyring.set_keyring(TestKeyring()) # invoke the keyring lib try: keyring.set_password("demo-service", "tarek", "passexample") print("password stored sucessfully") except keyring.errors.PasswordSetError: print("failed to store password") print("password", keyring.get_password("demo-service", "tarek"))
The keyring lib has a few functions:
- get_keyring(): Return the currently-loaded keyring implementation.
- get_password(service, username): Returns the password stored in the active keyring. If the password does not exist, it will return None.
- set_password(service, username, password): Store the password in the keyring.
- delete_password(service, username): Delete the password stored in keyring. If the password does not exist, it will raise an exception.
Python keyring lib is an open community project and highly welcomes new contributors.
- Repository: https://github.com/jaraco/keyring/
- Bug Tracker: https://github.com/jaraco/keyring/issues/
- Mailing list: http://groups.google.com/group/python-keyring
Python keyring lib uses a simple tag and release process. The simplified workflow is first tag a release, then invoke setup.py release.
Other things to consider when making a release:
- first ensure that tests pass (preferably on Windows and Linux)
- check that the changelog is current for the intended release
- after tagging, but before releasing, push the changes to the repository
Tests are continuously run using Travis-CI.
To run the tests yourself, you’ll want keyring installed to some environment in which it can be tested. Three recommended techniques are described below.
Keyring is instrumented with pytest runner. Thus, you may invoke the tests from any supported Python (with distribute installed) using this command:
python setup.py ptr
pytest runner will download any unmet dependencies and run the tests using pytest.
This technique is the one used by the Travis-CI script.
Pytest and Nose are two popular test runners that will discover tests and run them. Unittest (unittest2 under Python 2.6) also has a mode to discover tests.
First, however, these test runners typically need a test environment in which to run. It is recommended that you install keyring to a virtual environment to avoid interfering with your system environment. For more information, see the venv documentation or the virtualenv homepage.
After you’ve created (or designated) your environment, install keyring into the environment by running:
python setup.py develop
Then, invoke your favorite test runner, e.g.:
Keyring supplies a buildout.cfg for use with buildout. If you have buildout installed, tests can be invoked as so:
1. bin/buildout # prepare the buildout. 2. bin/test # execute the test runner.
For more information about the options that the script provides do execute:
python bin/test --help
- Pull Request #176: Use recommended mechanism for checking GnomeKeyring version.
- Prefer setuptools_scm to hgtools.
- Prefer setuptools_scm to hgtools.
- Version numbering is now derived from the code repository tags via hgtools.
- Build and install now requires setuptools.
- The entry point group must look like a module name, so the group is now “keyring.backends”.
- Added preliminary support for loading keyring backends through setuptools entry points, specifically “keyring backends”.
- Removed keyring_path parameter from load_keyring. See release notes for 3.0.3 for more details.
- Issue #22: Removed support for loading the config from the current directory. The config file must now be located in the platform-specific config location.
- Issue #22: Deprecated loading of config from current directory. Support for loading the config in this manner will be removed in a future version.
- Issue #131: Keyring now will prefer pywin32-ctypes to pywin32 if available.
- Gnome keyring no longer relies on the GNOME_KEYRING_CONTROL environment variable.
- Issue #140: Restore compatibility for older versions of PyWin32.
- Pull Request #1 (github): Add support for packages that wish to bundle keyring by using relative imports throughout.
- Issue #49: Give the backend priorities a 1.5 multiplier bump when an XDG_CURRENT_DESKTOP environment variable matches the keyring’s target environment.
- Issue #99: Clarified documentation on location of config and data files. Prepared the code base to treat the two differently on Unix-based systems. For now, the behavior is unchanged.
- Extracted FileBacked and Encrypted base classes.
- Add a pyinstaller hook to expose backend modules. Ref #124
- Pull request #41: Use errno module instead of hardcoding error codes.
- SecretService backend: correctly handle cases when user dismissed the collection creation or unlock prompt.
- Pull request #40: KWallet backend will now honor the KDE_FULL_SESSION environment variable as found on openSUSE.
SecretService backend: use a different function to check that the backend is functional. The default collection may not exist, but the collection will remain usable in that case.
Also, make the error message more verbose.
Issue #120: Invoke KeyringBackend.priority during load_keyring to ensure that any keyring loaded is actually viable (or raises an informative exception).
- Issue #123: fix removing items.
- Correctly escape item name when removing.
- Use with statement when working with files.
Add a test for removing one item in group.
Issue #81: Added experimental support for third-party backends. See keyring.core._load_library_extensions for information on supplying a third-party backend.
- All code now runs natively on both Python 2 and Python 3, no 2to3 conversion is required.
- Testsuite: clean up, and make more use of unittest2 methods.
- Issue #114: Fix logic in pyfs detection.
- Issue #114: Fix detection of pyfs under Mercurial Demand Import.
- Simplified the implementation of keyring.core.load_keyring. It now uses __import__ instead of loading modules explicitly. The keyring_path parameter to load_keyring is now deprecated. Callers should instead ensure their module is available on sys.path before calling load_keyring. Keyring still honors keyring-path. This change fixes Issue #113 in which the explicit module loading of keyring modules was breaking package-relative imports.
- Renamed keyring.util.platform to keyring.util.platform_. As reported in Issue #112 and mercurial_keyring #31 and in Mercurial itself, Mercurial’s Demand Import does not honor absolute_import directives, so it’s not possible to have a module with the same name as another top-level module. A patch is in place to fix this issue upstream, but to support older Mercurial versions, this patch will remain for some time.
- Ensure that modules are actually imported even in Mercurial’s Demand Import environment.
- Removed support for Python 2.5.
- Removed names in keyring.backend moved in 1.1 and previously retained for compatibilty.
- Restored Python 2.5 compatibility (lost in 2.0).
Issue #10: Added a ‘store’ attribute to the OS X Keyring, enabling custom instances of the KeyringBackend to use another store, such as the ‘internet’ store. For example:
keys = keyring.backends.OS_X.Keyring() keys.store = 'internet' keys.set_password(system, user, password) keys.get_password(system, user)
The default for all instances can be set in the class:
keyring.backends.OS_X.Keyring.store = 'internet'
GnomeKeyring: fix availability checks, and make sure the warning message from pygobject is not printed.
Fixes to GnomeKeyring and SecretService tests.
- Issue #112: Backend viability/priority checks now are more aggressive about module presence checking, requesting __name__ from imported modules to force the demand importer to actually attempt the import.
- Issue #111: Windows backend isn’t viable on non-Windows platforms.
- Issue #110: Fix issues with Windows.RegistryKeyring.
- Issue #80: Prioritized backend support. The primary interface for Keyring backend classes has been refactored to now emit a ‘priority’ based on the current environment (operating system, libraries available, etc). These priorities provide an indication of the applicability of that backend for the current environment. Users are still welcome to specify a particular backend in configuration, but the default behavior should now be to select the most appropriate backend by default.
- Only include pytest-runner in ‘setup requirements’ when ptr invocation is indicated in the command-line (Issue #105).
GNOME Keyring backend:
- Use the same attributes (username / service) as the SecretService backend uses, allow searching for old ones for compatibility.
- Also set application attribute.
- Correctly handle all types of errors, not only CANCELLED and NO_MATCH.
- Avoid printing warnings to stderr when GnomeKeyring is not available.
Secret Service backend:
- Use a better label for passwords, the same as GNOME Keyring backend uses.
SecretService: allow deleting items created using previous python-keyring versions.
Before the switch to secretstorage, python-keyring didn’t set “application” attribute. Now in addition to supporting searching for items without that attribute, python-keyring also supports deleting them.
Use secretstorage.get_default_collection if it’s available.
On secretstorage 1.0 or later, python-keyring now tries to create the default collection if it doesn’t exist, instead of just raising the error.
Improvements for tests, including fix for Issue #102.
- Switch GnomeKeyring backend to use native libgnome-keyring via GObject Introspection, not the obsolete python-gnomekeyring module.
- Use the SecretStorage library to implement the Secret Service backend (instead of using dbus directly). Now the keyring supports prompting for and deleting passwords. Fixes #69, #77, and #93.
- Catch gnomekeyring.IOError per the issue reported in Nova client.
- Issue #92 Added support for delete_password on Mac OS X Keychain.
- Fix for Encrypted File backend on Python 3.
- Issue #97 Improved support for PyPy.
- Fixed handling situations when user cancels kwallet dialog or denies access for the app.
- Fix for kwallet delete.
- Fix for OS X backend on Python 3.
- Issue #84: Fix for Google backend on Python 3 (use of raw_input not caught by 2to3).
- Implemented delete_password on most keyrings. Keyring 2.0 will require delete_password to implement a Keyring. Fixes #79.
- Issue #78: pyfilesystem backend now works on Windows.
- Fixed MANIFEST.in so .rst files are included.
This is the last build that will support installation in a pure-distutils mode. Subsequent releases will require setuptools/distribute to install. Python 3 installs have always had this requirement (for 2to3 install support), but starting with the next minor release (1.2+), setuptools will be required.
Additionally, this release has made some substantial refactoring in an attempt to modularize the backends. An attempt has been made to maintain 100% backward-compatibility, although if your library does anything fancy with module structure or clasess, some tweaking may be necessary. The backward-compatible references will be removed in 2.0, so the 1.1+ releases represent a transitional implementation which should work with both legacy and updated module structure.
- Added a console-script ‘keyring’ invoking the command-line interface.
- Deprecated _ExtensionKeyring.
- Moved PasswordSetError and InitError to an errors module (references kept for backward-compatibility).
- Moved concrete backend implementations into their own modules (references
kept for backward compatibility):
- OSXKeychain -> backends.OS_X.Keyring
- GnomeKeyring -> backends.Gnome.Keyring
- SecretServiceKeyring -> backends.SecretService.Keyring
- KDEKWallet -> backends.kwallet.Keyring
- BasicFileKeyring -> backends.file.BaseKeyring
- CryptedFileKeyring -> backends.file.EncryptedKeyring
- UncryptedFileKeyring -> backends.file.PlaintextKeyring
- Win32CryptoKeyring -> backends.Windows.EncryptedKeyring
- WinVaultKeyring -> backends.Windows.WinVaultKeyring
- Win32CryptoRegistry -> backends.Windows.RegistryKeyring
- select_windows_backend -> backends.Windows.select_windows_backend
- GoogleDocsKeyring -> backends.Google.DocsKeyring
- Credential -> keyring.credentials.Credential
- BaseCredential -> keyring.credentials.SimpleCredential
- EnvironCredential -> keyring.credentials.EnvironCredential
- GoogleEnvironCredential -> backends.Google.EnvironCredential
- BaseKeyczarCrypter -> backends.keyczar.BaseCrypter
- KeyczarCrypter -> backends.keyczar.Crypter
- EnvironKeyczarCrypter -> backends.keyczar.EnvironCrypter
- EnvironGoogleDocsKeyring -> backends.Google.KeyczarDocsKeyring
- BasicPyfilesystemKeyring -> backends.pyfs.BasicKeyring
- UnencryptedPyfilesystemKeyring -> backends.pyfs.PlaintextKeyring
- EncryptedPyfilesystemKeyring -> backends.pyfs.EncryptedKeyring
- EnvironEncryptedPyfilesystemKeyring -> backends.pyfs.KeyczarKeyring
- MultipartKeyringWrapper -> backends.multi.MultipartKeyringWrapper
- Officially require Python 2.5 or greater (although unofficially, this requirement has been in place since 0.10).
This backward-incompatible release attempts to remove some cruft from the codebase that’s accumulated over the versions.
- Removed legacy file relocation support. keyring no longer supports loading configuration or file-based backends from ~. If upgrading from 0.8 or later, the files should already have been migrated to their new proper locations. If upgrading from 0.7.x or earlier, the files will have to be migrated manually.
- Removed CryptedFileKeyring migration support. To maintain an existing CryptedFileKeyring, one must first upgrade to 0.9.2 or later and access the keyring before upgrading to 1.0 to retain the existing keyring.
- File System backends now create files without group and world permissions. Fixes #67.
- Merged 0.9.3 to include fix for #75.
- Add support for using Keyczar to encrypt keyrings. Keyczar is “an open source cryptographic toolkit designed to make it easier and safer for developers to use cryptography in their applications.”
- Added support for storing keyrings on Google Docs or any other filesystem supported by pyfilesystem.
- Fixed issue in Gnome Keyring when unicode is passed as the service name, username, or password.
- Tweaked SecretService code to pass unicode to DBus, as unicode is the preferred format.
- Issue #71 - Fixed logic in CryptedFileKeyring.
- Unencrypted keyring file will be saved with user read/write (and not group or world read/write).
- Ensure migration is run when get_password is called. Fixes #75. Thanks to Marc Deslauriers for reporting the bug and supplying the patch.
- Keyring 0.9.1 introduced a whole different storage format for the CryptedFileKeyring, but this introduced some potential compatibility issues. This release incorporates the security updates but reverts to the INI file format for storage, only encrypting the passwords and leaving the service and usernames in plaintext. Subsequent releases may incorporate a new keyring to implement a whole-file encrypted version. Fixes #64.
- The CryptedFileKeyring now requires simplejson for Python 2.5 clients.
- Fix for issue where SecretServiceBackend.set_password would raise a UnicodeError on Python 3 or when a unicode password was provided on Python 2.
- CryptedFileKeyring now uses PBKDF2 to derive the key from the user’s password and a random hash. The IV is chosen randomly as well. All the stored passwords are encrypted at once. Any keyrings using the old format will be automatically converted to the new format (but will no longer be compatible with 0.9 and earlier). The user’s password is no longer limited to 32 characters. PyCrypto 2.5 or greater is now required for this keyring.
- Add support for GTK 3 and secret service D-Bus. Fixes #52.
- Issue #60 - Use correct method for decoding.
- Fix regression in keyring lib on Windows XP where the LOCALAPPDATA environment variable is not present.
- Mac OS X keyring backend now uses subprocess calls to the security command instead of calling the API, which with the latest updates, no longer allows Python to invoke from a virtualenv. Fixes issue #13.
- When using file-based storage, the keyring files are no longer stored in the user’s home directory, but are instead stored in platform-friendly locations (%localappdata%Python Keyring on Windows and according to the freedesktop.org Base Dir Specification ($XDG_DATA_HOME/python_keyring or $HOME/.local/share/python_keyring) on other operating systems). This fixes #21.
Backward Compatibility Notice
Due to the new storage location for file-based keyrings, keyring 0.8 supports backward compatibility by automatically moving the password files to the updated location. In general, users can upgrade to 0.8 and continue to operate normally. Any applications that customize the storage location or make assumptions about the storage location will need to take this change into consideration. Additionally, after upgrading to 0.8, it is not possible to downgrade to 0.7 without manually moving configuration files. In 1.0, the backward compatibilty will be removed.
- Removed non-ASCII characters from README and CHANGES docs (required by distutils if we’re to include them in the long_description). Fixes #55.
- Python 3 is now supported. All tests now pass under Python 3.2 on Windows and Linux (although Linux backend support is limited). Fixes #28.
- Extension modules on Mac and Windows replaced by pure-Python ctypes implementations. Thanks to Jerome Laheurte.
- WinVaultKeyring now supports multiple passwords for the same service. Fixes #47.
- Most of the tests don’t require user interaction anymore.
- Entries stored in Gnome Keyring appears now with a meaningful name if you try to browser your keyring (for ex. with Seahorse)
- Tests from Gnome Keyring no longer pollute the user own keyring.
- keyring.util.escape now accepts only unicode strings. Don’t try to encode strings passed to it.
- fix compiling on OSX with XCode 4.0
- Gnome keyring should not be used if there is no DISPLAY or if the dbus is not around (https://bugs.launchpad.net/launchpadlib/+bug/752282).
- Added keyring.http for facilitating HTTP Auth using keyring.
- Add a utility to access the keyring from the command line.
- Remove a spurious KDE debug message when using KWallet
- Fix a bug that caused an exception if the user canceled the KWallet dialog (https://bitbucket.org/kang/python-keyring-lib/issue/37/user-canceling-of-kde-wallet-dialogs).
- Now using the existing Gnome and KDE python libs instead of custom C++ code.
- Using the getpass module instead of custom code
- Fixed the setup script (some subdirs were not included in the release.)
- Fixed keyring.core when the user doesn’t have a cfg, or is not properly configured.
- Fixed escaping issues for usernames with non-ascii characters
- Add support for Python 2.4+ http://bitbucket.org/kang/python-keyring-lib/issue/2
- Fix the bug in KDE Kwallet extension compiling http://bitbucket.org/kang/python-keyring-lib/issue/3
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