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Kinto Web Service - Store, Sync, Share, and Self-Host.

Project description


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Kinto is a minimalist JSON storage service with synchronisation and sharing abilities.


  • Python: 2.7, 3.4+
  • Backends: In-memory (development), Redis or Postgresql 9.4+ (production)


This document describes changes between each past release.

2.0.0 (2016-03-08)


  • Allow buckets to store arbitrary properties. (#239, #462)
  • Delete every (writable) buckets using DELETE /v1/buckets
  • Delete every (writable) collections using DELETE /v1/buckets/<bucket-id>/collections
  • Clients are redirected to URLs without trailing slash only if the current URL does not exist (#656)
  • Partial responses can now be specified for nested objects (#445) For example, /records?_fields=address.street.
  • List responses are now sorted by last_modified descending by default (#434, thanks @ayusharma)
  • Server now returns 415 error response if client cannot accept JSON response (#461, mozilla-services/cliquet#667)
  • Server now returns 415 error response if client does not send JSON request (#461, mozilla-services/cliquet#667)
  • Add the __lbheartbeat__ endpoint, for load balancer membership test.
  • Add the flush_endpoint, schema and default_bucket to the capabilities if enabled in settings (#270)

Protocol is now in version 1.4. See API changelog.

Breaking changes

  • kinto.plugins.default_bucket plugin is no longer assumed. We invite users to check that the kinto.plugins.default_bucket is present in the includes setting if they expect it. (ref #495)

  • kinto start must be explicitly run with --reload in order to restart the server when code or configuration changes (ref #490).

  • Errors are not swallowed anymore during the execution of ResourceChanged events subscribers.

    Subscribers are still executed within the transaction like before.

    Subscribers are still executed even if the transaction is eventually rolledback. Every subscriber execution succeeds, or none.

    Thus, subscribers of these events should only perform operations that are reversed on transaction rollback: most likely database storage operations.

    For irreversible operations see the new AfterResourceChanged event.

New features

  • Event subscribers are now ran synchronously and can thus alter responses (#421)
  • Resource events are now merged in batch requests. One event per resource and per action is emitted when a transaction is committed (mozilla-services/cliquet#634)
  • Monitor time of events listeners execution (mozilla-services/cliquet#503)
  • Added a new AfterResourceChanged event, that is sent only when the commit in database is done and successful. See more details.
  • Track execution time on StatsD for each authentication sub-policy (mozilla-services/cliquet#639)
  • Default console log renderer now has colours (mozilla-service/cliquet#671)
  • Output Kinto version with kinto --version (thanks @ayusharma)

Bug fixes

  • Fix PostgreSQL backend timestamps when collection is empty (#433)
  • ResourceChanged events are not emitted if a batch subrequest fails (mozilla-services/cliquet#634) There are still emitted if the whole batch transaction is eventually rolledback.
  • Fix a migration of PostgreSQL schema introduced that was never executed (mozilla-services/cliquet#604)
  • Fix statsd initialization on storage (mozilla-services/cliquet#637)
  • Providing bad last modified values on delete now returns 400 (mozilla-services/cliquet#665)
  • Providing last modified in the past for delete now follows behaviour create/update (mozilla-services/cliquet#665)
  • Do not always return 412 errors when request header If-None-Match: * is sent on POST /collection (fixes #489, mozilla-service/cliquet#673)
  • Fix secret in ini on Python 3 (fixes #341)
  • Error when trying to create an empty directory (fixes #475)
  • Text plain body should be rejected with an error (#461)


  • Additions in troubleshooting docs (thanks @ayusharma)
  • Add uwsgi bind error to troubleshooting (fixes #447)
  • Mention python plugin for Uwsgi (#448)
  • Add how to troubleshoot psql encoding problems. (#453)
  • Add mini checklist for CDN deployment (#450)
  • Replace subjective ligthweight by minimalist (fixes #417)
  • Improve synchronisation docs (#451)
  • Add the requirements in the Readme (#465)
  • Add docs about architecture (fixes #430)
  • Add a ‘why’ paragraph to the docs (Kinto value proposition) (#482)
  • Update docs: how to choose the backend (#485, thanks @Enguerran)
  • Add a custom id generator tutorial (#464)

Internal changes

  • Changed default duration between retries on error (Retry-After header) from 30 to 3 seconds.
  • Speed-up startup (ref #490)
  • Optimized (and cleaned) usage of (un)authenticated_userid (#424, mozilla-services/cliquet#641)
  • Fixed usage of virtualenv in Makefile (#443)
  • Add a badge for the irc channel (#459)
  • Change phrasing for backend selection (#470)
  • Add a CONTRIBUTING file (#471, thanks @magopian)
  • Add a contribute.json file (#478, #480, thanks @magopian)

1.11.2 (2016-02-03)

Bug fixes

  • Expose the ETag header in 304 responses for default bucket (ref mozilla-services/cliquet#631)


  • Add Scalingo one-click deploy button (#418, thanks @yannski)
  • Improve introduction of notifications tutorial (#419, thanks @tarekziade)
  • Fix typos (thanks @magopian)

1.11.1 (2016-02-01)

Bug fixes

  • Fix wheels for Python 3 that were requiring the functools32 package that is for Python 2 only (fixes #303).


  • Fix a broken hyperlink in the overview section. (#406, thanks William Hoang)
  • Talk about tokens rather than user:password (#393)

1.11.0 (2016-01-28)


  • Forward slashes (/) are not escaped anymore in JSON responses (mozilla-services/cliquet#537)
  • Fields can be filtered in GET requests using _fields=f1,f2 in querystring (#399)
  • New collections can be created via POST requests (thanks John Giannelos)
  • The API capabilities can be exposed in a capabilities attribute in the root URL (#628). Clients can rely on this to detect optional features on the server (e.g. enabled plugins)

Protocol is now version 1.3. See API changelog.

New features

  • Add a Heroku single-clic deploy button (#362)
  • Install PostgreSQL libraries on kinto init (fixes #313)
  • Smaller Docker container image (#375, #376, #383)
  • Install major plugins in Dockerfile (fixes #317)
  • The policy name used to configure authentication in settings is now used for the user id prefix and StatsD authn_type counters.
  • Check backends configuration at startup (#228)
  • Output message for config file creation (#351, thanks Aditya Basin)
  • Trigger internal event on server flush (#354)

Bug fixes

  • Fix validation of collection id in default bucket (fixes #260)
  • Fix kinto init failure when the config folder already exists (#349)
  • Fix Docker compose startup (fixes #325)
  • Run migrate command when Docker container starts (fixes #363)
  • Fix listener name logging during startup (#626)
  • Do not log batch subrequests twice (#264)
  • Fix hmac digest with Python 3 (#288)
  • Add explicit dependency for functools32 when Kinto is installed with an old pip version (fixes #303)



  • Add tutorials about notifications (ref #353)
  • Add tutorial how to write a plugin (#382)
  • Add tutorial how to setup Github authentication (#390)
  • Move default values to dedicated column in docs (fixes #255)
  • Move run-kinto to get-started and remove platform specific installation instructions (#373)


  • Update features table in overview
  • Update overview comparisons (#294, #324, #328)
  • Update FAQ (#397, #398)
  • Simplify some aspects of the settings page (#374)
  • Sharding documentation (#381)


  • Added missing DELETE endoint for list of records (fixes #238)
  • Mention how to restrict private URLs with NGinx (fixes #250)
  • Fix link to the freenode #kinto channel in the docs (#333)
  • Remove Firefox Account mention from README (fixes #326)
  • Move application examples page to wiki (ref #321)
  • Move PostgreSQL server docs to wiki (fixes #321)
  • Change colors of logo (#359)
  • Add invitation for community to point their demos/use cases (fixes #356)
  • Remove duplicate glossary in docs (#372)
  • Remove troubleshooting paragraph from contributing page (#385)
  • Fix wrong groups name and permissions names in the documentation (#389)
  • Improve formatting of code block in tutorials (#391, #396)

Internal changes

  • Default bucket feature is now a built-in plugin (fixes #277, fixes #311, #380)
  • Do not require cliquet master branch in dev (#341, #400). Now moved as tox env in TravisCI

1.10.1 (2015-12-11)

Bug fixes

  • Fix kinto init when containing folder does not exist (fixes #302)

Internal changes

  • Added Hoodie in the comparison matrix (#282, thanks @Niraj8!)
  • Added a get started button in documentation (#315, thanks @Niraj8!)

1.10.0 (2015-12-01)

Breaking changes

  • When using cliquet-fxa, the setting multiauth.policy.fxa.use must now be explicitly set to cliquet_fxa.authentication.FxAOAuthAuthenticationPolicy
  • Fields in the root view were renamed (mozilla-services/cliquet#600)

Bug fixes

  • Fix redis default host in kinto init (fixes #289)
  • Fix DockerFile with default configuration (fixes #296)
  • Include plugins after setting up components (like authn/authz) so that plugins can register views with permissions checking
  • Remove __permissions__ from impacted records values in ResourceChanged events (mozilla-services/cliquet#586)


Changed the naming in the root URL (hello view) (mozilla-services/cliquet#600)

  • Added http_api_version
  • Renamed hello to project_name
  • Renamed protocol_version to cliquet_protocol_version
  • Renamed documentation to project_docs
  • Renamed version to project_version

New features

  • New options in configuration of listeners to specify filtered actions and resource names (mozilla-services/cliquet#492, mozilla-services/cliquet#555)
  • Add ability to be notified on read actions on a resource (disabled by default) (mozilla-services/cliquet#493)

Internal changes

  • Clarified how Kinto is versionned in the documentation (#305)

1.9.0 (2015-11-18)

  • Upgraded to Cliquet 2.11.0

Breaking changes

  • For PostgreSQL backends, it is recommended to specify postgresql://.


  • In the hello view:

    • Add a bucket attribute in user mapping allowing clients to obtain the actual id of their default bucket
    • Add the protocol_version to tell which protocol version is implemented by the service. (#324)
  • _since and _before now accepts an integer value between quotes ", as it would be returned in the ETag response header.

  • A batch request now fails if one of the subrequests fails (mozilla-services/cliquet#510) (see new feature about transactions)

New features

  • Add a Kinto command for start and migrate operation. (#129)
  • Add a Kinto command to create a configuration file. (#278)
  • A transaction now covers the whole request/response cycle (#194). If an error occurs during the request processing, every operation performed is rolled back. Note: This is only enabled with PostgreSQL backends. In other words, the rollback has no effect on backends like Redis or Memory.
  • New settings for backends when using PostgreSQL: *_max_backlog, *_max_overflow, *_pool_recycle, *_pool_timeout to control connections pool behaviour.

Bug fixes

  • Fix 500 error response (instead of 503) when storage backend fails during implicit creation of objects on default bucket. (fixes #236)
  • Fixed Dockerfile for PostgreSQL backends.
  • Fix JSON schema crash when no field information is available.

Internal changes

  • Optimization for obtention of user principals (#263)
  • Do not build the Docker container when using Docker Compose.
  • Add Python 3.5 on TravisCI
  • Add schema validation loadtest (fixes #201)
  • Multiple documentation improvements.
  • The PostgreSQL backends now use SQLAlchemy sessions.

See also *Cliquet* changes

1.8.0 (2015-10-30)

  • Upgraded to Cliquet 2.10.0

Protocol breaking changes

  • Moved userid attribute to a dedicated user mapping in the hello view (#242).

New features

  • Follow redirections in batch subrequests (fixes mozilla-services/cliquet#511)
  • Set cache headers only when anonymous (fixes mozilla-services/cliquet#449)
  • Add a readonly setting to run the service in read-only mode. (#241)
  • If no client cache is set, add Cache-Control: no-cache by default, so that clients are forced to revalidate their cache against the server (ref Kinto/kinto#231)

Bug fixes

  • Fixed 503 error message to mention backend errors in addition to unavailability.
  • When recreating a record that was previously deleted, status code is now 201 (ref mozilla-services/cliquet#530).
  • Fix PostgreSQL error when deleting an empty collection in a protected resource (fixes mozilla-services/cliquet#528)
  • Fix PUT not using create() method in storage backend when tombstone exists (fixes mozilla-services/cliquet#530)
  • Delete tombstone when record is re-created (fixes mozilla-services/cliquet#518)
  • Fix crash with empty body for PATCH (fixes mozilla-services/cliquet#477, fixes mozilla-services/cliquet#516)
  • Fix english typo in 404 error message (fixes mozilla-services/cliquet#527)

1.7.0 (2015-10-28)

  • Upgraded to Cliquet 2.9.0
  • Update cliquet-fxa configuration example for cliquet-fxa 1.4.0
  • Improve the documentation to get started

New features

  • Added Pyramid events, triggered when the content of a resource has changed. (#488)
  • Added kinto.includes setting allowing loading of plugins once Kinto is initialized (unlike pyramid.includes). (#504)


  • Remove the broken git revision commit field in the hello page. (#495).

Please read the full Cliquet 2.9.0 changelog for more information

1.6.2 (2015-10-22)

Bug fixes

  • Handle 412 details with default bucket (#226)

1.6.1 (2015-10-22)

  • Upgraded to Cliquet 2.8.2

Bug fixes

  • Return a JSON body for 405 response on the default bucket (#214)

Internal changes

  • Improve documentation for new comers (#217)
  • Do not force host in default configuration (#219)
  • Use tox installed in virtualenv (#221)
  • Skip python versions unavailable in tox (#222)

1.6.0 (2015-10-14)

  • Upgraded to Cliquet 2.8.1

Breaking changes

  • Settings prefixed with cliquet. are now deprecated, and should be replaced with non prefixed version instead.
  • In the root url response, public settings are exposed without prefix too (e.g. batch_max_requests).

1.5.1 (2015-10-07)

  • Upgraded to Cliquet 2.7.0

1.5.0 (2015-09-23)

  • Add Disqus comments to documentation (fixes #159)

New features

  • Allow POST to create buckets (fixes #64)
  • Control client cache headers from settings or collection objects (#189)

Internal changes

  • Remove dead code (#187, ref #53)
  • Add pytest-capturelog for better output on test failures (#191)
  • Install cliquet middleware (no-op if disabled) (#193)
  • Many optimizations on default bucket (#192, #197)
  • Many optimizations on number of storage hits (#203)
  • Fix contributing docs about tests (#198)
  • Added more batched actions to loadtests (#199)

1.4.0 (2015-09-04)

New features

  • Partial collection of records when user has no read permission on collection (fixes #76). Alice can now obtain a list of Bob records on which she has individual read permission!
  • Collection can now specify a JSON schema and validate its records (#31). The feature is marked as experimental and should be explicitly enabled from settings (#181)
  • Accept empty payload on buckets and collections creation (#63)
  • Allow underscores in Kinto bucket and collection names (#153, fixes #77)
  • Collection records can now be filtered using multiple values (?in_status=1,2,3) (mozilla-services/cliquet#39)
  • Collection records can now be filtered excluding multiple values (?exclude_status=1,2,3) (mozilla-services/readinglist#68)
  • Current userid is now provided when requesting the hello endpoint with an Authorization header (mozilla-services/cliquet#319)
  • UUID validation now accepts any kind of UUID, not just v4 (mozilla-services/cliquet#387)
  • Querystring parameter _to on collection records was renamed to _before (the former is now deprecated) (mozilla-services/cliquet#391)
  • Allow to configure info link in error responses with cliquet.error_info_link setting (mozilla-services/cliquet#395)

Bug fixes

  • Fix consistency in API to modify permissions with PATCH (fixes #155) The list of principals for each specified permission is now replaced by the one provided.
  • Use correct HTTP Headers encoding in both Python2 and Python3 (#141)
  • ETag is now returned on every verb (fixes #110)

Internal changes

  • When deleting a collection also remove the records tombstones (#136)
  • Complete revamp of the documentation (#156 #167 #168 #169 #170)
  • Upgraded to Cliquet 2.6.0

1.3.1 (2015-07-15)

  • Upgraded to Cliquet 2.3.1

Bug fixes

  • Make sure the default route only catch /buckets/default and /buckets/default/* routes. (#131)

1.3.0 (2015-07-13)

  • Upgraded to Cliquet 2.3.0

Bug fixes

  • Handle CORS with the default bucket. (#126, #135)
  • Add a test to make sure the tutorial works. (#118)

Internal changes

  • List StatsD counters and timers in documentation (fixes #73)
  • Update virtualenv dependencies on modification (fixes #130)

1.2.1 (2015-07-08)

  • Upgraded to Cliquet 2.2.1

Bug fixes

  • Improvements and fixes in the tutorial (#107)
  • Querystring handling when using the personal bucket (#119)
  • Default buckets ID is now a UUID with dashes (#120)
  • Handle unknown permission and fix crash on /buckets (#88)
  • Fix permissions handling on PATCH /resource (mozilla-services/cliquet#358)

Internal changes

  • Test with the normal Kinto authentication policy and remove the fake one (#121)

1.2.0 (2015-07-03)

  • Upgraded to Cliquet 2.2.+

New features

  • Add the personal bucket /buckets/default, where collections are created implicitly (#71)
  • Kinto now uses the memory backend by default, which simplifies its usage for development (#86, #95)
  • Add public settings in hello view (mozilla-services/cliquet#318)

Bug fixes

  • Fix Docker compose file settings (#100)
  • Fix version redirection behaviour for unsupported versions (mozilla-services/cliquet#341)
  • Fix overriding backend settings in .ini (mozilla-services/cliquet#343)

Internal changes

  • Documentation improvements (#75)
  • Added tutorial (#79)
  • Remove hard dependency on PostgreSQL (#100)
  • Add pytest-cache (#98)
  • Add Pypy test on Travis (#99)
  • Update dependencies on make install (#97)
  • Fix URL of (#90)

1.1.0 (2015-06-29)

New features

  • Polish default kinto configuration and default to memory backend. (#81)
  • Add the kinto group finder (#78)
  • Flush endpoint now returns 404 is disabled (instead of 405) (#82)

Bug fixes

  • ETag not updated on collection update (#80)

Internal changes

  • Use py.test to run tests instead of nose (#85)

1.0.0 (2015-06-17)

New features

  • Added notion of buckets, user groups and collections (#48, #58)
  • Buckets, collections and records can now have permissions (#59)

Breaking changes

  • Updated Cliquet to 2.0, which introduces a lot of breaking changes (see changelog)
  • Firefox Accounts is not a dependency anymore and should be installed and included explictly using the python package cliquet-fxa (see documentation)
  • API is now served under /v1
  • Collections are now managed by bucket, and not by user anymore (#44)


A list of records cannot be manipulated until its parents objects (bucket and collection) are created.


Internal changes

  • Added documentation about deployment and data durability (#50)
  • Added load tests (#30)
  • Several improvements in documentation (#51)

0.2.2 (2015-06-04)

  • Upgraded to cliquet 1.8.+

Breaking changes

  • PostgreSQL database initialization process is not run automatically in production. Add this command to deployment procedure:
cliquet --ini config/kinto.ini migrate

Internal changes

  • Improved documentation (#29)
  • Require 100% coverage during tests (#27)
  • Basic Auth is now enabled by default in example config

0.2.1 (2015-03-25)

  • Upgraded to cliquet 1.4.1

Bug fixes

  • Rely on Pyramid API to build pagination Next-Url (#147)

0.2 (2015-03-24)

  • Upgraded to cliquet 1.4

Bug fixes

  • Fix behaviour of CloudStorage with backslashes in querystring (mozilla-services/cliquet#142)
  • Force PostgreSQl session timezone to UTC (mozilla-services/cliquet#122)
  • Fix basic auth ofuscation and prefix (mozilla-services/cliquet#128)
  • Make sure the paginate_by setting overrides the passed limit argument (mozilla-services/cliquet#129)
  • Fix crash of classic logger with unicode (mozilla-services/cliquet#142)
  • Fix crash of CloudStorage backend when remote returns 500 (mozilla-services/cliquet#142)
  • Fix python3.4 segmentation fault (mozilla-services/cliquet#142)
  • Add missing port in Next-Page header (mozilla-services/cliquet#147)

0.1 (2015-03-20)

Initial version

  • Schemaless storage of records
  • Firefox Account authentication
  • Kinto as a storage backend for cliquet applications


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