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This module implements the LIME protocol

Project description

Lime Python

Python implementation of LIME - A lightweight messaging library

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LIME allows you to build scalable, real-time messaging applications using a JSON-based open protocol. It's asynchronous and supports any persistent transport like TCP or Websockets.

You can send and receive any type of object into the wire as long it can be represented as JSON or text (plain or encoded with base64) and it has a MIME type to allow the other party handle it in the right way.

The connected nodes can send receipts to the other parties to notify events about messages (for instance, a message was received or the content invalid or not supported).

Besides that, there's a REST capable command interface with verbs (get, set and delete) and resource identifiers (URIs) to allow rich messaging scenarios. You can use that to provide services like on-band account registration or instance-messaging resources, like presence or roster management.

Finally it has built-in support for authentication, transport encryption and compression.

Protocol overview

Envelopes

The basic protocol data package is called envelope. As mentioned before, there are four types:

  • Message - Transports content between nodes
  • Notification - Notify about message events
  • Command - Provides an interface for resource management
  • Session - Establishes the communication channel

All envelope types share some properties (like the id - the envelope unique identifier - and the from and to routing information) but there are some unique properties of each one that allows the proper deserialization when a JSON object is received by the transport.

Transports

The Transport interface represents a persistent transport connection that allows the management of the connection state, besides sending and receiving envelopes. Currently, the python implementation provides one package for Lime transport class. These are publicly available on PyPI and on our Github:

Channels

When two nodes are connected to each other a session can be established between them. To help the management of the session state, the library defines the Channel abstract class, an abstraction of the session over the Transport instance. The node that received the connection is the server and the one who is connecting is the client. There is currently only one specific implementation of this class for the client (ClientChannel), providing specific functionality for the client role in the connection. The only difference between the client and the server is related to the session state management, where the server has full control of it. Besides that, they share the same set of funcionalities.

How to use

Simply install the lime-python package with pip.

pip install lime-python

Example

from lime_python import Session

Or

import lime_python

class MyClass:

    def __init__(self):
        self.session = lime_python.Session(lime_python.SessionState.NEW)

Starting a connection

To start a connection with a server in a specific domain, the client can use DNS queries to check for a lime SRV entry and get the server address. This is not mandatory and the client can use static connection information, but its a good idea to rely on DNS since the protocol is domain based. In the code, the method open_async of the Transport interface should be called passing the remote URI (in the server, the URI parameter can be null).

After connecting the transport, the client should send a new session envelope to start the session negotiation. The ClientChannel class provides the method start_new_session_async for that.

Example

# Creates a new transport and connect to the server
server_uri = 'net.tcp://localhost:55321'
transport = WebsocketTransport()

await transport.open_async(server_uri)
client_channel = ClientChannel(transport)

Session establishment

The server is the responsible for the establishment of the session and its parameters, like the id and node information (both local and remote). It can optionally negotiate transport options and authenticate the client using a supported authentication scheme. Note that the protocol did not dictate that the session negotiation and authentication are mandatory. In fact, after receiving a new session envelope, the server can just send an established session envelope to the client to start the envelope exchanging.

Negotiation

During the negotiation of transport options, the server sends to the client the available compression and encryption options and allows it to choose which one it wants to use in the session. The client select its options using the negotiate_session_async method from ClientChannel. After receiving and validating the client choices the server echoes them back to the client, allowing it to apply the transport options, and the server does itself the same. The Transport interface has the methods set_compression and set_encryption for this reason, but the Channel implementation already handles that automatically.

Authentication

After the negotiation of transport options negotiation, the server presents to the client the available authentication schemes and the client shall provide the scheme-specific data and identify itself with an identity, which is presented as name@domain (like an e-mail). Usually the domain of the client identity is the same of the server if the client is using a local authentication scheme (username/password) but can be a stranger domain if the client is using a transport authentication (TLS certificate).

Establishment

When the server establishes the session, it assigns to the client a unique node identifier, in the format name@domain/instance similar to the Jabber ID in the XMPP protocol. This identifier is important for envelope routing in multi-party server connection scenarios.

Exchanging envelopes

With an established session the nodes can exchange messages, notifications and commands until the server finishes the session. The Channel class defines methods to send and receive specific envelopes, like send_message and on_message for messages or send_command and on_command for commands.

Routing

The protocol doesn't explicitly define how envelope routing should work during a session. The sole definition is that if an originator does not provide the to property value, it means that the message is addressed to the immediate remote party; in the same way that if a node has received an envelope without the from property value, it must assume that the envelope is originated by the remote party.

An originator can send an envelope addressed to any destination in the remote server and it may or may not accept it. But an originator should address an envelope to a node different of the remote party only if it is trusted for receiving these envelopes. A remote party can be trusted for that if it has presented a valid domain certificate during the session negotiation. In this case, this node can receive and send envelopes for any identity of the authenticated domain.

Examples

Messages and notifications
# Sending a plain text message to the remote party
text_message = Message('text/plain', 'Hello!')
client_channel.send_message(text_message)

# Sending a generic JSON message addressed to a specific node
content = {
    'property1': 'string value',
    'property2': 2,
    'property3': True
}
json_message = Message('application/json', content)
json_message.to = 'anyone@domain.com'
client_channel.send_message(json_message)

# Receive a message

def my_on_message(message: Message) ->  None:
    print(f'Message received from {message.from_n}: {message.content}');

    # Send a notification
    notification = Notification(NotificationEvent.RECEIVED)
    notification.id = message.id

    client_channel.send_notification(notification)

client_channel.on_message = my_on_message

# Receive a notification

def my_on_notification(notification: Notification) -> None:
    print(f'Message received from {notification.from_n}: {notification.event}')

client_channel.on_notification = my_on_notification
Commands
# Arbitrary commands
get_contacts_command = Command(CommandMethod.GET, MY_CONTACTS_URI)
get_contacts_command.id = str(uuid.uuid4())

client_channel.send_command(get_contacts_command)

def my_on_command(command: Command) -> None:
    if command.id == get_contacts_command.id and command.status == CommandStatus.SUCCESS:
        contacts = command.resource
        for contact in contacts:
            print(contact)

client_channel.on_command = my_on_command

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